STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 17

 

  Главная      Manuals     STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14)

 

Search            copyright infringement  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Content      ..     15      16      17      18     ..

 

 

 

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 17

 

 

Section 629
Securely fasten RECP to the soil by installing staples at a minimum rate of 2 per square yard (2 per
square meter). Significantly higher anchor rates may be necessary in sandy, loose, or wet soils and in
severe applications.
Repair damaged areas immediately by restoring soil to finished grade, re-applying turf establishment, and
replacing the RECP.
629.06 Cellular Confinement Systems. Excavate to the depth of the cellular confinement system and
smooth and compact the slope. Install the top of the system flush or lower than the adjacent slope.
Expand the geocell down the slope. Connect adjacent geocell sections with hog rings or staples in every
other cell.
Anchor the system with wooden stakes across the top at every other cell. Repeat the anchoring
pattern in every tenth row and in the bottom row. Drive stakes to a minimum embedment of 12 inches
(300 millimeters) below the base of the cellular confinement layer.
Backfill the system with topsoil. Hand-compact the topsoil within each cell and apply turf establishment.
629.07 Acceptance. Material for RECP and cellular confinement system will be evaluated under
Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Installation of RECP and cellular confinement systems will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.04.
Topsoil will be evaluated under Section 624.
Turf establishment will be evaluated under Section 625.
Measurement
629.08 Measure the Section 629 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Measure topsoil under Section 624.
Measure turf establishment under Section 625.
Payment
629.09 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
629 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
625
Section 630. — RESERVED
Section 631. — RESERVED
Section 632. — RESERVED
626
Section 633
Section 633. — PERMANENT TRAFFIC CONTROL
Description
633.01 This work consists of installing and removing and resetting permanent traffic control devices.
Sign panels are designated as plywood, steel, aluminum, plastic, fiberglass reinforced plastic, or extruded
aluminum.
Sign posts are designated as wood, aluminum, galvanized steel, or corrosion resistant steel.
Material
633.02 Conform to the MUTCD and the following Section and Subsections:
Delineator and object marker retroreflectors
718.08
Hardware
718.06
Legends and borders
718.07
Minor concrete
601
Object marker and delineator posts
718.05
Panels
718.03
Retroreflective sheeting
718.01
Sign posts
718.04
Construction Requirements
633.03 General. Furnish and install permanent traffic control devices according to the MUTCD and
permanent traffic control plans. Provide traffic control devices that are crashworthy.
Sign locations may be changed to fit field conditions as approved by the CO. Determine sign support
lengths at time of staking.
633.04 Sign Posts. Install sign posts plumb and according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.
Drive sign posts with a suitable driving head or set posts in drilled or punched holes.
Excavate, construct, and backfill concrete footings according to Section 601.
633.05 Sign Panels.
(a) Fabrication.
(1) Panels. Cut panels to dimension shown and place holes before applying retroreflective
material. Do not field drill holes in panels.
Clean and degrease the face of the metal panels using methods recommended by the retroreflective
sheeting manufacturer before applying retroreflective sheeting.
Wipe plastic panels clean with a slightly dampened cloth before applying retroreflective sheeting.
627
Section 633
Abrade, clean, and degrease the face of the plywood panels using methods recommended by the
retroreflective sheeting manufacturer before applying reflective sheeting. Treat plywood panel
edges with sealant.
Join extruded aluminum panel sections with panel nuts, bolts, and washers to achieve the desired
sign size. Use 6- and 12-inch (150- and 300-millimeter) plate heights to achieve the sign panel
vertical dimensions in increments of 6 inches (150 millimeters). Do not include more than one
6-inch (150-millimeter) plate per sign.
Use retroreflective sheeting as specified and according to ASTM D4956. For roadside signs, use
Type III, IV, VIII, IX, or XI prismatic retroreflective sheeting. Use fluorescent yellow sheeting for
warning signs. Use fluorescent yellow-green sheeting for pedestrian, bicycle, and school crossing
signs.
For multilane or overhead guide signs, use Type III or Type IV prismatic retroreflective sheeting
for the background and Type IX or Type XI retroreflective sheeting for the legend.
For parking lot and non-roadway signs, Types I and Type II retroreflective sheeting may be used.
(2) Legends and borders. Form letters, numerals, and other units to provide a continuous stroke
width with smooth edges. Make the surface flat and free of warp, blisters, wrinkles, burrs, and
splinters. Do not fabricate letters, numerals, arrows, symbols, or borders using a red screen ink
process.
Conform to one of the following techniques:
(a) Type L-1 (screen process). Apply letters, numerals, arrows, symbols, borders, and other
features on the sign background by direct or reverse screen process. Apply messages and
borders of a color darker than the sign background by the direct process. Apply messages and
borders of a color lighter than the sign background by the reverse screen process.
Apply screen inks recommended by the ink manufacturer for use on the various types of
retroreflective sheeting. Apply ink that has the same durability and color as specified for that
type of retroreflective sheeting. Apply black screen ink until opaque on retroreflective sheeting.
Perform the screening in a manner to ensure a uniform color and tone, with sharply defined
edges of legends and borders. Do not allow running, streaking, or sagging.
Air dry or bake the signs after screening according to manufacturer’s recommendations to
provide a smooth hard finish.
(b) Type L-2 (transparent films). Apply letters, numerals, arrows, symbols, borders, and other
features on the sign background with colored transparent films. Select durable, electronically
cuttable films coated with a transparent pressure-sensitive adhesive protected by a removable
liner. Use transparent films recommended by the manufacturer within the color requirements
specified for the retroreflective sheeting.
(c) Type L-3 (direct applied characters). Cut letters, numerals, arrows, symbols, borders, and
other features from black opaque or retroreflective sheeting of the color specified. Apply
characters to the sign background according to the retroreflective sheeting manufacturer’s
instructions. Use the same sheeting manufacturer for both the sign legend, border, and
background.
Package sign panels in protective material and transport in a vertical position.
628
Section 633
(b) Installation. Mount sign panels with the legend horizontal.
Use oversized bolt heads and neoprene or nylon washers for fastening plastic sign panels. Use antitheft
fasteners where possible. Paint bolt heads, screw heads, and washers that are exposed on the sign face.
Match the color of the paint to the color of the sheeting at the point where the fitting is exposed.
Turn sign panels 3 degrees away from the road in the direction of travel to reduce specular glare
(mirror reflection).
Cover the sign face with an opaque material if a sign message is not applicable. Maintain the covering
in good condition until the message becomes applicable. Do not use adhesive tape on the sign face.
633.06 Delineators and Object Markers. Attach delineators and object markers to posts according to the
manufacturer’s recommendation or as specified.
