STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 18

 

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 18

 

 

Section 704
704.06 Unclassified Borrow. Furnish a suitable material conforming to the following:
(a) Maximum particle size
24 in (600 mm)
(b) Soil classification, AASHTO M 145
A-1, A-3, or A-2-4
704.07 Select Borrow. Furnish a suitable, well-graded material conforming to the following:
(a) Gradation
Table 704-1
(b) Liquid limit, AASHTO T 89, Method A
30 max.
Table 704-1
Select Borrow Gradation
Sieve Size
Percent by Mass Passing
Designated Sieve
(AASHTO T 27 & AASHTO T 11)
3 inch (75 mm)
100
1 inch (25 mm)
70 - 100
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
30 - 70
No. 200 (75 µm)
0.0
- 5.0
704.08 Select Granular Backfill. Furnish suitable, sound, durable, granular material conforming to the
following:
(a) Quality requirements.
(1) Gradation
Table 704-2
(2) Angle of internal friction on the portion passing
34 degree min.
the No. 10 (2-mm)sieve, AASHTO T 236
Note: Compact samples for AASHTO T 236 to 95 percent of the maximum density determined according to
AASHTO T 99, Method C or D and corrected for oversized material according to AASHTO T 99, Note 9.
(3) Soundness of aggregate using sodium sulfate,
15 percent loss max.
AASHTO T 104 (5 cycles)
(4) Plasticity index, AASHTO T 90
6 max.
(5) Los Angeles abrasion, AASHTO T 96
50 percent max.
Table 704-2
Select Granular Backfill Gradation
Sieve Size
Percent by Mass Passing
Designated Sieve
(AASHTO T 27 & AASHTO T 11)
4 inch (100 mm)
100
No. 40 (425 µm)
0 - 60
No. 200 (75 µm)
0.0
- 15.0
665
Section 704
(b) Electrochemical requirements for MSE walls with metallic reinforcements.
(1) Resistivity, AASHTO T 288
3000 Ω centimeter min.
(2) pH, AASHTO T 289
5.0 to 10.0
(3) Sulfate content, AASHTO T 290
200 ppm max.
(4) Chloride content, AASHTO T 291
100 ppm max.
Note: Tests for sulfate and chloride content are not required when resistivity is greater than
5000 ohm centimeters.
(c) Electrochemical requirements for MSE walls with geosynthetic reinforcements.
pH, AASHTO T 289
5.0 to 10.0
666
Section 705
Section 705. — ROCK
705.01 Gabion and Revet Mattress Rock. Furnish angular stone from a rock quarry or cut that is hard,
durable, free of organic and spoil material, and resistant to weathering and water action. Do not use
crushed river rock or rock with rounded surfaces. Conform to the following:
(a) Durability index (course), AASHTO T 210
50 min.
(b) Density of a filled basket
100 lb/ft3 (1600 kg/m3) min.
(c) Gradation. Furnish rock with breadth and thickness at least one-third its length.
(1) Baskets 1 foot (300 millimeters) or greater in the vertical dimension.
(a) Maximum dimension
8 in (200 mm)
(b) Minimum dimension
4 in (100 mm)
(2) Baskets less than 1 foot (300 millimeters) in the vertical dimension.
(a) Maximum dimension
6 in (150 mm)
(b) Minimum dimension
3 in (75 mm)
(d) Los Angeles abrasion, AASHTO T 96
50 percent max.
705.02 Riprap. Furnish hard, durable, angular rock that is resistant to weathering and water action and
free of organic or other unsuitable material. Angular rock is characterized by sharp, clean edges at the
intersections of relatively flat surfaces. Do not use shale, rock with shale seams, or other fissile or
fissured rock that may break into smaller pieces in the process of handling and placing. Conform to the
following:
(a) Apparent specific gravity, AASHTO T 85
2.40 min.
(b) Absorption, AASHTO T 85
4.0 percent max.
(c) Soundness of aggregate using sodium sulfate,
12 percent loss max.
AASHTO T 104 (5 cycles)
(d) Los Angeles abrasion, AASHTO T 96
50 percent max.
(e) Rock particle intermediate dimension (width) and
⅓ longest dimension
minimum dimension (thickness)
(length) min.
(f) Gradation, FLH T 521
Table 705-1
667
Section 705
Table 705-1
Gradation Requirements for Riprap(1)
% of Rock
Range of Intermediate
Range of Rock Mass,(3)
Class
Equal or Smaller
Dimensions,(2)
pounds (kilograms)
by Count, DX
inches (millimeters)
100
9 - 15 (230 - 380)
59 - 270 (27 - 120)
85
7 - 11 (180 - 280)
28 - 110 (13 - 50)
1
50
5 - 8 (130 - 200)
10 - 42 (5 - 19)
15
3 - 6 (80 - 150)
2 - 18 (1 - 8)
100
15 - 21 (380 - 530)
270 - 750 (120 - 340)
85
11 - 15 (280 - 380)
110 - 270 (50 - 120)
2
50
8 - 11 (200 - 280)
42 - 110 (19 - 50)
15
6 - 8 (130 - 200)
10 - 42 (6 - 19)
100
21 - 27 (530 - 690)
750 - 1600 (340 - 730)
85
15 - 19 (380 - 480)
270 - 560 (120 - 250)
3
50
11 - 14 (280 - 360)
110 - 220 (50 - 100)
15
8 - 10 (200 - 250)
42 - 81 (19 - 37)
100
27 - 33 (690 - 840)
1600 - 2900 (730 - 1300)
85
19 - 23 (480 - 580)
560 - 990 (250 - 450)
4
50
14 - 17 (360 - 430)
220 - 400 (100 - 180)
15
9 - 12 (230 - 300)
59 - 140 (27 - 64)
100
33 - 39 (840 - 990)
2900 - 4850 (1300 - 2200)
85
23 - 28 (580 - 710)
990 - 1800 (450 - 820)
5
50
17 - 20 (430 - 510)
400 - 650 (180 - 290)
15
11 - 15 (280 - 380)
110 - 270 (50 - 120)
100
39 - 45 (990 - 1140)
4850 - 7400 (2200 - 3350)
85
28 - 32 (710 - 810)
1800 - 2650 (820 - 1200)
6
50
20 - 23 (510 - 580)
650 - 990 (290 - 450)
15
13 - 17 (330 - 430)
180 - 400 (82 - 180)
100
45 - 54 (1140 - 1370)
7400 - 12,800 (3350 - 5800)
85
32 - 38 (810 - 970)
2650 - 4450 (1200 - 2000)
7
50
23 - 28 (580 - 710)
990 - 1800 (450 - 820)
15
15 - 20 (380 - 510)
270 - 650 (120 - 290)
100
54 - 66 (1370 - 1680)
12,800 - 23,400 (5800 - 10,600)
85
38 - 47 (970 - 1190)
4450 - 8450 (2000 - 3850)
8
50
28 - 35 (710 - 890)
1800 - 3500 (820 - 1600)
15
19 - 25 (480 - 640)
560 - 250 (250 - 570)
100
66 - 78 (1680 - 1980)
23,400 - 38,600 (10,600 - 17,500)
85
47 - 55 (1190 - 1400)
8450 - 13,500 (3850 - 6100)
9
50
35 - 41 (890 - 1040)
3500 - 5600 (1600 - 2550)
15
22 - 30 (560 - 760)
870 - 2200 (390 - 1000)
100
78 - 90 (1980 - 2290)
38,600 - 59,300 (17,500 - 26,900)
85
55 - 64 (1400 - 1630)
13,500 - 21,300 (6100 - 9650)
10
50
41 - 48 (1040 - 1220)
5600 - 9000 (2550 - 4100)
15
26 - 36 (660 - 910)
1450 - 3800 (660 - 1700)
(1) Gradation includes spalls and rock fragments to provide a stable, dense mass.
(2) The intermediate dimension is the longest straight-line distance across the rock that is perpendicular to
the rock’s longest axis on the rock face with the largest projection plane.
(3) Rock mass is based on a specific gravity of 2.65 and 85 percent of the cubic volume as calculated
using the intermediate dimension.
668
Section 705
705.03 Rock for Masonry Structures. Conform to the size and shape specified. Furnish sound, durable
rock of the texture and color specified and has been proven satisfactory for the intended use. Do not
furnish rock containing reeds, rifts, seams, laminations, and minerals that may cause discoloration or
deterioration from weathering.
705.04 Rock for Special Rock Embankment. Furnish angular stone that is hard, durable, resistant to
abrasion and weathering, and that is free of weak cleavages that may cause the rock to disintegrate during
handling and placing.
(a) Mechanically-placed embankments. Furnish rock conforming to Table 705-2.
Table 705-2
Range of Mechanically-Placed Rock
Percent of Rock
Range of Intermediate
Range of Rock Mass,(2)
Fragments by
Dimensions,(1)
pounds (kilograms)
Mass
inches (millimeters)
50
> 29 (725)
> 2000 (900)
50
10 - 29 (250 - 725)
90 - 2000 (40 - 900)
(1) The intermediate dimension is the longest straight-line distance across the rock that is
perpendicular to the rock’s longest axis on the rock face with the largest projection plane.
(2) Rock mass is based on a specific gravity of 2.65.
(b) Hand-placed embankments. Furnish rock conforming to Table 705-3.
Table 705-3
Range of Hand-Placed Rock
Percent of Rock
Range of Intermediate
Range of Rock Mass,(2)
Fragments by
Dimensions,(1)
pounds (kilograms)
Mass
inches (millimeters)
75
> 14 (350)
> 165 (75)
25
10 - 14 (250 - 350)
90 - 165 (40 - 75)
(1) The intermediate dimension is the longest straight-line distance across the rock that is
perpendicular to the rock’s longest axis on the rock face with the largest projection plane.
(2) Rock mass is based on a specific gravity of 2.65.