633.07 Removing and Resetting Permanent Traffic Control Devices. Remove and store existing traffic
control devices to be reset as necessary. Replace traffic control devices damaged during removal, storage,
and resetting.
633.08 Acceptance. Material for permanent traffic control devices will be evaluated under Subsections
106.02 and 106.03.
Installation of permanent traffic control devices will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Excavation and backfill will be evaluated under Section 209.
Minor concrete will be evaluated under Section 601.
Measurement
633.09 Measure the Section 633 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring sign panels by the square foot (square meter), measure front face. Measure each sign
panel in a multiple configuration.
When measuring sign systems by the square foot (square meter), measure front face of each sign panel.
When measuring sign systems by the each, measure each system as one regardless of the number of sign
panels.
A sign system includes the supports.
When measuring removing and resetting permanent traffic control device, measures after they are reset.
Measure removing and resetting of sign systems as described above.
Payment
633.10 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
633 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
629
Section 634
Section 634. — PERMANENT PAVEMENT MARKINGS
Description
634.01 This work consists of applying paint, markings, and markers on finished pavement.
Pavement markings are designated as follows:
Type A - Solventborne traffic paint with Type 1 glass beads;
Type B - Waterborne traffic paint with Type 1 glass beads;
Type C - High-build waterborne traffic paint with Type 1 and Type 3 glass beads;
Type D - Epoxy markings with Type 1 glass beads;
Type E - Epoxy markings with Type 1 and Type 3 glass beads;
Type H - Thermoplastic markings with Type 1 glass beads;
Type I - Thermoplastic markings with Type 1 and Type 3 glass beads;
Type J - Preformed pavement marking tape; or
Type K - Nonreflectorized markings.
Material
634.02 Conform to the MUTCD and the following Subsections:
Epoxy markings
718.11
Epoxy resin adhesives
718.17
Glass beads
718.14
Pavement markers
718.15
Preformed pavement marking tape
718.13
Solventborne traffic paint
718.09
Thermoplastic markings
718.12
Waterborne traffic paint
718.10
Construction Requirements
634.03 General. Where existing and final pavement marking locations are identical, stake the limits of
existing pavement markings before beginning pavement work.
Submit manufacturer’s MSDS and product data sheets at least 7 days before applying pavement markings.
A field demonstration may be required to verify the adequacy of the material.
Ship marking material in suitable containers plainly marked with the following information as appropriate
for the material being furnished:
(a) Manufacturer’s name and address;
(b) Name of product;
630
Section 634
(c) Lot and batch numbers;
(d) Color;
(e) Net mass and volume of contents;
(f) Date of manufacture;
(g) Date of expiration;
(h) Statement of contents (if mixing of components is required);
(i) Mixing proportions and instructions; and
(j) Safety information.
Establish marking patterns or locations according to the MUTCD, plans, or state requirements. In curve
widening areas, establish the edge line markings at the limits of the traveled way and the centerline
markings equal distance between the edge lines.
Remove loose particles, dirt, tar, grease, and other deleterious material from the surface to be marked.
Where markings are placed on rigid pavement less than 1-year old, clean the pavement of laitance and
curing compounds.
Remove temporary pavement markings the same day permanent pavement markings are applied. Remove
temporary and conflicting pavement makings according to Subsection 635.13 before applying permanent
pavement markings.
Obtain approval before applying markings. Apply markings to a clean, dry surface, and according to the
manufacturer’s recommendations. Produce markings that are clean-cut and uniform in appearance by day
and night.
Current state approved pavement marking material may be used, when approved by the CO. Submit proof
of compliance with state specifications.
Apply glass beads immediately following paint or markings application to ensure adhesion.
Protect markings from traffic until dried to a no-tracking condition. Remove tracking marks, spilled
marking material, markings in unauthorized areas, and defective markings.
634.04 Solventborne Traffic Paint (Type A). Apply paint when pavement and air temperatures are at
35 °F (2 °C) and rising. Do not heat the paint above
120 °F (49 °C). Spray paint at a
15 mil
(0.38 millimeters) minimum wet film thickness or at a rate of 107 square feet per gallon (2.6 square meters
per liter).
Apply Type 1 glass beads on the paint at a rate of 6 to 8 pounds per gallon (0.72 to 0.96 kilograms per
liter) of paint.
On new asphalt pavements or new asphalt surface treatments, apply two applications of paint and glass
beads. Apply second application after first application is track free.
631
Section 634
634.05 Waterborne Traffic Paint (Type B and Type C). Apply paint when pavement and air
temperatures are 50 °F (10 °C) and rising.
(a) Type B. Do not heat the paint above 120 °F (49 °C). Spray paint at a 15 mil (0.38 millimeters)
minimum wet film thickness or at a rate of 107 square feet per gallon (2.6 square meters per liter).
Apply Type 1 glass beads on the paint at a rate of 6 to 8 pounds per gallon (0.72 to 0.96 kilograms per
liter) of paint.
On new asphalt pavements or new asphalt surface treatments, apply two coats.
(b) Type C. Spray paint at 25 mil (0.63 millimeters) minimum wet film thickness or at a rate of
71 square feet per gallon (1.7 square meters per liter).
Use two bead dispensers. Apply Type 3 glass beads on the paint at a rate of 6 to 8 pounds per gallon
(0.72 to 0.960 kilograms per liter) followed by Type 1 glass beads on the paint at a rate of 6 to
8 pounds per gallon (0.72 to 0.96 kilograms per liter) of paint.
634.06 Epoxy Markings (Types D and Type E). Apply epoxy when pavement and air temperatures are
35 °F (2 °C) and rising. Heat components as specified by the manufacturer. Apply at a 25 mil
(0.63 millimeters) minimum dry film thickness or at a rate of 71 square feet per gallon (1.7 square meters
per liter).
(a) Type D. Apply Type 1 glass beads on the epoxy at a rate of 6 to 8 pounds per gallon (0.72 to
0.96 kilograms per liter) of epoxy.
(b) Type E. Use two bead dispensers. Apply Type 3 glass beads on the epoxy at a rate of 6 to 8 pounds
per gallon (0.72 to 0.96 kilograms per liter) of epoxy followed by Type 1 glass beads on the epoxy at a
rate of 6 to 8 pounds per gallon (0.72 to 0.96 kilograms per liter) of epoxy.
634.07 Thermoplastic Markings (Type H and Type I). Apply thermoplastic when pavement and air
temperatures are 50 °F (10 °C) and rising. Heat thermoplastic as specified by the manufacturer.
Apply an epoxy resin primer/sealer according to the thermoplastic manufacturer’s recommendations
when placing markings on rigid pavements or asphalt pavements more than 2-years old, oxidized, or
having exposed aggregates.
Allow the primer/sealer to dry.
For edge lines, apply thermoplastic at 60 mil (1.5 millimeters) dry film thickness. For other lines, apply
thermoplastic at 90 mil (2.3 millimeters) dry film thickness.
(a) Type H. Apply Type 1 glass beads on the thermoplastic at a rate recommended by the
manufacturer.
(b) Type I. Use two bead dispensers. Apply Type 3 glass beads on the thermoplastic followed by
Type 1 glass beads on the thermoplastic at rates recommended by the manufacturer.
634.08 Preformed Pavement Marking Tape (Type J). Install to form a durable, weather resistant bond
to the pavement. Apply preformed markings according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Use
preformed marking tape containing retroreflective beads.
632
Section 634
634.09 Nonreflectorized Markings (Type K). Apply solvent borne or waterborne traffic paint without
glass beads.
634.10 Pavement Markers. Install raised or recessed pavement markers when the pavement and air
temperatures are 50 °F (10 °C) and rising. Apply pavement markers with an epoxy resin adhesive as
recommended by the manufacturer when the pavement is dry. Space the markers according to the
MUTCD and plans.
634.11 Acceptance. Material for permanent pavement markings will be evaluated under Subsections
106.02 and 106.03.
Placing of permanent pavement markings will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
634.12 Measure the Section 634 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When pavement markings are measured by the linear foot (meter), measure the length of line applied
along the centerline of each line applied regardless of color. Measure broken or dotted pavement lines
from end to end of the line including gaps. Measure solid pavement lines from end to end of each
continuous line. Measure line quantities based on a 4-inch (100-millimeter) wide line. For line widths
greater than 4 inches (100 millimeters), adjust the measured length of line in the ratio of the required width
to 4 inches (100 millimeters).
When pavement markings are measured by the square foot (square meter), measure the number of square
feet (square meter) of line, symbol or letter marking based on the marking area shown in the plans. If not
shown, measure the area of each marking in place to the nearest square foot (square meter).
Payment
634.13 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
634 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
633
Section 635
Section 635. — TEMPORARY TRAFFIC CONTROL
Description
635.01 This work consists of furnishing, installing, maintaining, relocating, and removing temporary
traffic control devices and services as ordered for the control and protection of public traffic through the
project.
Advance warning arrow board, barricade, and warning light types are designated in the MUTCD.
Material
635.02 Conform to the MUTCD and the following Sections and Subsections:
Concrete barrier (temporary)
618
Delineator and object marker retroreflectors
718.08(b)
Guardrail (temporary)
617
Retroreflective sheeting
718.01
Sign panels
633.05
Sign posts
633.04
Temporary plastic fence
710.11
Temporary pavement markings
718.16
Construction Requirements
635.03 Qualifications. Provide flaggers certified by ATSSA, the National Safety Council, a state
department of transportation, or other acceptable organization. Use pilot car operators conforming to the
qualifications of a flagger.
635.04 General. Furnish, install, and maintain temporary traffic control devices adjacent to and within the
project as required by the MUTCD, traffic control plan, and Section 156. Install and maintain traffic
control devices as follows:
(a) Furnish and install traffic control devices before the start of construction operations;
(b) Install only those traffic control devices needed for each stage or phase;
(c) Relocate temporary traffic control devices as necessary;
(d) Remove devices that no longer apply to the existing conditions;
(e) Immediately replace devices that are lost, stolen, destroyed, or inoperative;
(f) Keep temporary traffic control devices clean;
(g) Furnish and maintain traffic control devices that meet the "acceptable" standard described in
ATSSA, Quality Standards for Work Zone Traffic Control Devices. Amend the ATSSA standards as
follows:
(1) Repair or remove and replace "marginal" devices within 48 hours; and
634
Section 635
(2) Repair or remove and replace "unacceptable" devices immediately;
(h) Remove temporary traffic control devices upon contract completion or when approved; and
(i) Furnish crashworthy temporary traffic control devices.
635.05 Barricades. Use barricades of the type and size specified or according to the MUTCD. Use Type
III, IV, IX, or XI retroreflective sheeting.
635.06 Cones and Tubular Markers. Use cones or tubular markers of the height specified or according
to the MUTCD. Use Type III or Type VI retroreflective sheeting.
635.07 Construction Signs. Use Type III, IV, VIII, IX, or XI prismatic retroreflective sheeting. Use
fluorescent sheeting for orange signs. For roll-up signs, use florescent Type VI retroreflective sheeting.
Install posts according to Section 633. Portable sign supports may be used instead of sign posts when
approved by the CO.
Remove or completely cover unnecessary signs. Use metal, plywood, or other acceptable material to cover
signs. Do not use adhesives glues, tapes, or mechanical fasteners that mar the face of the panel of the sign
to be covered.
635.08 Drums. Use plastic drums that are at least 36 inches (900 millimeters) high and at least 18 inches
(450 millimeters) in diameter. Use Type III or Type VI retroreflective sheeting.
635.09 Flaggers. Use flaggers certified according to Subsection 635.03. Use Type III, IV, VIII, IX, or XI
retroreflective sheeting on flagger paddles. Do not use flags.
635.10 Pilot Cars. Use pilot car operators certified according to Subsection 635.03. Mount a "PILOT CAR
FOLLOW ME" sign on the rear and a high-intensity, rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe light on the
roof of the pilot car.
635.11 Temporary Barriers. Use temporary barriers that are crashworthy and are new or used provided
they are not badly damaged. Lifting holes no larger than 4 inches (100 millimeters) or lifting loops are
permitted.
Mount white or yellow retroreflectors as applicable, to the top or side of the barrier on 25-foot (8-meter)
centers. Mount the retroreflectors at a uniform height at least 24 inches (600 millimeters) above the road
surface. Flexible barrier delineators or barrier delineation tape may be used instead of retroreflectors when
approved by the CO.
635.12 Temporary Guardrail. Construct temporary guardrail according to Section 617.
Mount white or yellow retroreflectors as applicable, to the top or side of the guardrail on 25-foot (8-meter)
centers. Mount the retroreflectors at a uniform height at least 24 inches (600 millimeters) above the road
surface.
635.13 Temporary Pavement Markings and Delineation. Before opening a pavement surface to traffic,
remove conflicting pavement markings by sandblasting or other methods that do not damage the surface or
texture of the pavement. Make the removal pattern uneven to not perpetuate the outline of the removed
pavement markings. Lightly coat sandblasted or removal areas on asphalt surfaces with emulsified asphalt.
635
Section 635
Place and maintain temporary pavement markings that are neat, crack free, true, straight, and unbroken.