705.05 Rock for Buttresses.
(a) General. Furnish angular stone that is hard, durable, free of organic and spoil material, and
resistant to weathering and water action. Conform to the following:
(1) Rock breadth and thickness
At least one-third of the rock length
(2) Apparent specific gravity, AASHTO T 85
2.40 min.
(3) Absorption, AASHTO T 85
4.0 percent max.
(4) Durability index (course), AASHTO T 210
52 min.
(b) Mechanically-placed buttresses. In addition to Subsection 705.05(a), furnish rock conforming to
Table 705-2.
669
Section 705
(c) Hand-placed buttresses. In addition to Subsection
705.05(a), furnish rock conforming to
Table 705-3.
705.06 Rock for Rockeries. Furnish hard, angular, and durable rock that consists of a solid mass without
open fractures, foliation, or other planes of weakness that are generally cubical, tabular, or rectangular in
shape. Do not furnish crushed river rock or rock with rounded surfaces. Conform to the following:
(a) Apparent specific gravity, AASHTO T 85
2.40 min.
(b) Absorption, AASHTO T 85
4.0 percent max.
(c) Los Angeles abrasion, AASHTO T 96
50 percent max.
(d) Durability index (course), AASHTO T 210
52 min.
(e) Soundness of aggregate using sodium sulfate,
12 percent loss max.
AASHTO T 104 (5 cycles)
(f) Size and shape.
(1) Rock length
See plans
(2) Rock breadth and thickness
At least one-third of rock
length
(3) Rock dimension
18 in (460 mm) min.
(4) Cap rock mass
200 lb (90 kg) min.
705.07 Rock Mulch. Furnish hard, durable native rock that is resistant to weathering and free of excess
moisture, muck, frozen lumps, roots, sod, or other deleterious material conforming to the following:
(a) Maximum particle size
6 in (150 mm)
(b) Minimum particle size
2 in (50 mm)
(c) Apparent specific gravity, AASHTO T 85
2.40 min.
(d) Absorption, AASHTO T 85
4.0 percent max.
(e) Soundness of aggregate using sodium sulfate,
12 percent loss max.
AASHTO T 104 (5 cycles)
(f) Los Angeles abrasion, AASHTO T 96
50 percent max.
670
Section 706
Section 706. — CONCRETE PIPE
706.01 Non-Reinforced Concrete Pipe. Conform to AASHTO M 86 for the diameters and strength
classes specified.
706.02 Reinforced Concrete Pipe. Conform to AASHTO M 170 for the diameters and strength classes
specified. For precast reinforced concrete end sections, conform to cited specifications to the extent they
apply.
706.03 Perforated Concrete Pipe. Conform to AASHTO M 175, Type 1 or Type 2 and AASHTO M 86
for the diameters and strength classes specified.
706.04 Reinforced Arch-Shaped Concrete Pipe. Conform to AASHTO M 206 for the diameters and
strength classes specified.
706.05 Reinforced Elliptically-Shaped Concrete Pipe. Conform to AASHTO M 207 for the diameters,
placement design (horizontal or vertical), and strength classes specified.
706.06 Reinforced D-Load Concrete Pipe. Conform to AASHTO M 242 for the diameters specified.
706.07 Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Sections. Conform to ASTM C1577. Meet the design
requirements for AASHTO, Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Specifications
with HL-93 live loading. Clearly mark the following information on the inner surface of each box
section by indentation, waterproof paint or other approved means:
(a) Box span and rise;
(b) Date of manufacture;
(c) Name of manufacturer;
(d) Submittal number; and
(e) Date certified by manufacturer.
706.08 Gaskets for Concrete Pipe.
(a) Elastomeric seals. Conform to ASTM C1619, Class C.
(b) Resilient connectors. Conform to ASTM C923.
706.09 Supplemental Concrete Pipe Ties. Conform to ASTM A307 and galvanize tie hardware.
671
Section 707
Section 707. — METAL PIPE
707.01 Ductile Iron Culvert Pipe. Conform to ASTM A716 for the sizes specified.
707.02 Metallic-Coated Corrugated Steel Pipe. Furnish pipe, special sections (such as elbows, branch
connections, and prefabricated flared end sections) and coupling bands conforming to AASHTO M 36 and
either AASHTO M 218, AASHTO M 274, or AASHTO M 289 for the dimensions and thicknesses
specified.
Fabricate underdrain pipe from steel sheets with a minimum thickness of 0.052 inches (1.32 millimeters).
Use any class of perforation specified in AASHTO M 36.
707.03 Aluminum-Alloy Corrugated Pipe. Furnish pipe, special sections (such as elbows, branch
connections, and prefabricated flared end sections) and coupling bands conforming to AASHTO M 196
for the dimensions and thicknesses specified.
Fabricate underdrain pipe from aluminum sheets with a minimum thickness of
0.048 inches
(1.22 millimeters). Use any class of perforation.
707.04 Asphalt-Coated Pipe. Furnish pipe, special sections (such as elbows, branch connections, and
prefabricated flared end sections), and coupling bands conforming to Section 707 as applicable for the
kinds of pipes to be coated.
Coat the pipe with asphalt material conforming to AASHTO M 190 for the type of coating specified. Coat
special sections (such as elbows, branch connections, and end sections) and coupling bands according to
AASHTO M 190. Coat flared end sections with an asphalt coating conforming to AASHTO M 190,
Type A or a field applied asphalt mastic coating conforming to AASHTO M 243.
707.05 Steel Structural Plate Structures. Furnish structures and assembly fasteners for connecting plates
conforming to AASHTO M 167 for the sizes and types specified.
707.06 Aluminum-Alloy Structural Plate Structures. Furnish structures and assembly fasteners for
connecting plates conforming to AASHTO M 219 for the sizes and types specified.
707.07 Asphalt-Coated Structural Plate Structures. Furnish structures conforming to either Subsection
707.05 or 707.06 as applicable. Coat with an asphalt coating conforming to AASHTO M 190, Type A or a
field applied asphalt mastic coating conforming to AASHTO M 243.
If the asphalt coating is applied to the plates before field erection, identify each plate's nominal metal
thickness by painting the data on the inside surface of the plates after coating. Other methods of plate
identification may be used if approved.
707.08 Polymer-Coated Steel Pipe. Furnish pipe, special sections
(such as elbows and branch
connections) and coupling bands conforming to AASHTO M 245, Grade 250/250 and AASHTO M 246,
Grade 250/250.
707.09 Reserved.
672
Section 707
707.10 Slotted Drain Pipe. Furnish pipe conforming to AASHTO M 36 and either AASHTO M 218,
AASHTO M 274, or AASHTO M 289 for the dimensions and thicknesses specified.
Fabricate the pipe with either angle slots or grate slots and as shown in the plans.
Furnish grate assemblies for the grate slot drain conforming to ASTM A1011, SS Grade 36. Galvanize slot
angles and grate slot assemblies according to Subsection 725.10.
707.11 Metallic-Coated Spiral Rib Pipe. Furnish pipe, special sections (such as elbows and branch
connections), and coupling bands conforming to AASHTO M 36, Type IR and Type IIR, AASHTO
M 218, AASHTO M 274, or AASHTO M 289 for the dimensions and thicknesses specified.
707.12 Aluminum-Alloy Spiral Rib Pipe. Furnish pipe, special sections (such as elbows and branch
connections) and coupling bands conforming to AASHTO M 196, Type IR and Type IIR for the
dimensions and thicknesses specified.
707.13 Concrete-Lined Corrugated Steel Pipe. Furnish pipe, special sections (such as elbows and
branch connections), and coupling bands conforming to Subsection 707.02 for the dimensions and
thicknesses specified. Fully line the pipe and special sections with concrete according to ASTM A849,
Class C.
707.14 Invert-Paved Corrugated Steel Pipe. Furnish pipe, special sections (such as elbows and branch
connections), and coupling bands conforming to Subsection 707.02 for the dimensions and thicknesses
specified. Pave the invert of the pipe and special sections with concrete or asphalt material according to
ASTM A849, Class A or Class C.
707.15 Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings. Conform to ASTM A74, Class SV for the designated sizes.
707.16 Seamless Copper Water Tube and Fittings. Conform to ASTM B88, Type L for the
designated sizes.
707.17 Gaskets for Metal Pipe.
(a) O-ring gaskets for flexible metal pipe. Conform to ASTM C1619, Class C.
(b) Continuous flat gaskets for flexible metal pipe with flat bands or bands with projections.
(1) Conform to ASTM D1056.
(2) Gasket thickness
½ in (13 mm) greater than the
nominal depth of pipe corrugations
(c) Continuous flat gaskets for flexible metal pipe with corrugated bands.
(1) Conform to ASTM D1056.
(2) Gasket thickness
⅜ in (10 mm)
707.18 Gaskets for Ductile Iron Pipe. Conform to ASTM A746.
673
Section 708
Section 708. — PLASTIC PIPE
708.01 Smooth Wall Polyethylene Pipe. Furnish perforated and nonperforated 12- to 42-inch (300- to
1050-millimeter) diameter pipe conforming to ASTM F714 and minimum cell Class PE335434C
according to ASTM D3350.
708.02 Corrugated Polyethylene Pipe.
(a) General use. Furnish perforated and nonperforated 12- to 36-inch (300- to 900-millimeter)
diameter pipe conforming to AASHTO M 294.
(b) Sanitary sewers. Furnish AASHTO M 294, Type S pipe.
(c) Water systems
(4-inches
(100 millimeters) and over). Furnish pipe conforming to the
requirements of ANSI/AWWA C906. Fabricate from high-density polyethylene PE3408 conforming
to a minimum cell Class 345464 C, D or E according to ASTM D3350.
708.03 Profile Wall (Ribbed) Polyethylene Pipe. Furnish perforated and nonperforated 18- to 48-inch
(450- to 1200-millimeter) diameter pipe conforming to ASTM F894 and minimum cell Class 334433C or
335434C according to ASTM D3350.