If temporary signs and pavement markers are substituted for temporary pavement markings, install
temporary signs and pavement markers according to the MUTCD and plans.
For temporary pavement markings, use preformed retroreflective tape, traffic paint, or pavement markers
as follows:
(a) Preformed retroreflective tape. Apply according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Remove
loose preformed retroreflective tape before placing additional pavement layers.
(b) Pavement markers. Do not use pavement markers during seasonal suspensions. When chip seals,
slurry seals, or tack coats are used after marker placement, protect the markers with an approved
protective cover, and remove it after the asphalt material is sprayed.
(c) Traffic paint. Do not apply traffic paint to the final surface. Apply traffic paint as the temporary
pavement marking if no work will be performed on the project for at least 30 consecutive days. Apply
traffic paint at a 15 mil (0.38-millimeter) minimum wet film thickness or at a rate of 107 square feet
per gallon (2.6 square meters per liter). Immediately apply Type 1 glass beads on the paint at a
minimum rate of 6 pounds per gallon (0.7 kilograms per liter) of paint.
Remove temporary pavement markers before placing additional pavement layers or permanent pavement
markings. Remove temporary markings after 14 days and apply permanent pavement markings unless
approved by the CO.
635.14 Vertical Panels. Use vertical panels that are at least 24 inches (600 millimeters) in height and 8 to
12 inches (200 to 300 millimeters) wide. Use Type III, IV, VIII, IX, or XI retroreflective sheeting.
635.15 Warning Lights. Use warning lights of the types shown in the plans or according to the MUTCD.
Install warning lights with a minimum mounting height of 30 inches (750 millimeter) to the bottom of the
lens. Secure lights to the top of the traffic control device they are supplementing. Use batteries
recommended by the light manufacturer. Mount large batteries below windshield height and preferably on
the ground. Replace batteries when they no longer provide satisfactory performance.
Use Type C steady-burn warning lights for delineation on barricades or drums. Use Type A low-intensity
flashing warning lights on the first 2 barricades or drums in the merging or shifting taper series. Use Type
B high-intensity flashing warning lights on the first two advance warning signs. Type A and Type C
warning lights are intended to warn road users during nighttime hours, while Type B warning lights are
intended to warn road users during both daylight and nighttime hours.
635.16 Shadow Vehicle. Use a 19,800 pound (9000-kilogram) ± 990 pound (±450 kilogram) shadow
vehicle equipped with a truck-mounted attenuator (crash cushion) attached to the rear of the vehicle,
exterior flashing yellow dome light, and an arrow board.
Use the shadow vehicle to provide physical protection to workers from traffic approaching from the rear
during moving operations.
636
Section 635
Use the following procedures to close a lane of traffic:
(a) Move the shadow vehicle to a point approximately 200 feet (60 meters) from the first advance
warning sign for the lane closure and stop on the shoulder;
(b) Activate the flashing lights and flashing arrow board. Begin the arrow board in the caution mode
and after approximately 2 minutes display the correct flashing pass arrow;
(c) Move the shadow vehicle (now acting as a protection vehicle) along the shoulder to the first sign
location, stopping approximately 100 feet (30 meters) before the sign location in a blocking position;
(d) Place the first sign then proceed to the next advance sign location. Repeat step (c) for the second
sign and install that sign. Repeat this procedure until advance warning signs are installed;
(e) After installing the advanced warning signs for the lane closure, move the shadow vehicle into the
lane that is to be closed to a position 100 feet (30 meters) before the closing taper location. Install the
channelizing devices for the taper in the shielded lane; then
(f) Move the shadow vehicle off the roadway and past the taper on the shoulder and remain in position
until the flashing arrow board for the closure (if one is to be provided) is placed and operating. Move
the shadow vehicle with the workers as they proceed to set up the remaining devices as additional
protection.
Alternate lane closure procedures may be used if approved by the CO.
635.17 Pavement Patch. Use an asphalt mix according to Section 403 or commercial available cold
asphalt mix to repair potholes and rough spots in the traveled way before reopening travel lanes to traffic.
If cold asphalt mix is used, remove and replace with hot asphalt mix before placing succeeding hot asphalt
lifts.
635.18 Temporary Crash Cushions. Use a crashworthy temporary crash cushion according to
manufacturer’s recommendations.
635.19 Temporary Signal System. Use a temporary signal system according to MUTCD Parts 4 and 6.
Provide the names and telephone numbers of at least two emergency contacts who can be reached
24 hours a day, and who are available to arrive on site within 4 hours of notification to repair or replace
malfunctioning temporary signal equipment. In addition, provide for emergency flaggers who can be
reached 24 hours a day, and who are available to perform traffic control operations within the
timeframes specified below until the temporary signal system is operable.
If the traffic signal malfunctions during construction operations, immediately begin traffic control
operations using flaggers until the system is returned to normal signal operation. Complete traffic signal
repairs within 6 hours of the malfunction.
If the traffic signal malfunctions during a period when no construction activity is taking place, begin
traffic control operations using flaggers as soon as possible, but no later than 2 hours after the initial
notification. Continue temporary flagging operations until the system is returned to normal signal
operation. Complete traffic signal repairs within 12 hours of notification.
637
Section 635
No payment will be made for the use of flaggers in place of a malfunctioning or inoperable temporary
signal system.
635.20 Temporary Fence. Use temporary fence according to Section 619.
635.21 Temporary Rumble Strip. Use transverse or longitudinal rumble strips according to the MUTCD
Part 6 to alert drivers of an approaching flagger station or work area.
635.22 Steel Plates. Use 1-inch (25-millimeter) or thicker steel plates capable of safely carrying traffic.
Secure the plates to the pavement to prevent movement.
635.23 Acceptance. Material for temporary traffic control devices will be evaluated under Subsections
106.02 and 106.03.
Vehicles for pilot cars and shadow vehicles will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Placement of temporary traffic control devices will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Temporary traffic control services will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
635.24 Measure the Section 635 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable when ordered by the CO and installed.
When measuring temporary traffic control pay items, measure only one time even if relocated or replaced,
except for pay items paid by the hour.
Measure barricades by the linear foot (meter) of width.
When measuring construction signs by the square foot (square meter), measure front face sign panel. Do
not measure posts and temporary supports.
When there is a pay item for moving temporary barriers, do not measure movement of temporary barriers
for work access or the convenience of the Contractor.