708.04 Corrugated Polyethylene Drainage Tubing. Furnish perforated and nonperforated 3- to 10-inch
(75- to 250-millimeter) diameter tubing conforming to AASHTO M 252.
708.05 Smooth Wall Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe.
(a) General use. Furnish perforated and nonperforated 4- to 15-inch (100- to 375-millimeter) diameter
pipe conforming to AASHTO M 278 and minimum cell Class 12454 or Class 12364 according to
ASTM D1784.
(b) Sanitary sewers. Conform to ASTM D3034.
(c) Water systems.
(1) PVC pipe (4-inches (100 millimeters) and over). Furnish pipe and fittings conforming to the
requirements of ANSI/AWWA C900 or ANSI/AWWA C905, and listed by Underwriters
Laboratories, Inc. Furnish joints conforming to the requirements of ASTM D3139 and using a
restrained rubber gasket conforming to ASTM F477.
(2) PVC pipe (under 4-inches (100 millimeters)). Furnish pipe and fittings conforming to ASTM
D2241. Select PVC 1120, PVC 1220, or PVC 2120 with a minimum wall thickness equal or
greater than a standard dimension ratio
(SDR) of 21. Furnish pipes bearing the National
Sanitation Foundation Seal for use to transport potable water. Furnish joints conforming to the
requirements of ASTM D3139 using a restrained rubber gasket conforming to ASTM F477.
Furnish solvent cement for pipe and fittings conforming to ASTM D2564.
(d) Horizontal drains. Furnish Schedule 80 pipe conforming to ASTM D1785. Select PVC 1120,
PVC 1220, PVC 2112, PVC 2116, or PVC 2120. Furnish Schedule 80, solvent weld fittings
conforming to ASTM D2467.
674
Section 708
708.06 Profile Wall (Ribbed) Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe. Furnish perforated and nonperforated 4- to
48-inch (100- to 1200-millimeter) diameter pipe conforming to AASHTO M 304 and minimum cell Class
12454C or Class 12364C according to ASTM D1784. For sanitary sewer applications, conform to ASTM
F794 or ASTM F949.
708.07 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Pipe. Conform to ASTM D2680.
708.08 Gaskets for Plastic Pipe.
(a) Elastomeric seals. Conform to ASTM F477.
(b) Thermoplastic elastomeric seals. Conform to ASTM F913.
675
Section 709
Section 709. — REINFORCING STEEL AND WIRE ROPE
709.01 Reinforcing Steel.
(a) General. Furnish the following information with each shipment of steel to the project:
(1) Name and location of the steel rolling mill;
(2) Manufacturing process;
(3) Heat numbers;
(4) Sizes;
(5) Specifications;
(6) Copies of mill test analyses for chemical and physical tests; and
(7) Consignee and destination of shipment.
(b) Reinforcing bars. Furnish deformed, Grade 60 (420) bars conforming to AASHTO M 31 or
AASHTO M 322.
(c) Epoxy-coated reinforcing bars. Furnish bars conforming to Subsection 709.01(b). Conform to
ASTM A775.
Inspect the reinforcing bars after the near white blast cleaning. Reject bars with steel slivers or scabs.
Selective sorting and rejection at the fabricator's shop may avoid unnecessary delays and subsequent
rejection of bars during the precoating inspection at the coating applicator's shop.
Coat epoxy-coated reinforcing steel in a plant certified by CRSI as a fusion bonded epoxy applicator.
(d) Tie bars. Furnish deformed, Grade 60 (420) bars conforming to AASHTO M 31.
(e) Hook bolts. Furnish plain, Grade 60 (420) bars conforming to AASHTO M 31 with M14 rolled
threads or M16 cut threads. Furnish a threaded sleeve nut capable of sustaining a minimum axial load
of 15,000 pounds (67 kilonewtons).
(f) Dowel bars. Conform to AASHTO M 254, Type A or Type B. Use plain round bars, without
burring or other deformation restricting free movement in the concrete. Paint half the length of each
dowel bar with one coat of tar paint. When the paint dries and immediately before placing the dowels,
lubricate the painted end to prevent concrete from bonding to the painted end.
For expansion joints, furnish a dowel cap that snugly covers 2±¼ inches (50±6 millimeters) of the
dowel, has a closed end, and has a suitable stop to hold the closed end 1 inch (25 millimeters) from the
end of the dowel bar.
Lubricants for Type B dowels may be medium setting emulsified asphalt or a flaked graphite.
Lubricants are not required for Type A coated dowel bars.
Furnish dowel assemblies that hold dowel bars within ¼-inch (6-millimeter) tolerance vertically and
horizontally during concrete placement and permit unrestricted movement of the pavement slab.
676
Section 709
Use wire conforming to AASHTO M 32 for dowel assemblies. Coat dowel assemblies with the same
material as the dowel bar. Recoat or repair damaged coatings equivalent to the manufacturer’s original
coating.
(g) Deformed steel wire. Conform to AASHTO M 225.
(h) Steel welded wire reinforcement, plain, for concrete. Conform to AASHTO M 55.
(i) Cold-drawn steel wire. Conform to AASHTO M 32.
(j) Welded deformed steel wire fabric. Conform to AASHTO M 221.
(k) Fabricated deformed steel bar or rod mats. Conform to AASHTO M 54.
(l) Low alloy steel deformed bars. Conform to ASTM A706.
709.02 Prestressing Steel.
(a) Fabricate from one of the following:
(1) Stress-relieved steel wire, AASHTO M 204, Type BA or Type WA;
(2) Uncoated seven-wire steel strand, AASHTO M 203, Grade 270 (1860); or
(3) High-strength steel bars, AASHTO M 275, Type II
(b) Submit representative samples from prestressed members fabricated off site. In the case of wire or
strand, take the sample from the same master roll.
(1) Pretensioning method. Furnish a sample at least 6 feet (1.8 meters) long of each strand size
from each coil.
(2) Post-tensioning method. Furnish samples of the following lengths.
(a) For wires requiring a head, 15 feet (5 meters).
(b) For wires not requiring a head, sufficient length to make up one parallel-lay cable 5 feet
(1.5 meters) long consisting of the same number of wires as the cable to be furnished.
(c) For strands furnished with fittings, 5 feet (1.5 meters) between near ends of fittings.
(d) For bars to be furnished with threaded ends and nuts, 5 feet (1.5 meters) between threads
at ends.
677
Section 710
Section 710. — FENCE AND GUARDRAIL
710.01 Barbed Wire. Furnish galvanized wire or aluminum coated wire conforming to AASHTO M 280.
710.02 Woven Wire. Furnish galvanized fabric or aluminum coated fabric conforming to
AASHTO M 279.
710.03 Chain Link Fence. Furnish fabric, posts, rails, ties, bands, bars, rods and other fittings, and
hardware conforming to AASHTO M 181.
Furnish 0.177-inch (4.5-millimeter) coiled spring steel tension wire conforming to ASTM A641 hard
temper with a Class 3 galvanized coating. Use the same coating on the tension wire as used on the rest of
the chain link fence.
710.04 Fence Posts and Bollards.
(a) Wood. Conform to AASHTO M 168.
Peel bark, except for red cedar posts and bracing, which do not require peeling. Trim knots flush with
the surface and season the wood.
For dimension lumber for fences, bollards, or gates, use timber that is sound, straight, and reasonably
without knots, splits, and shakes. Provide S4S finish.
(b) Concrete. Conform to Section 601.
(c) Steel. For line fence posts, conform to AASHTO M 281. For chain link fence, conform to
AASHTO M 181.
710.05 Fence Gates. For frame gates using chain link fabric, conform to AASHTO M 181. Use the same
chain link fabric in the gate as in the fence.
710.06 Rail Elements.
(a) Metal beam rail. Furnish metal beam rail conforming to AASHTO-AGC-ARTBA, A Guide to
Standardized Highway Barrier Hardware.
(1) Galvanized steel. Furnish W-beam or thrie beam rail fabricated from corrugated sheet steel
conforming to AASHTO M 180 for the designated shape, class, type, and mass of coating
specified;
(2) Painted steel. Furnish W-beam or thrie beam rail conforming to AASHTO M 180 for the
designated shape, class, type, and mass of coating specified; or
(3) Corrosion resistant (weathering) steel. Furnish W-beam or thrie beam rail conforming to
AASHTO M 180, Type IV, Class B.
(b) Box beam rail. Furnish steel box beam rail conforming to AASHTO-AGC-ARTBA, A Guide to
Standardized Highway Barrier Hardware.
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Section 710
(c) Steel-backed timber rail. Furnish timber conforming to AASHTO M 168. Fabricate the timber
rail from dry, seasoned, and dressed rough sawn Douglas fir, southern pine, or other species having a
stress grade of at least 1,500 pounds per square inch (10 megapascals). Do not use refractory species
(such as larch or Rocky Mountain Douglas fir). Treat according to AASHTO M 133.
Fabricate steel backing elements according to ASTM A242.
(d) Steel-backed log rail. Use logs that are seasoned, straight, and sound No. 1 Grade Western
Hemlock, Western Red Cedar, or Pine. Do not use logs that taper in excess of 2 inches (50 millimeters)
between the butt and tip ends of adjacent logs. Remove bark and at least 80 percent of the inner bark.
Do not use logs with peeler or incision marks on surfaces that will be visible. Do not use logs with
knot clusters, season checks, singular or any two opposite each other that exceed the thickness of the
member. Logs may contain sound, tight, well-spaced knots. Treat according to AASHTO M 133.
Fabricate steel backing elements according to ASTM A2428.
710.07 Guardrail Posts. Furnish guardrail posts conforming to AASHTO-AGC-ARTBA, A Guide to
Standardized Highway Barrier Hardware.
(a) Wood. Furnish posts that do not have a through check, shake, or end slit in the same plane as, or a
plane parallel to the bolt hole and extending from the top of the post to within 3 inches (75 millimeters)
or the bolt hole. Treat according to AASHTO M 133.
For steel-backed timber guardrail systems, furnish posts conforming to Subsection 710.06(c).
For steel-backed log rail systems, furnish posts conforming to Subsection 710.06(d).
(b) Steel. Furnish posts of the appropriate size shape according to ASTM A6. Zinc-coat the embedded
portion of weathering steel posts according to ASTM A123.
710.08 Guardrail Blocks.
(a) Wood. Furnish wood conforming to Subsection 710.07(a).
(b) Steel. Furnish steel conforming to Subsection 710.07(b).
(c) Plastic or composite. Furnish blocks that are crashworthy. Provide a new homogeneous block with
uniform texture that does not crack, chip, flake, peel, or splinter after fabrication.
710.09 Guardrail Nuts, Bolts, and Cables.
(a) Galvanized nuts and bolts. Furnish nuts conforming to ASTM A563, Grade A. Furnish bolts
conforming to ASTM A307, Grade A.
(b) Weathering nuts and bolts. Furnish nuts conforming to ASTM A563, Grade C3. Furnish bolts
conforming to ASTM A325, Type 3.
(c) Cable. Furnish cable conforming to AASHTO M 30, Type II, Class A.
710.10 Guardrail Hardware. Furnish hardware conforming to AASHTO-AGC-ARTBA, A Guide to
Standardized Highway Barrier Hardware.
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Section 710
For angles, channels, wide flanges, and plates not contained in the above standard, conform to ASTM A36
for non-weathering steel or ASTM A242 for weathering steel. For structural tubing for short steel posts,
conform to ASTM A500 or ASTM A513, Grade 1008.
Galvanize soil plates and structural tubing according to AASHTO M 111. Do not punch, drill, cut, or weld
the metal after galvanizing.
Manufacture reflector tabs from 0.15-inch (4-millimeter) aluminum or plastic. Use an adhesive that resists
peeling with a force of 5 pounds per inch (0.89 kilograms per centimeter) of width. Use mildew-resistant
adhesive that has no staining effect on retroreflective sheeting. Furnish retroreflective sheeting conforming
to ASTM D4956, including supplementary requirements.
710.11 Temporary Plastic Fence. Furnish plastic noncorrosive fence fabricated from polyethylene
(HDPE) and UV stabilized for outdoor weathering. Conform to the following:
(a) Height
48 in (1200 mm) min.
(b) Mesh openings
3.15 to 3.35 in (80 to 85 mm)
(c) Color
International orange
(d) Mass
0.16 lb/ft (0.25 kg/m) min.
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Section 711
Section 711. — CONCRETE CURING MATERIAL
AND ADMIXTURES
711.01 Curing Material. Conform to the following:
(a) Burlap cloth
AASHTO M 182
(b) Sheet material
ASTM C171
(c) Liquid membrane forming compounds
ASTM C309,
Type 1-D or Type 2
711.02 Air-Entraining Admixtures. Conform to AASHTO M 154.
711.03 Chemical Admixtures. Furnish water-reducing, retarding, set-accelerating, and hydration
stabilizing admixtures, or combinations thereof, conforming to AASHTO M 194. For hydration stabilizing
admixtures, conform to AASHTO M 194, Type B or Type D.
711.04 Latex Emulsion. Furnish a homogeneous, nontoxic, film forming polymeric emulsion in water
with stabilizers added at the point of manufacture. Conform to the following:
(a) Color
white
(b) Styrene butadiene polymer type stabilizer
68±4 percent styrene
32±4 percent butadiene
(c) Chlorides
0 percent
(d) Polymer particle size
1,500 to 2,500 Angstroms average
(0.15 to 0.25 µm average)
(e) Latex
nonionic surfactant
(f) Solids
46.5 to 49.0 percent
(g) Mass
8.40 to 8.55 lb/gallon @ 77 °F
(1.00 to 1.02 kg/L @ 25 °C)
(h) pH
9.0 to 13.0
(i) Shelf life
2 years min.
(j) Portland cement composition
Polydimethylsiloxene
711.05 Concrete Coloring Agents. Conform to ASTM C979. Use only coloring agents composed of
synthetic or natural inorganic iron oxides.
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Section 712
Section 712. — JOINT MATERIAL
712.01 Sealants, Fillers, and Seals. Conform to the following:
(a) Joint sealants and crack fillers.
(1) Joint and crack sealant, hot-applied,
ASTM D6690, Type II or Type III
for concrete and asphalt concrete pavements
(2) Crack filler, hot-applied, for concrete
ASTM D5078
and asphalt concrete pavements
(3) Proprietary asphalt-rubber products, furnish the following:
(a) Source and grade of asphalt binder;
(b) Total quantity of granulated rubber and mass as a percent of asphalt-rubber mixture;
(c) Granulated rubber types and quantity of each type (if blend);
(1) Mass as a percent of combined rubber; and
(2) Gradation of granulated rubber.
(d) Type of asphalt modifier, if any;
(e) Quantity of asphalt modifier and mass as a percent of asphalt binder;
(f) Other additives;
(g) Heating and application temperatures; and
(h) Manufacturer’s recommended application procedures.
(4) Elastomeric joint sealant
ASTM C920, Type M, Grade P,
Class 25, Use T1 or T2
(5) Flexible cellular joint filler
ASTM D1056, Type 2, Class B or
Class C, Grades 3, 4, or 5
(b) Preformed expansion joint fillers. Furnish in a single piece for the depth and width required for
the joint.
(1) Preformed expansion joint filler
AASHTO M 33
for concrete (bituminous type)
(2) Preformed sponge rubber expansion
AASHTO M 153, Type I
joint filler for concrete paving and structural
construction
(3) Preformed cork expansion joint
AASHTO M 153
filler for concrete paving and structural
construction
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Section 712
(4) Preformed expansion joint filler
AASHTO M 213
for concrete paving and structural
construction (nonextruding and
resilient bituminous types)
(c) Preformed polychloroprene elastomeric joint seal for concrete pavements. Conform to
ASTM D2628. Use a lubricant conforming to ASTM D2835, which was manufactured within
9 months of use.
(d) Cold-applied, single component, chemically curing silicone joint sealant for concrete
pavement (non-sag). Conform to ASTM D5893, Type NS.
(e) Cold-applied, single component, chemically curing silicone joint sealant for concrete
pavement (self-leveling). Conform to ASTM D5893, Type SL.
(f) Backer rod. Conform to ASTM D5249, Type 1. Use a compatible sealant as recommended by the
rod manufacture. For size of backer rod, conform to Table 712-1.
Table 712-1
Backer Rod Sizes
Joint Width After Preparation
Rod Diameter
516 inch (8 millimeters)
⅜ inch (10 millimeters)
⅜ inch (10 millimeters)
½ inch (13 millimeters)
½ inch (13 millimeters)
⅝ inch (15 millimeters)
⅝ inch (15 millimeters)
¾ inch (19 millimeters)
¾ inch (19 millimeters)
1 inch (25 millimeters)
1 inch (25 millimeters)
1¼ inches (32 millimeters)
1¼ inches (32 millimeters)
1½ inches (38 millimeters)
1½ inches (38 millimeters)
2 inches (50 millimeters)
(g) Preformed polychloroprene elastomeric joint seal for bridges. Conform to AASHTO M 297.
Use an adhesive lubricant conforming to ASTM D4070.
712.02 Mortar. Preblend or mix on site. Furnish and proportion mortar according to ASTM C270. Use
masonry cement mortar Type M or Type S.
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Section 713
Section 713. — ROADSIDE IMPROVEMENT MATERIAL
713.01 Topsoil.
(a) Furnished topsoil. Furnish fertile, friable, free draining, sandy loam soil that is free of subsoil,
refuse, stumps, roots, brush, weeds, rocks larger than 1 inch (25 millimeters), or other substances
detrimental to the development of vegetative growth. Demonstrate that the soil can sustain healthy
crops of grass, shrubs, or other plant growth. Conform to the following:
(1) Texture
(a) Organic matter, AASHTO T 267
3.0 to 10.0 percent
(b) Sand, AASHTO T 88
20 to 70 percent
(c) Silt, AASHTO T 88
10 to 60 percent
(d) Clay, AASHTO T 88
5 to 30 percent
(2) pH, AASHTO T 289
6.0 to 8.0
(b) Conserved topsoil. See Subsection 204.02(c).
713.02 Agricultural Limestone. Furnish calcic or dolomitic ground limestone conforming to the
standards of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, applicable Federal and state
regulations, and the following:
(a) Purity (calcium and magnesium) carbonates
75 percent min.
(b) Gradation
Table 713-1
Table 713-1
Agricultural Limestone Gradation
Sieve Size
Minimum Percent by Mass
Passing Designated Sieve
(AASHTO T 27)
No. 10 (2 mm)
90
No. 40 (425 µm)
50
Granulated slag or other approved natural sources of lime may be used provided the application rate is
adjusted to equal the total neutralizing power of the specified ground limestone.
713.03 Fertilizer. Furnish standard commercial grade dry formulated fertilizer conforming to the
standards of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, applicable Federal and state
regulations, and required minimum percentages of available nutrients.
Supply the fertilizer in new, clean, sealed, and properly labeled containers with name, mass, and
guaranteed analysis of contents clearly marked.
Liquid fertilizer containing the minimum percentage of available nutrients may be used.
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Section 713
713.04 Seed. Conform to the Federal Seed Act, the Federal Noxious Weed Act, and applicable state and
local seed and noxious weed laws. Do not use wet, moldy, or otherwise contaminated or damaged seed.
Furnish each seed type in separate sealed container. Clearly label each container with the following:
(a) Name and type of seed;
(b) Lot number;
(c) Net mass;
(d) Percent of purity, germination, and hard seed;
(e) Percent of maximum weed seed content;
(f) Seed origin;
(g) Noxious weeds present;
(h) Other crop seed;
(i) Inert matter;
(j) Name and address of seed distributor; and
(k) Mixture percent of each component.