When measuring temporary pavement markings, measure only one application of pavement markings per
lift. When temporary pavement markings are measured by the linear foot or mile (meter or kilometer),
measure the number of linear feet or miles (meters or kilometers) of lines applied along the centerline of
each 4-inch (100-millimeter) wide line applied regardless of color. Measure solid lines from end to end of
each continuous line. Measure broken lines from end to end including gaps. For line widths greater than
4 inches 100 millimeters), adjust the measured length of line in the ratio of the required width to 4 inches
(100 millimeters). When temporary pavement markings are measured by the square foot (square meter),
measure the number of square feet (square meters) of symbols or letter markings based on the marking
area shown in the plans or, if not shown, the area of each marking measured in place to the nearest square
foot (square meter).
When measuring temporary pavement markers, measure only one application of pavement markings per
lift, even if replaced. Measure temporary pavement markers used at the option of the Contractor instead of
temporary pavement markings as equivalent temporary pavement markings and not as temporary
pavement markers.
638
Section 635
When measuring pavement marking removal, measure the actual line removed. Do not measure gaps.
When measuring temporary crash cushions, measure each entire crash cushion configuration.
When there is a pay item for moving temporary crash cushion, do not measure movement of temporary
crash cushion for work access or the convenience of the Contractor.
Measure replacement barrels or cartridges for crash cushions for the barrels or cartridges damaged by
public traffic.
Payment
635.25 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
635 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Progress payments for temporary traffic control devices will be paid as follows:
(a) 50 percent of the pay item amount will be paid upon installation.
(b) An additional 25 percent of the pay item amount will be paid following completion of 50 percent
of the contract amount.
(c) Payment of the remaining portion of the pay item amount will be paid when the temporary traffic
control devices are removed from the project.
Progress payments for pay items paid for by the hour will be paid at 100 percent of the pay item amount
when ordered by the CO and furnished.
639
Section 636
Section 636. — TRAFFIC SIGNAL, TRAFFIC COUNTER, LIGHTING,
AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
Description
636.01 This work consists of installing, modifying, relocating, or removing traffic signals, traffic counter,
flashing beacons, highway lighting, sign illumination, communication conduits, and electrical systems or
provisions for future systems.
Material
636.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Backer rod
712.01(f)
Electrical material
721.01
Joint sealant and crack fillers
712.01(a)
Lighting material
721.02
Underground concrete utility structures
725.09(d)
Construction Requirements
636.03 Regulations and Codes. Furnish material and workmanship conforming to the standards of the
National Electrical Code, local safety code, UL, and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association
(NEMA).
Obtain permits, arrange for inspections, and pay fees necessary to obtain electrical service.
Furnish luminaires with crashworthy supports.
Notify the CO, local traffic enforcement agency, utility companies, or railroad company at least 7 days
before operational shutdown to coordinate connections or disconnections to an existing utility or system.
636.04 General. At the preconstruction conference, submit a certified cost breakdown for all lump sum
items for use in making progress payments and price adjustments.
Submit a list of proposed equipment and material 14 days before installation. Include the manufacturer’s
name, size, and identification number of each item. Supplement the list with scale drawings, catalog cuts,
and wiring diagrams showing locations and details of equipment and wiring.
The CO will approve the exact locations of the systems.
Remove structures and obstructions according to Section 203. Salvage material acceptable for reuse in the
work. Excavate and backfill according to Section 209. Construct concrete according to Section 601.
Where roadways are to remain open to traffic and existing systems will be modified, maintain the existing
systems in operation until final connection to the modified circuit to minimize traffic disruptions.
640
Section 636
636.05 Conduit. Cut conduit so the ends are smooth. Connect conduit sections with couplings to butt the
ends of both conduits squarely against each other inside the couplings. Provide a metal expansion and
deflection fitting where conduit crosses a structural expansion joint.
Install conduits continuous between outlets with at least couplings to permit pulling conductors. End
conduit with bell fittings or bushings. Furnish pull wires for conduits designated for future cable
installation.
Remove and replace crushed, deformed, or damaged conduit. Maintain conduits clean and dry and protect
ends of conduit with plugs, caps, or fittings.
Size pull boxes to provide for termination of the conduit and connection of the conductors.
636.06 Traffic Signal and Lighting Systems. Furnish systems according to the MUTCD or state
adopted supplements to the MUTCD for the state in which the system is located. Design systems to
operate according to NEMA.
Design the control unit to energize the lighting circuit upon failure of any component of its circuit. Furnish
a control with an "on" level adjustable between 1 and 5 foot candles (11 and 54 lux). Operate luminaires
with a series circuit distribution system at a potential not exceeding 2400 volts.
Control lights and luminaires by photocell controls. For current less than or equal to 10 amperes, furnish
a photocell switch. For current greater than 10 amperes, furnish a photocell switch operating a magnetic
relay for switching the lighting circuit.
636.07 Traffic Counter. Locate and install traffic counters as shown in the plans.
Mount and orient the cabinet to provide an unobstructed, direct line of sight to the roadways that contain
count station and vehicle detection equipment when cabinet door is opened. Install traffic counter and
communications devices inside cabinet.
Identify and label loop wires inside each pull box in which the loop wires enter. Maintain consistent
wiring identification and labeling when entering the cabinet and with connection to the traffic counter.
Use water resistant material for wiring identification and labeling. Obtain approval for loop wire
assignments at all locations.
Before powering-on equipment within the cabinet provide a copy of the following:
(a) Voltages for power supplies to include, but not limited to electrical meter, solar panel, batteries,
and communications devices, and
(b) Telephone number and/or IP address for all communication devices.
636.08 Traffic Loop. Do not install loops when the pavement is wet. Saw cut, wire, and seal for loop
wires on the same day. Do not allow vehicular traffic to pass over an open saw cut unless protected.
641
Section 636
Saw clean, smooth, well-defined, 5/16-inch (8-millimeter) wide and 1¾-inch (45-millimeter) deep cuts
without damaging the adjacent pavement. Overlap saw cuts to provide full depth at corners. Saw cut the
lead-in to the pull box as close as possible to the edge of pavement. Thoroughly clean the saw cut of
foreign material by sandblasting, waterblasting, or mechanical wire brushing. Repeat the process until a
new, clean concrete face is exposed. Dry the joint with compressed air.
Install the loop wire in one continuous length at the bottom of the cut. Install without kinks, curls, or other
damage to the wire or its insulation. Replace damaged wires. Hold the loop wire in place with 24-inch
(600-millimeter) long backer rods.
Where the loop wire crosses a crack or joint, use a plastic sleeve that extends 4 inches (100 millimeters) on
each side of the crack or joint. Provide extra loop wire in the sleeve for joint expansion and contraction.
Twist the loop lead-in wires 5 turns per foot (16.5 turns per meter) from the loop to the pull box. Color
code the wires of each loop for identification of separate loops. Coil 36 inches (900 millimeters) of lead-in
pair slack in the pull box for each loop.