Inoculate legume seed with approved cultures according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
713.05 Mulch.
(a) Straw. Furnish certified weed free straw from oats, wheat, rye, rice, or other grain crops that is
without mold or other objectionable material. Furnish straw in an air-dry condition suitable for placing
with mulch blower equipment.
(b) Wood fiber. Furnish processed wood fiber from wood chips conforming to the following:
(1) Colored with a green dye noninjurious to plant growth;
(2) Readily dispersible in water;
(3) Nontoxic to seed or other plant material;
(4) Free of growth or germination inhibiting substances;
(5) Free of weed seed;
(6) Air dried to an moisture content of 12±3 percent;
(7) Packaged in new labeled containers with the manufacturer’s name; and
(8) Packaged in a condition appropriate for mixing in a homogeneous slurry suitable for
application with power spray equipment.
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Section 713
(c) Grass straw cellulose fiber. Furnish processed grass straw fiber conforming to the following:
(1) Colored with a green dye noninjurious to plant growth;
(2) Readily dispersible in water;
(3) Nontoxic to seed or other plant material;
(4) Free of growth or germination inhibiting substances;
(5) Free of weed seed;
(6) Air dried to a moisture content of 10±0.2 percent;
(7) Air dried to a uniform mass of ±5 percent;
(8) Packaged in new containers labeled with the manufacturer’s name and air-dry mass; and
(9) Packaged in a condition appropriate for mixing in a homogeneous slurry suitable
for
application with power spray equipment.
(d) Peat moss. Furnish a granulated sphagnum peat moss conforming to the following:
(1) Sticks, stones, and mineral matter
0 percent
(2) Partially decomposed stems
75 percent min.
and leaves of sphagnum
(3) Color
Brown
(4) Textured from porous fibrous to spongy fibrous
(5) pH
3.5 to 7.5
(6) Air-dried
(e) Mature compost. Furnish partially decomposed organic material, (such as leaves, grass, shrubs,
and yard trimmings) cured for 4 to 8 weeks. Maturity is indicated by temperature stability and soil-like
odor. Furnish friable, dark brown, weed-free, and pathogen-free mature compost conforming to the
following:
(1) Carbon/nitrogen ratio
25/1 to 35/1
(2) Carbon/phosphorus ratio
120/1 to 240/1
(3) pH
6.0 to 7.8
(4) Water content
40 percent max.
(5) Particle size
(a) Seeding and sodding
12 in (12 mm) max.
(b) Erosion control
1 inch (25 mm) max.
(6) Organic material
50 percent min.
(7) Synthetic, plastic, metal, or glass material
2 percent max.
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Section 713
(f) Straw for hydroseeding. Furnish clean agricultural straw milled to 1 inch (25 millimeters) or less
in length. Dry the fibers to 10 percent moisture for compaction. Bale in heat-sealed plastic bags.
(g) Bonded fiber matrix hydromulch. Furnish a mixture of fibers and bonding agent which, when
hydraulically applied and dried, produce a matrix conforming to the following:
(1) Does not dissolve or disperse when wetted;
(2) Holds at least 10 ounces (1000 grams) of water per ounce (100 grams) of dry matrix;
(3) Has no germination or growth inhibiting factors;
(4) Forms no water insensitive crust;
(5) Contains material that is 100 percent biodegradable; and
(6) Is colored with a green dye noninjurious to plant growth.
(h) Recycled pulp fiber. Furnish cellulose fiber mulch products manufactured from natural material
diverted from the waste-stream of manufacturing processes or produced from recycled material. These
include newsprint, chipboard, corrugated cardboard, wood chips, and similar material. Process the
material to eliminate substances that inhibit seed germination and plant growth. Add a colored dye that
is non-injurious to plant growth and fades rapidly with exposure to light. Supply fiber that readily
blends with water, grass seed, fertilizer, and other additives to for a slurry suitable for application with
power spray equipment. Furnish a homogeneous mixture conforming to the following:
(1) Synthetic, plastic, metal, or glass material
0 percent
(2) Weed seed
0 percent
(3) Moisture content
15 percent max.
(4) Ash content
7 percent max.
(5) Organic matter
90 percent min.
(6) Boron
250 ppm max.
(7) Water-holding capacity
800 to 1200 percent by mass
(8) pH
4.0 to 8.5
(i) Wood chips. Provide wood chips from local sources including clearing. Maximum size of chips
is 4 by 2 by ½ inches (100 by 50 by 13 millimeters).
713.06 Plant Material. Conform to the American Standard for Nursery Stock.
(a) Quality of plant material. Furnish plants that are excellent representatives of their normal species
or varieties. Furnish nursery grown stock that has been transplanted or root-trimmed two or more times
according to the kind and size of plant. Furnish plants with a normally developed branch system. Do
not furnish plants with disfiguring knots, sun-scald, injuries, abrasions of the bark, dead or dry wood,
broken terminal growth, or other objectionable disfigurements.
Furnish trees with reasonably straight stems and well branched and symmetrical branches according to
their natural habits of growth.
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Section 713
(b) Plant names. For scientific and common plant names, conform to Standardized Plant Names as
adopted by the American Joint Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature. Legibly tag and identify
plants by name and size.
(c) Grading standards. Conform to American Standard for Nursery Stock as approved by ANSI.
(d) Nursery inspection and plant quarantine. Furnish plants that are without plant diseases and
insect pests.
Comply with nursery inspection and plant quarantine regulations of the states of origin and destination
including Federal regulations governing interstate movement of nursery stock. Provide a valid copy of
the certificate of inspection with each package, box, bale, or carload shipped or otherwise delivered.
(e) Balled and burlapped (B&B) plants. Furnish plants from the original and undisturbed soil in
which the plants were grown. Dig B&B plants to retain as many fibrous roots as possible. Wrap,
transport, and handle the plants so the soil ball and small and fibrous roots remain intact.
713.07 Cellular Confinement Systems. Furnish a flexible honeycomb three-dimensional structure
fabricated from light stabilized polyethylene plastic. Conform to the following:
(a) Functional longevity
120 months min.
(b) Cell area
31.0 to 46.5 in2 (200 to 300 cm2)
(c) Sheet thickness, ASTM D751
48.8 to 49.6 mils (1.24 to 1.26 mm)
(d) Density, ASTM D792
0.549 to 0.555 oz/in3
(0.941 to 0.960 g/cm3)
(e) Carbon black content, ASTM D1603
1.5 to 2.5 percent
(f) Environmental stress-cracking,
2000 hours min.
ASTM D1693
(g) Conform to Table 713-2 for the depth specified.
688
Section 713
Table 713-2
Cellular Confinement Systems
Property
Requirements
Nominal
2 in
3 in
4 in
6 in
8 in
cell depth
(50 mm)
(75 mm)
(100 mm)
(150 mm)
(200 mm)
Cell joint
110 lb min.
160 lb min.
225 lb min.
315 lb min.
450 lb min.
strength
(500 N min.)
(700 N min.)
(1000 N min.)
(1400 N min.)
(2000 N min.)
713.08 Miscellaneous Planting Material.
(a) Stakes for bracing and anchoring. Conform to the American Lumber Standards. Fabricate stakes
for bracing and anchoring trees from rough cypress, cedar, locust, or other approved wood essentially
without knots, rot, crossgrain, or other defects that would impair the strength of the stake. Furnish
stakes with a minimum 2- by 2-inch (50 by 50-millimeter) square cross-section and adequate length.
Furnish anchor stakes of the same size and quality as bracing stakes. The diameter and length of the
deadman is specified in the contract.
(b) Hose. Furnish 1-inch (25-millimeter) diameter garden or steam hose (rubber and fabric) to be used
with wire for bracing and anchoring trees.
(c) Wire. Furnish 0.15-inch (4-millimeter) diameter soft annealed galvanized steel wire for bracing
and anchoring trees.
(d) Wrapping material. Furnish 4-inch (100 millimeter) wide rolls of waterproof paper (triple
lamination 30-30-30) or 6-inch (150-millimeter) wide rolls of burlap for wrapping trees.
(e) Twine. Furnish two-ply twine for trees 3 inches (75 millimeters) and less in diameter and three-ply
twine for trees over 3 inches (75 millimeters) in diameter for tying wrapping material to the trees.
(f) Antidesiccant. If approved, furnish a commercially available antidesiccant emulsion to provide a
film over plant surfaces that is permeable enough to permit transpiration.
(g) Tree wound dressing. Furnish a commercially available product with asphalt base and fungicide.
Furnish material that is antiseptic, waterproof, adhesive, and elastic. Do not use material that is
harmful to living tree tissue (such as kerosene, coal tar, or creosote).
713.09 Sod. Furnish living vigorous sod of the type of grass and thickness specified in the contract.
Furnish sod with a dense root system that is reasonably free of noxious weeds and grasses. Before taking
up the sod, cut the top growth to less than 3-inch (75-millimeter) height.
713.10 Pegs for Sod. Furnish square or round pegs of sound wood conforming to the following:
(a) Length
8 in (200 mm) min.
(b) Approximate cross-sectional area
1 in2 (600 mm2)
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Section 713
713.11 Tackifiers. Furnish a commercially available product containing no solvents or other diluting
agents toxic to plant life that is without growth or germination inhibiting factors, nonflammable, nontoxic
to aquatic organisms, and functional for at least 180 days.
(a) General purpose tackifier. Furnish one of the following:
(1) Plant based tackifier. Furnish a natural high molecular weight polysaccharide, a high
viscosity hydrocolloid that is miscible in water, and labeled as one of the following:
(a) Guar gum. A product derived from the ground endosperm of the guar plant, Cyamopsis
tetragonolobus, treated with dispersing agents for easy mixing and dilutable at the rate of 1 to
5 pounds per 100 gallons (1.2 to 6 kilograms per 1000 liters) of water.
(b) Psyllium. A product manufactured from the finely ground mucilloid coating of Plantago
ovata or Plantago ispaghula seeds; able to dry and form a firm, but rewettable membrane.