Before applying sealant, test the loop and lead-in for continuity and resistance by applying a 1000-volt
megohmmeter between each end of the loop lead-in and the nearest reliable electrical ground. If no
available ground exists, establish a ground for the measurement. Record the location and megohmmeter
readings and submit readings and test equipment data. Replace the loop if the megohmmeter reading is
less than 10 megohms or the inductance is less than 60 microhenries or more than 100 microhenries.
Apply sealant to the saw cuts with the backer rods in place. Apply the sealant in a manner that does not
produce air bubbles. Remove excess sealant and finish level with the pavement. Follow the manufacturer’s
instructions for sufficient time for the sealant to harden before allowing traffic to cross the loops.
Repeat the resistance and continuity test after sealant is applied. Report the second test for comparison
with the first test report.
636.09 Testing and Demonstration Period. Before energizing portions of the system, demonstrate that
the conductor system is clear and free of short circuits, open circuits, and unintentional grounds. Repair or
replace faulty circuits.
After energizing the system, demonstrate that all electrical components work properly. Repair or replace
faulty electrical components.
After completing electrical component tests, conduct a demonstration test for 30 continuous days. Adjust
and correct deficiencies in the system during the 30-day demonstration period. If part of the system is
replaced or repaired, retest that part of the system for an additional 30 days.
636.10 Warranties, Guarantees, and Instruction Sheets. When installations are permanent, deliver
manufacturer’s warranties, guarantees, instruction sheets, and parts lists at the final inspection.
636.11 Relocations. Use material equivalent to existing material, unless present codes require different or
improved material. Existing material may be salvaged and reused, provided material and installation
methods used meet the requirements of applicable codes and ordinances.
636.12 Acceptance. Material for traffic signal, traffic counter, lighting and electrical systems will be
evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
642
Section 636
Installation of traffic signal, traffic counter, lighting and electrical systems will be evaluated under
Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Structural excavation and backfill will be evaluated under Section 209.
Concrete will be evaluated under Section 601.
Measurement
636.13 Measure the Section 636 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
For relocations, do not measure additional line or connections necessary to place the fixture at the new
location.
Payment
636.14 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
636 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Payment for lump sum pay items will be prorated based on the total work completed.
643
Section 637
Section 637. — FACILITIES AND SERVICES
Description
637.01 This work consists of furnishing, installing, maintaining, and removing facilities and services.
Construction Requirements
637.02 General. Provide the facilities and services beginning 14 days before project work begins and
ending 21 days after final acceptance.
Facilities and services are for the exclusive use of Government personnel and are subject to approval.
Conform to applicable ordinances, safety codes, and regulations.
If facilities or services become defective, are stolen, or for other reasons do not function as intended; repair
or provide a replacement. Repair or replace facilities and services within 8 hours after being notified by the
CO. Repairs and replacements are subject to approval.
Remove facilities and services when directed by the CO.
637.03 Facilities. Perform site work to accommodate facilities and restore to its original condition upon
removal. Furnish safe, sanitary, weatherproof buildings or trailers in good condition. Suitable commercial
or private facilities located near the project may be provided.
(a) Field office. Furnish and maintain a field office according to Tables 637-1 and 637-2.
(b) Residential housing. Furnish and maintain residential housing according to Tables 637-1 and
637-2. When the unit is part of a larger building, separate units with partitions and furnish separate
outside doors with locks.
644
Section 637
Table 637-1
Minimum Requirements for Field Facilities and Associated Services
Field
Residential
Property
Office
Housing
Floor space, square feet (square meter)
400
500
(37)
(46)
Locking outside door, deadbolt with keys
1
1
Steps with slip-proof tread and handrails
(1)
(1)
Windows with locks
2
3
Total window area, square feet (square meter)
30
60
(2.8)
(5.6)
Ceiling height, 7 feet (2.1 meters)
Rooms including toilet room
4
5(2)
Room size, except toilet room, square feet (square meter)
100
100
(9)
(9)
Closet, 45-cubic foot (1.2 cubic meter)
2
Shelves, 12-inch (300-millimeter) depth, square feet (square
12
12
meter)
(1.1)
(1.1)
Electrical lighting
Heat and air conditioning, maintain temperature of 72±7 °F
(22±4 °C)
Adequate electrical outlets
Surge protectors
Adequate electricity
(120 and 240 V, 60 cycle as applicable)
Adequate potable water supply
Drinking water cooler with water supply
Sink with faucets for both hot and cold water
Adequate hot and cold water supply
Shower/bath facilities
Parking for three vehicles on gravel surface
6-foot (1.8 millimeter) high chain link fence with gate
around building and parking area
(1) As required by local code.
(2) Includes two bedrooms.
645
Section 637
Table 637-2
Minimum Facility Furnishings
Field
Residential
Property
Office
Housing
Table, 30-inch wide × 8-foot long × 30-inch high
1
(750 mm wide × 2.4 m long × 750 mm high)
File cabinet, 2-drawer, fire resistant, metal, with lock and keys
1
File cabinet, 4-drawer, metal
1
Desk, 12-square foot (1.1 square meter)(1)
2
Desk lamp(1)
2
Office chair(1)
5
Storage cabinet, 6-feet wide × 36-inch wide × 18-inch high
1
(1.8 m wide × 900 mm wide × 450 mm high)
Fire extinguisher
1
2
Refrigerator, 10-cubic foot (0.28 cubic meter)
1
Range and oven, standard 36-inch (900-millimeter)
1
Microwave oven, 1.1 cubic foot (0.031 cubic meter), 1100 watt
1
Kitchen table with 4 chairs
1 set
Sofa, 6-foot (1.8-meter)
1
Coffee table
1
Recliner chair
2
End table
3
Table lamp
3
Queen bed
2
Night stand
4
Night stand lamp
4
Dresser, four-drawer, 36-inch (900-millimeter)
2
(1) Meet accepted industry standards for ergonomics.
637.04 Services.
(a) Facilities. Furnish electrical service, potable water supply, toilet accommodations and waste
disposal services. Remove snow and provide landscaping services as directed by the CO. Pay bills
associated with facilities by the payment due date.
(b) Communications. Provide internet, wireless phone, or landline telephone services of the latest
available technology. Pay bills from the service provider by the payment due date. The Government
will pay the cost of long distance telephone calls.
637.05 Acceptance. Facilities and services will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
646
Section 637
Measurement
637.06 Measure the Section 637 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
637.07 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
637 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Progress payments for facilities and services will be paid as follows:
(a) 60 percent of the pay item amount will be paid upon installation and acceptance for occupancy.
(b) Payment of the remaining 40 percent of the pay item amount will be paid after final acceptance or
when the CO orders the removal of the facilities and services.
647
648
DIVISION 700
MATERIAL
649
Section 701
Section 701. — CEMENT
701.01 Hydraulic Cement. Do not mix cement brands or types.
(a) Portland cement. Conform to AASHTO M 85.
(b) Blended hydraulic cement. Conform to AASHTO M 240.
701.02 Masonry and Mortar Cement.
(a) Masonry cement. Conform to ASTM C91, Type N, Type S, or Type M.
(b) Mortar cement. Conform to ASTM C1329, Type N, Type S, or Type M.
650
Section 702
Section 702. — ASPHALT MATERIAL
702.01 Asphalt Binder. Conform to AASHTO M 226 or AASHTO M320.
702.02 Emulsified Asphalt. Conform to AASHTO M 140 or AASHTO M 208.
(a) Polymer modified cationic emulsified asphalt for chip seals. Use a solid or latex polymer
added either to the asphalt binder or during the emulsification process. Conform to AASHTO
M 316, except as follows:
(1) Force ratio, f2/f1, 39.2 °F (4 °C), 5 cm/min, AASHTO T 300
0.3 min.
(2) Elastic recovery, 77 °F (25 °C), 5 cm/min, AASHTO T 301
50 % min.
(3) CRS-2P, penetration, 77 °F (25 °C), 100 g, 5 sec,
90 to 150
AASHTO T 49
(4) CRS-2hP, penetration, 77 °F (25 °C), 100 g, 5 sec,
50 to 90
AASHTO T 49
(b) Polymer-modified emulsified asphalt for micro-surfacing. Conform to ISSA A143, except
use Section 6, Emulsified Asphalt Residue by Evaporation of AASHTO T 59 to determine percent
residue.
(c) Penetrating emulsified asphalt for prime coat. Conform AASHTO T 59, except as modified
by Table 702-1.
Table 702-1
Penetrating Emulsion for Prime Coat
Minimum
Maximum
Requirements for Emulsion
Viscosity, Saybolt Furol at 122 °F (50 °C), sec
15
150
Settlement, 24-hours, %
1
Residue by evaporation, %
62
Requirements for Residue
Penetration, 77 °F (25 °C), 100 g, 5 sec, AASHTO T 49
40
200
Solubility in trichloroethylene, %, AASHTO T 44
97.5
702.03 Material for Dampproofing and Waterproofing Concrete and Masonry Surfaces.
(a) Primer. Conform to ASTM D41 for asphalt membranes. Furnish a neoprene-based primer for use
with rubberized asphalt membrane. Furnish a resin- or solvent-based primer for use with the modified
bitumen membrane.
If preformed membrane sheets are used, furnish primers of a type recommended by the manufacturer.
(b) Asphalt. For mop coat, conform to ASTM D449, Type I or Type II.
(c) Waterproofing fabric. Furnish asphalt saturated fabric conforming to ASTM D173.
651
Section 702
If preformed membrane sheet is used, furnish either the rubberized asphalt type or the modified
bitumen type. The rubberized asphalt type consists of a rubberized asphalt sheet reinforced with a
polyethylene film or mesh. The modified bitumen sheet type consists of a polymer modified bitumen
sheet reinforced with a stitch-bonded polyester fabric or fiberglass mesh. Conform to Table 702-2 or
702-3.
Table 702-2
Preformed Membrane Sheet for Surfaces Other Than Bridge Decks
Property
Test
Value
Rubberized
Modified
Asphalt Type
Bitumen Type
Tensile strength in
ASTM
20 lb/in
20 lb/in
machine direction
D882
(3.5 kN/m)
(3.5 kN/m)
Elongation at
ASTM
150% at
25% at
break in machine
D882
73.4 °F
73.4 °F
direction
(23 °C)
(23 °C)
Pliability
ASTM
No cracks
No cracks
D146(1)
Thickness,
-
60 mil
60 mil
minimum
(1.52 mm)
(1.52 mm)
Softening point,
ASTM
165 °F
210 °F
minimum
D36(1)
(74 °C)
(99 °C)
(1) Base ASTM D146 on a 180-degree bend over a 4.0-inch (100-mm) mandrel at 10 °F (-12 °C).
Table 702-3
Preformed Membrane Sheet for Bridge Decks
Property
Test
Value
Rubberized
Modified
Asphalt Type
Bitumen Type
Tensile strength in
ASTM
50 lb/in
40 lb/in
machine direction
D882
(8.75 kN/m)
(7.0 kN/m)
Elongation at
ASTM
15% at
10% at
break in machine
D882
73.4 °F
73.4 °F
direction
(23 °C)
(23 °C)
Pliability
ASTM
No cracks
No cracks
D146(1)
Thickness,
-
65 mils
70 mils
minimum
(1.65 mm)
(1.65 mm)
Softening point,
ASTM
165 °F
210 °F
minimum
D36(1)
(74 °C)
(99 °C)
(1) Base ASTM D146 on a 180-degree bend over a 4.0-inch (100-mm) mandrel at 10 °F (-12 °C).
(d) Mastic. Furnish mastic consisting of a rubberized asphalt cold-applied joint sealant for use with
preformed rubberized sheets. Furnish mastic consisting of a blend of bituminous and synthetic resins
for use with modified bitumen sheet.
(e) Asphalt roll roofing. Conform to ASTM D6380, Class M, Type II.
652
Section 702
702.04 Asphalt Mastic. Conform to AASHTO M 243.
702.05 Antistrip Additive. Conform to the following:
(a) Type 1. Furnish commercially produced, heat stable liquid products that when added to an asphalt
have the chemical and physical properties to prevent separation of the asphalt from aggregates.
(b) Type 2. Furnish cement conforming to Subsection 701.01 or fly ash conforming to Subsection
725.04(a).
(c) Type 3. Furnish lime conforming to AASHTO M 303.
702.06 Mineral Fiber. Conform to the following:
(a) Fiber length
¼-in (6-mm) max. mean test value
The fiber length is determined according to the Bauer McNett fractionation.
(b) Fiber thickness
0.0002-in (5-µm) max. mean test value
The fiber diameter is determined by measuring at least 200 fibers in a phase contrast microscope.
(c) Shot content
Table 702-4
Table 702-4
Mineral Fiber Shot Content(1)
Nominal Maximum Size
Sieve Size
Percent Passing
No. 60 (250 µm)
90±5
No. 230 (63 µm)
70±10
(1) Shot content is a measure of non-fibrous material. The shot content is
determined on vibrating sieves. See ASTM C612 for additional information.