(c) Starch. A product manufactured from a nonionic, water-soluble, granular material derived
from corn, potato, or other plant-based source.
(2) Polymeric emulsion blend tackifier. Furnish a prepackaged liquid or dry powder, anionic
formulation with a residual monomer content not exceeding 0.05 percent by mass and labeled
with one of the following as the primary active ingredient:
(a) Acrylic copolymers and polymers;
(b) Polymers of methacrylates and acrylates;
(c) Copolymers of sodium acrylates and acrylamides;
(d) Polyacrylamide and copolymer of acrylamide; or
(e) Hydrocolloid polymers.
(b) Polymer stabilized fiber matrix tackifier. Furnish the following:
(1) A liquid formulation with polyacrylamide as the primary active ingredient with the following
requirements:
(a) Linear, anionic copolymer of acrylamide and sodium acrylate; and
(b) Anionic with a residual monomer content that is at most 0.05 percent by mass.
(2) Formulated and labeled as one of the following:
(a) Water-in-oil emulsion. A product containing at least 2.6 pounds per gallon (3.1 kilograms
per 10 liters) pure polyacrylamide that is at least 30 percent active; or
(b) Liquid dispersed polyacrylamide. A product containing at least 4.4 pounds per gallon
(5.3 kilograms per 10 liters) pure polyacrylamide that is at least 35 percent active.
713.12 Fiber Rolls and Socks.
(a) Excelsior fiber rolls. Furnish fiber rolls of curled excelsior fiber rolled into a cylindrical shape
and encased in a tubular netting.
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Section 713
(b) Straw fiber rolls. Furnish straw fiber rolls that are manufactured from certified weed free straw
and wrapped in a tubular mesh.
(c) Coir rolls. Furnish coir fiber rolls that are 100 percent coconut fiber.
(d) Compost socks. Furnish tubular mesh filled with mature compost according to Subsection
713.05(e).
(e) Tubular mesh for fiber rolls. Provide tubular mesh with openings no larger than ⅜ inch
(10 millimeters). Mesh material is not required to be biodegradable, but must be removed at the end
of the project if it is not biodegradable. Provide tubular mesh diameter according to plans. Fill
according to manufacturer’s recommendations.
(f) Other fiber material. Use of recycled material that meet the requirements of the application may
be considered. Submit to the CO for approval.
713.13 Gravel Bags. Furnish woven fabric bags with a minimum water flow rating of 145 gallons per
minute per foot (1.8 cubic meters per minute per meter) as tested by ASTM D4491. Fill the bags with
clean coarse aggregate.
713.14 Sandbags. Use clean, silt free material for sand filler. Conform to the following:
(a) Bag material
canvas, geotextile, or burlap
(b) Volume per bag
⅓ ft3 (0.01 m3) min.
713.15 Temporary Culvert Pipe. For temporary slope drains and temporary culvert pipes, furnish culvert
pipe fabricated from corrugated metal, plastic, or concrete for use in diverting water through or around
work areas. Furnish temporary culvert pipe placed beneath the traveled way conforming to HS-20 (M-18)
loading rating in AASHTO, Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Specifications.
713.16 Silt Fence.
(a) Geotextile. Conform to Table 7 of AASHTO M 288.
(b) Posts. Conforming to the following:
(1) Wood posts. Conform to the following:
(a) 1½ inches by 1½ inches by 4 feet (38 millimeters by 38 millimeters by 1.2 meters)
minimum dimensions;
(b) Untreated fir, redwood, cedar, or pine, cut from sound timber with no loose or unsound
knots; and
(c) Pointed on end driven in ground.
(2) Steel posts. Conform to the following:
(a) 48 inches (1200 millimeter) minimum length;
(b) Cross-section shape that can resist failure from lateral loads (T-shaped, U-shaped, or
L-shaped); and
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Section 713
(c) 0.75 pound per foot (1.1 kilograms per meter) minimum mass.
(c) Silt fence reinforcement. Furnish a wire mesh consisting of 14 gauge (1.628-millimeter diameter)
steel with mesh spacing of 6 by 6 inches (150 by 150 millimeters) or prefabricated polymeric mesh of
equivalent strength.
713.17 Temporary Rolled Erosion Control Products. Furnish temporary rolled erosion control products
conforming to Table 713-3 and the following. See the Erosion Control Technology Council website
(ECTC.org) for commercially available products that may conform to these specifications.
(a) Type 1.A, ultra-short term mulch control netting. Furnish a mulch control netting consisting of
rapidly degrading photodegradable synthetic mesh or woven biodegradable natural fiber netting.
(b) Type 1.B, ultra-short term net-less erosion control blanket. Furnish an erosion control blanket
composed of processed rapidly degrading natural or polymer fibers mechanically interlocked or
chemically adhered together to form a continuous matrix.
(c) Type 1.C, ultra-short term single-net erosion control blanket and open weave textile. Furnish
one of the following material:
(1) An erosion control blanket composed of processed degradable natural or polymer fibers
mechanically-bound together by a single rapidly degrading, synthetic or natural fiber netting to
form a continuous matrix; or
(2) An open weave textile composed of processed rapidly degrading natural or polymer yarns or
twines woven into a continuous matrix.
(d) Type 1.D, ultra-short term double-net erosion control blankets. Furnish an erosion control
blanket composed of processed natural or polymer fibers mechanically-bound between two rapidly
degrading, synthetic, or natural fiber nettings to form a continuous matrix.
(e) Type 2.A, short-term mulch control netting. Furnish a mulch control netting consisting of
photodegradable synthetic mesh or woven biodegradable natural fiber.
(f) Type 2.B, short-term net-less erosion control blanket. Furnish an erosion control blanket
composed of processed degradable natural or polymer fibers mechanically-interlocked or
chemically-adhered together to form a continuous matrix.
(g) Type 2.C, short-term single-net erosion control blanket or open weave textile. Furnish one of
the following material:
(1) An erosion control blanket composed of processed degradable natural or polymer fibers
mechanically-bound together by a single degradable synthetic or natural fiber netting to form a
continuous matrix; or
(2) An open weave textile composed of processed degradable natural or polymer yarns or twines
woven into a continuous matrix.
(h) Type 2.D, short-term double-net erosion control blankets. Furnish an erosion control blanket
composed of processed natural or polymer fibers mechanically bound between two natural fiber or
synthetic nettings to form a continuous matrix.
692
Section 713
(i) Type 3.A, extended term mulch control netting. Furnish a mulch control netting consisting of a
slow degrading synthetic mesh or woven natural fiber.
(j) Type 3.B, extended term erosion control blanket or open weave textile. Furnish one of the
following material:
(1) An erosion control blanket composed of processed slow degrading natural or polymer fibers
mechanically-bound together between two slow degrading synthetic or natural fiber nettings to
form a continuous matrix; or
(2) An open weave textile composed of processed slow degrading natural or polymer yarns or
twines woven into a continuous matrix.
(k) Type 4, long-term erosion control blanket or open weave textile. Furnish one of the following
material:
(1) An erosion control blanket composed of processed slow degrading natural or polymer fibers
mechanically-bound together between two slow degrading synthetic or natural fiber nettings to
form a continuous matrix; or
(2) An open weave textile composed of processed slow degrading natural or polymer yarns or
twines woven into a continuous matrix.
693
Section 713
Table 713-3
Temporary Rolled Erosion Control Products
Rolled Erosion Control Product Type
Property
Test
1.A(1)
1.B
1.C
1.D
2.A (1)
2.B
2.C
2.D
3.A (1)
3.B
4
Method
Typical
N/A
3
3
3
3
12
12
12
12
24
24
36
functional
longevity(2)
(months)
Minimum
ASTM
5
5
50
75
5
5
50
75
25
100
125
tensile
D6818
lb/ft
lb/ft
lb/ft
lb/ft
lb/ft
lb/ft
lb/ft
lb/ft
lb/ft
lb/ft
lb/ft
strength
(0.73
(0.73
(0.73
(0.73
(0.73
(0.73
(0.73
(1.09
(0.36
(1.45
(1.82
kN/m)
kN/m)
kN/m)
kN/m)
kN/m)
kN/m)
kN/m)
kN/m)
kN/m)
kN/m)
kN/m)
Maximum "C"
ASTM
0.10
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.10
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.10
0.25
0.25
factor at
D6459
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
maximum
or other
1V:5H
1V:4H
1V:3H
1V:2H
1V:5H
1V:4H
1V:3H
1V:2H
1V:5H
1V:1½H
1V:1H
gradient for
qualified
slope
independent
applications(3)
test(6)
Minimum
ASTM
0.25
0.50
1.50
1.75
0.25
0.50
1.50
1.75
0.25
2.00
2.25
shear
D7207
lb/ft2
lb/ft2
lb/ft2
lb/ft2
lb/ft2
lb/ft2
lb/ft2
lb/ft2
lb/ft2
lb/ft2
lb/ft2
stress for
or other
(12 Pa)
(24 Pa)
(72 Pa)
(84 Pa)
(12 Pa)
(24 Pa)
(72 Pa)
(84 Pa)
(12 Pa)
(96 Pa)
(108 Pa)
channel
qualified
applications(4)(5)
independent
test(6)
(1) Obtain max "C" factor and allowable shear stress for mulch control nettings with the netting used in conjunction with pre-applied mulch material.
(2) Functional longevities are for guidance only. Actual functional longevities may vary based on site and climatic conditions.
(3) "C" factor calculated as ratio of soil loss from rolled erosion control product protected slope (tested at specified or greater gradient, v:h) to ratio of soil loss
from unprotected (control) plot in large-scale testing. These performance test values should be supported by periodic bench scale testing under similar test
conditions and failure criteria using Erosion Control Technology Council (ECTC), Test Method #2.
(4) Minimum shear stress the rolled erosion control product
(un-vegetated) can sustain without physical damage or excess erosion
(>
12-inch
(> 12.7-millimeter) soil loss) during a 30-minute flow event in large-scale testing. These performance test values should be supported by periodic bench scale
testing under similar test conditions and failure criteria using ECTC, Test Method #3.
(5) The permissible shear stress levels established for each performance category are based on historical experience with products characterized by Manning’s
roughness coefficients in the range of 0.01 to 0.05.
(6) Other large-scale test methods determined acceptable by the CO.
694
Section 713
713.18 Turf Reinforcement Mats. Furnish a rolled erosion control product composed of non-degradable
synthetic fibers, filament, nets, wire mesh, and other elements processed into a permanent,
three-dimensional matrix conforming to Table 713-4. See the Erosion Control Technology Council
website (ECTC.org) for commercially available products that may conform to these specifications.
Table 713-4
Turf Reinforcement Mats
Properties(1)
Test Method
Rolled Erosion Control Product Type
5.A
5.B
5.C
Minimum tensile
ASTM D4595
125 lb/ft
150 lb/ft
175 lb/ft
strength(2)(3)
(1.82 kN/m)
(2.19 kN/m)
(2.55 kN/m)
UV stability
ASTM D4355
80
80
80
(minimum % tensile
(500-hour exposure)
retention)
Minimum thickness(2)
ASTM D6525
¼ in
¼ in
¼ in
(6.35 mm)
(6.35 mm)
(6.35 mm)
Maximum gradient for
-
2V:1H
2V:1H
2V:1H
slope applications
Minimum shear stress
ASTM D6460
6.0 lb/ft2
8.0 lb/ft2
10.0 lb/ft2
for channel
or other qualified
(288 Pa)
(384 Pa)
(480 Pa)
applications(4)
independent test(5)
(1) For turf reinforcement mats containing degradable components, obtain property values on the non-degradable
portion of the matting alone.
(2) Minimum average roll values, machine direction only.
(3) Field conditions with high loading and high survivability requirements may warrant the use of turf
reinforcement mats with tensile strengths of 3,000 pounds per foot (44 kilonewtons per meter) or greater.
(4) Minimum shear stress the turf reinforcement mat (fully vegetated) can sustain without physical damage or
excess erosion (> 12-inch (> 12.7-millimeter)soil loss) during a 30-minute flow event in large-scale testing. These
performance test values should be supported by periodic bench scale testing under similar test conditions and
failure criteria using Erosion Control Technology Council, Test Method #3.
(5) Other large-scale test methods determined acceptable by the CO.
695
Section 713
713.19 Sediment Filter Bags. Furnish rot and mildew resistant bags composed of a non-woven geotextile
fabric conforming to Table 713-5 and the following:
(a) Minimum footprint
150 ft2 (14 m2)
(b) Sewn-in sleeve to fit minimum 4-inch (100-millimeter) pump discharge hose.
Secure discharge hose with a hose clamp.
Table 713-5
Sediment Filter Bag Geotextile Requirements
Property
Test
Units
Specifications
Method
ASTM
Mass
D3776
oz/yd (g/m)
10.0 (310)
Minimum grab tensile strength
D4632
lb (N)
250 (1100)
Tensile elongation at break
D4632
%
50
Minimum puncture strength
D4833
lb (N)
115 (510)
Minimum trapezoid tear strength
D4533
lb (N)
100 (445)
Minimum sewn seam strength
D4632
lb (N)
200 (900)
Mullen burst
D3786
lb/in2 (kPa)
350 (2400)
Ultraviolet resistance
D4355
%
70
Permittivity
D4491
sec-1
1.2
Water flow rate
D4491
gal/min./ft
145
(m3/min./m)
(1.8)
713.20 Prefabricated Filter Insert. Size inlet filter inserts to fit the catch basin or drop inlet and provide a
high-flow bypass. Follow manufacturer’s recommendations.
713.21 Floating Turbidity Curtains. Furnish curtains made of tightly woven nylon, plastic, or other
non-deteriorating material conforming to Table 713-6 and the following:
(a) Fabric overlap when more than
6 in (150 mm)
one width of fabric is required
(b) Supporting flotation buoyancy
29 lb/ft (1.4 kPa) min.
(c) Ballast chain (galvanized)
5/16 in (8 mm)
(d) Dual galvanized wire rope load
5/16 in (8 mm) diameter
lines with a heavy vinyl coating
696
Section 713
Table 713-6
Floating Turbidity Curtain Material Requirements
Property
Test Method
Units
Specifications
ASTM
Minimum grab tensile strength: machine direction
D4632
lb (N)
370 (1640)
Minimum grab tensile strength: cross
D4632
lb (N)
250 (1110)
machine direction
Trapezoid tear strength: machine direction
D4533
lb (N)
100 (445)
Trapezoid tear strength: cross-machine
D4533
lb (N)
60 (270)
direction
Mullen burst
D3786
lb/in2 (kPa)
480 (3300)
Apparent opening size
D4751
70
4% permittivity
D4491
sec-1
0.28
697
Section 714
Section 714. — GEOSYNTHETIC MATERIAL
714.01 Geotextile. Use long-chain synthetic polymers composed of at least 95 percent by mass of
polyolefins or polyesters to manufacture geotextile and the threads used in joining geotextile by sewing.
Form the geotextile, including selvedges, into a stable network such that the filaments or yarns retain
their dimensional stability relative to each other.
Property values, with the exception of apparent opening size (AOS), in these specifications represent
minimum average roll value (MARV) in the weakest principal direction (that is average test results of any
roll in a lot sampled for conformance or quality assurance testing must meet or exceed the specified
values). Values for AOS represent maximum average roll values.
Conform to the following physical requirements:
(a) Separation and stabilization geotextile and geotextile filter. Conform to Table 714-1.
Table 714-1
Separation and Stabilization Geotextile and Geotextile Filter Requirements (1)
Strength and Durability Properties
Property
Test
Units
Class 1
Class 2
Method
ASTM
Type of Geotextile
Woven
Nonwoven
Woven
Nonwoven
Elongation at break
D4632
%
< 50
≥ 50
< 50
≥ 50
Minimum grab
D4632
lb (N)
320
200
250
160
strength
(1420)
(890)
(1110)
(710)
Minimum sewn
D4632
lb (N)
290
180
220
140
seam strength
(1290)
(800)
(980)
(620)
Minimum tear
D4533
lb (N)
110
80
90
55
strength
(490)
(360)
(400)
(240)
Minimum puncture
D6241
lb (N)
620
430
500
310
strength
(2760)
(1910)
(2220)
(1380)
Minimum ultraviolet
D4355
%
50% retained strength after 500 hours of exposure
stability
Hydraulic Properties
Property
Test
Units
Type A
Type B
Type C
Type D
Type E
Method
ASTM
Minimum
D4491
s-1
0.7
0.5
0.2
0.1
0.1
permittivity
Maximum
D4751
Sieve
No. 40
No. 40
No. 60
No. 40
No. 70
apparent
size
(0.425)
(0.425)
(0.250)
(0.425)
(0.212)
opening size
U.S.
(AOS)
(mm)
(1) Do not use woven slit film geotextile.
698
Section 714
(b) Paving geotextile. Furnish nonwoven geotextile conforming to Table 714-2.
Table 714-2
Paving Geotextile Requirements
Property
Test Method
Units
Specifications
ASTM
Grab strength
D4632
lb (N)
110 (490)
Elongation at break
D4632
%
≥ 50
Asphalt retention
D6140
gal/yd2 (L/m2)
See Note (1)
Mass per unit area
D5261
oz/yd2 (g/m2)
4 - 6 (135 - 200)
Melting point
D276
ºF (ºC)
300 (150)
(1) Asphalt required to saturate fabric only. Value supplied by manufacturer in material
certification. Value does not indicate the asphalt application rate required for construction.
Product asphalt retention property must meet the MARV provided by the manufacturer’s
certification.
714.02 Geocomposite Drain. Furnish a prefabricated geocomposite drain composed of a drainage core
and a nonwoven geotextile that permits in-flow from both sides. Geocomposites that only permit in-flow
from one side may only be used directly against a concrete surface. Furnish geotextile and drainage core
manufactured from long chain synthetic polymers composed at least 95 percent by mass of polypropylene,
polyester, polyamide, polyvinyl chloride, polyolefin, or polystyrene. Build the core up in thickness by
columns, cones, nubs, cusps, meshes, stiff filaments, or other configurations. Fabricate the core in sheets,
panels, or rolls of adequate strength to resist installation stresses and long-term loading conditions.
Property values, with the exception of fungi resistance, in these specifications represent MARV in the
weakest principal direction (that is average test results of any roll in a lot sampled for conformance or
quality assurance testing must meet or exceed the specified values).
Furnish a nonwoven encapsulating geotextile meeting requirements of Table 714-1. Firmly attach the
encapsulating geotextile to the core at the manufacturing plant, so that folding, wrinkling, or other
movement cannot occur during handling or after placement. Use a nonwater-soluble adhesive, heat
sealing, or other methods recommended by the geotextile manufacturer. Do not use adhesive on areas of
the geotextile where flow is intended to occur.
If heat sealing is used, do not weaken the geotextile below the required strength values. Extend the
geotextile beyond the core length on all sides sufficiently to encapsulate the core and collector pipe.
699
Section 714
Conform to Table 714-3.
Table 714-3
Geocomposite Drain Requirements
Property
Test Method
Units
Specifications
Sheet
Strip Drain
Drain
Type 1
Type 1
Type 2
Transmissivity
ASTM
gal/min/ft
5.0
15.0
20.0
(flow rate) (1)
D4716
(m3/sec/m)
(0.0010)
(0.0031)
(0.0041)
Compressive
ASTM
psi
100
50
50
strength at yield
D1621
(kPa)
(690)
(340)
(340)
Applied normal
ASTM
psi
14.5
1.45
1.45
compressive stress
D4716(4)
(kPa)
(100)
(10)
(10)
Hydraulic gradient
ASTM
dimensionless
1.0
0.1
0.1
D4716(2)(3)(4)
Fungi resistance
ASTM G21
No visible growth
(1) If core construction separates the flow channel into two or more discrete sections, only the flow rate on one
in-flow face is considered in determining the core's acceptability.
(2) 14-inch (350 millimeter) long specimen.
(3) 100-hour seating period.
(4) Rubber membrane between platens and geocomposite.
714.03 Stabilization Geogrid. Furnish biaxial geogrid manufactured using long-chain synthetic
polymers composed of at least 95 percent by mass of polyolefins, polyesters, or polyamides. Fabricate
the geogrid into a stable network such that the ribs, filaments, or yarns retain their dimensional stability
relative to each other, including selvages.
Property values, with the exception of maximum opening size, represent MARV (that is average test
results of any roll in a lot sampled for conformance or quality assurance testing must meet or exceed the
minimum specified values). The value for maximum opening size represents maximum average roll
value.
700
Section 714
Conform to Table 714-4.
Table 714-4
Stabilization Geogrid Requirements
Property
Test Method
Specifications(1)
Minimum opening size
N/A(2)
½ in (13 mm)
Maximum opening size
N/A(2)
3 in (75 mm)
Tensile strength at 2% strain
ASTM D6637
400 lb/ft (5.8 kN/m)
Tensile strength at
ASTM D6637
800 lb/ft (11.7 kN/m)
5% strain
Ultimate tensile strength
ASTM D6637
1300 lb/ft (19.0 kN/m)
Junction strength
GRI(3) GG2
25 lb (110 N)
Ultraviolet stability
ASTM D4355
50% retained strength after
500 hours of exposure
(1) Strength values are in the weaker principal direction.
(2) Direct measure with caliper.
(3) Geosynthetic Research Institute.
714.04 Reinforcement Geotextile and Geogrid. Furnish reinforcement geotextile manufactured using
long-chain, synthetic polymers, composed at least 95 percent by mass of polyolefins or polyesters. Form
the geotextile, including selvedges, into a stable network such that the filaments or yarns retain their
dimensional stability relative to each other.
Furnish reinforcement geogrid manufactured as a regular network of integrally-connected longitudinal
and transverse polymer tensile elements with a geometry that permits significant mechanical interlock
with the backfill. Provide geogrid composed of fibers or ribs that are at least 95 percent by mass
polypropylene, polyethylene, or polyester. The geogrid structure must remain dimensionally stable
under construction stresses and have a high resistance to damage during construction, to ultraviolet
degradation, and to chemical and biological degradation encountered in the soil being reinforced.
Conform to Tables 714-5 and Table 714-6. Property values represent MARV (that is average test results
of any roll in a lot sampled for conformance or quality assurance testing must meet or exceed the
minimum specified values).
The nominal long-term strength (Tal) is based on:
Tal = Tult/RF
where RF = RFID × RFCR × RFD.
RFID, RFCR, and RFD values must be substantiated by evaluation of independent test results by Highway
Innovative Technology Evaluation Center
(HITEC), AASHTO National Transportation Product
Evaluation Program (NTPEP), or an equivalent third party report. Provide a copy of the report to the
CO. Determine RFID, RFCR, and RFD according to the following:
701
Section 714
(a) RFID: Determine the reduction factor for installation damage from the results of full scale
construction damage tests conducted according to ASTM D5818. Conduct the tests with a soil
having the same maximum particle size, D50, and angularity as the soil to be used for construction.
Tests using coarser soils (same or larger maximum particle size and D50) may be an acceptable
substitution. The CO will make the final determination as to whether the test data based on the
substitute soil is acceptable. Interpolation of RFID will not be allowed, the results for the coarser soils
will be used. The Contractor may elect to perform a test using project specific fill, placement, and
compaction techniques and equipment to determine the RFID. Use a default value of 3.0 if no
installation damage testing has been conducted. The minimum value for RFID is 1.1.
(b) RFCR. Determine the creep reduction factor according to one of the following:
(1) Conventional creep testing according to ASTM D5262; or
(2) A combination of Stepped Isothermal Method (SIM) according to ASTM D6992 and
conventional creep testing. Perform testing and determine creep reduction factors for a 75 year
design life according to the procedures in Appendix D of FHWA-NHI-10-025, Design and
Construction of Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced Soil Slopes - Volume II. If
testing has not been conducted, default values for RFCR are 2.5 for polyester polymer, and 5.0 for
polypropylene or polyethylene polymer.
(c) RFD. For polypropylene or polyethylene geosynthetics conforming to the requirements of Table
714-5, a default reduction factor of
1.1 may be used for RFD. For polyester geosynthetics
conforming to the requirements of Table 714-5, a default reduction factor of 1.15 may be used for
RFD if the soil has a pH between 5 and 8; and a reduction factor of 1.3 may be used if the soil pH is
between 3 and 5 or between 8 and 9.
Table 714-5
Reinforcement Geotextile and Geogrid Polymer Requirements
Polymer Type
Property
Test Method
Specifications
Polypropylene
Thermo-oxidation
ENV ISO 13438,
Minimum 50% retained strength
and polyethylene
resistance
Method A
after 28 days (polypropylene)
(polypropylene)
or 56 days (polyethylene)
or Method B
(polyethylene)
Polyester
Hydrolysis
Inherent Viscosity
Minimum number average
resistance
Method
molecular weight (Mn) of 25,000
ASTM D4603
& GRI (1) GG8
"
GRI (1) GG7
Maximum carboxyl end group
(CEG) of 30
All polymers
Ultraviolet stability
ASTM
Minimum 70% retained strength
D4355
after 500 hours of exposure
Mass per
ASTM
Minimum 8 oz/yd2
unit area
D5261
(270 g/m2)
Percent post
Certification of
Maximum 0%
consumer recycled
material used
material by mass
(1) Geosynthetic Research Institute.
702
Section 714
Table 714-6
Reinforcement Geotextile and Geogrid Strength Requirements
Property
Test
Units
Specifications(1)(2)
Method
Type I
Type II
Type III
Type IV
Type V
Type VI
ASTM
Ultimate
D4595
lb/ft
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
8000
strength (3)
or
(kN/m)
(29.2)
(43.8)
(58.4)
(73.0)
(87.6)
(116.8)
(Tult)
D6637 (4)
Nominal
See
lb/ft
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
4000
long-term
Note (5)
(kN/m)
(14.6)
(21.9)
(29.2)
(36.5)
(43.8)
(58.4)
strength (Tal)
(1) For reinforcement geotextile, also meet the Class 1 strength requirements in Table 714-1 and the ultraviolet
stability requirements in Table 714-5.
(2) The specified strength is in the principal direction of reinforcement (that is perpendicular to the wall or slope
face).
(3) Based on MARV.
(4) ASTM D4595 is for reinforcement geotextile and ASTM D6637 is for geogrid.
(5) See the nominal long-term strength (Tal) formula above.
714.05 Geomembrane. Furnish geomembrane that consists of textured (roughened) surface polyvinyl
chloride, high density polyethylene, or linear low density polyethylene geomembrane with a thickness of
28.5 to 31.5 mils (0.72 to 0.80 millimeters). Glue or weld seams of the geomembrane to prevent leakage.
Conform to Table 714-7.
Table 714-7
Geomembrane Requirements
Geomembrane Type
Test Method
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
ASTM D7176(1)
High density polyethylene (HDPE)
GRI(2) Test Method GM13
Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)
GRI(2) Test Method GM17
(1) The minimum average asperity height is 10 mils (0.25 millimeters). Of 10 readings,
8 of 10 must be greater than or equal to 7 mils (0.18 millimeters) and the lowest
individual reading must be greater than or equal to 5 mils (0.12 millimeters).
(2) Geosynthetic Research Institute.
703
Section 715
Section 715. — PILING
715.01 Untreated Timber Piles. Conform to AASHTO M 168. Fabricate the piles from the following
species (or group) for the sizes and dimensions specified in the contract:
(a) Douglas-fir;
(b) Larch;
(c) Red pine;
(d) Red oak; or
(e) Southern pine.
715.02 Treated Timber Piles. Conform to AASHTO M 133 and AASHTO M 168. Use Douglas-fir or
southern pine.
Use the pressure method procedure prescribed in AWPA. Apply the treatment to the piles after millwork is
completed.
Imprint legible symbols or legend on the end of piles identifying the name of the treating company and
type and year of treatment according to AWPA Standards M1, Standard for the Purchase of Treated Wood
Products and M6 Brands used on Forest Products.
715.03 Concrete Piles. Fabricate piles from Class A (AE) concrete according to Section 552. Conform to
Subsection 709.01 for reinforcing steel. Conform to Subsection 709.02 for prestressing steel.
Construct precast concrete piles according to Section 552. Construct prestressed concrete piles according
to Section 553. When lifting anchors are used, maintain at least a 1-inch (25-millimeter) clearance from
the pile reinforcing steel or prestressing steel.
Use metal, plywood, or dressed lumber forms that are watertight, rigid, and true to line. Use a 1-inch
(25-millimeter) chamfer strip in corners of the forms.
Cast piles separately or, if alternate piles are cast in a tier, cast the intermediate piles at least 4 days after
the adjacent piles are poured. Separate piles cast in tiers with tar paper or other suitable separating
material. Place concrete in each tier in a continuous operation that prevents the formation of stone pockets,
honeycombs, or other defects. Leave forms in place for at least 24 hours.
Make piles straight so when a line is stretched from butt to tip on any face, the line is no more than 1 inch
(25 millimeters) from the face of the pile at any point. Make the pile surface true, smooth, even, and
without honeycombs and voids.
Remove lifting anchors to a depth of at least 1 inch (25 millimeters) below the concrete surface and fill the
resulting hole with concrete. Finish each pile with a Class
1 ordinary surface finish according to
Subsection 552.16. Cure the piles according to Sections 552 and 553 as applicable.
704

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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