653
Section 703
Section 703. — AGGREGATE
703.01 Fine Aggregate for Concrete. Furnish sand conforming to AASHTO M 6, Class B, except as
amended or supplemented by the following:
(a) Material passing No. 200 (75-µm) sieve,
3.0 percent max.
AASHTO T 11
(b) Alkali-silica reactivity. Test the aggregate
for alkali silica reaction and conform to one of
the following (1) through (5):
(1) Alkali-silica reactivity, ASTM C1260
≤ 0.10 percent at 16 days after casting
(2) Alkali-silica reactivity, ASTM C1260
0.11 percent to 0.20 percent
at 16 days after casting
And one of the following examinations:
(a) Petrographic examination of aggregates,
Favorable report for use
ASTM C295, performed within 1 year
from time of submittal
(b) Petrographic examination of hardened
Favorable report for use
concrete, ASTM C856, performed
on ASTM C1260 specimens after test
(3) Alkali-silica reactivity with cementitious
≤ 0.10 percent at 16 days after casting
material, ASTM C1567, performed on approved
mix design mass percent combinations. Do not
use lithium compounds as mitigation measures
(4) Alkali silica reaction, ASTM C1293
< 0.04 percent at 12 months
(5) Alkali-silica reaction with cementitious material,
< 0.04 percent at 24 months
ASTM C1293, performed on approved mix design
mass percent combinations
For lightweight fine aggregate, conform to AASHTO M 195.
703.02 Coarse Aggregate for Concrete. Conform to AASHTO M 80, Class A, except as amended or
supplemented by the following:
(a) Los Angeles abrasion, AASHTO T 96
40 percent max.
(b) Grading, AASHTO M 43
All sizes, except Size Numbers
8, 89, 9, or 10
(c) Alkali-silica reactivity
See Subsection 703.01(b)
654
Section 703
For bridge decks or surface courses, do not use aggregates known to polish or carbonate aggregates
containing less than 25 percent by mass of insoluble residue as determined by ASTM D3042.
For lightweight coarse aggregate, conform to AASHTO M 195.
703.03 Granular Backfill. Furnish aggregate for the following installations.
(a) Underdrain pipe with geotextile. Furnish granular backfill conforming to AASHTO M 80,
Class E and AASHTO M 43, Size Number 3, 4, 5, 57, 67, or 7.
(b) Underdrain pipe without geotextile. Furnish granular backfill conforming to AASHTO M 6,
except the soundness test is not required.
703.04 Reserved.
703.05 Subbase, Base, and Surface Course Aggregate.
(a) General. Furnish hard, durable particles or fragments of crushed stone, crushed slag, or crushed
gravel conforming the following:
(1) Los Angeles abrasion, AASHTO T 96
50 percent max.
(2) Soundness of aggregate using sodium sulfate,
12 percent loss max.
AASHTO T 104 (5 cycles)
(3) Durability index (coarse), AASHTO T 210
35 min.
(4) Durability index (fine), AASHTO T 210
35 min.
(5) Fractured faces, ASTM D5821
50 percent min.
(6) Without organic matter and lumps or balls of clay.
(b) Subbase or base aggregate. In addition to Subsection 703.05(a), conform to the following:
(1) Gradation
Table 703-2
(2) Liquid limit, AASHTO T 89
25 max.
655
Section 703
Table 703-2
Target Value Ranges for Subbase and Base Gradation
Sieve Size
Percent by Mass Passing Designated Sieve (AASHTO T 27 and T 11)
Grading Designation
A (Subbase)
B (Subbase)
C (Base)
D (Base)
E (Base)
2½ inch (63 mm)
100(1)
2 inch (50 mm)
97 - 100(1)
100(1)
100(1)
1½ inch (37.5 mm)
97 - 100(1)
1 inch (25 mm)
65 - 79 (6)
80 - 100 (6)
100(1)
¾ inch (19 mm)
64 - 94 (6)
86 - 100 (6)
100(1)
½ inch (12.5 mm)
45 - 59 (7)
⅜ inch (9.5 mm)
40 - 69 (6)
51 - 82 (6)
62 - 90 (6)
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
28 - 42 (6)
40 - 60 (8)
31 - 54 (6)
36 - 64 (6)
36 - 74 (6)
No. 40 (425 µm)
9 - 17 (4)
12 - 26 (4)
12 - 26 (4)
No. 200 (75 µm)
4.0 - 8.0 (3)
4.0 - 12.0 (4)
4.0 - 7.0 (3)
4.0 - 7.0 (3)
4.0 - 7.0 (3)
(1) Statistical procedures do not apply.
( ) The value in the parentheses is the allowable deviation (±) from the target values.
(c) Surface course aggregate. In addition to Subsection 703.05(a), conform to the following:
(1) Gradation
Table 703-3
(2) Liquid limit, AASHTO T 89, Method A
35 max.
(3) Plasticity index, AASHTO T 90
10±3
Do not furnish material that contains asbestos fibers.
Table 703-3
Target Value Ranges for Surface Course Gradations
Sieve Size
Percent by
Mass Passing Designate Sieve
(AASHTO T 27 & AASHTO T 11)
1 inch (25 mm)
100(1)
½ inch (12.5 mm)
70 - 80 (5)
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
40 - 50 (7)
No. 10 (2.0 mm)
25 - 40 (6)
No. 40 (425 µm)
15 - 25 (5)
No. 200 (75 µm)
8.0 - 14.0 (4)
(1) Statistical procedures do not apply.
( ) The value in the parentheses is the allowable deviation (±) from the target
values.
656
Section 703
703.06 Crushed Aggregate. Furnish hard, durable particles or fragments of crushed stone or gravel
conforming to the size and quality requirements for crushed aggregate material normally used locally in
the construction and maintenance of highways by Federal or state agencies. Furnish crushed aggregate
with a maximum size of 1 inch (25 millimeters) as determined by AASHTO T 27 and AASHTO T 11.
Furnish crushed aggregate uniformly graded from coarse to fine and free of organic matter, lumps or balls
of clay, and other deleterious material.
703.07 Asphalt Concrete Aggregate. Furnish hard, durable particles or fragments of
crushed
stone,
crushed slag, or crushed gravel conforming to the following:
(a) Los Angeles abrasion, AASHTO T 96
35 percent max.
(b) Soundness of aggregate using sodium sulfate,
AASHTO T 104 (5 cycles):
(1) Coarse aggregate
12 percent loss max.
(2) Fine aggregate
12 percent loss max.
(c) Fractured faces, ASTM D5821
90 percent min.
(d) Fine aggregate angularity, AASHTO T 304,
40.0 percent min.
Method A
(e) Flat and elongated particles, ASTM D4791
10 percent max.
(1:5 ratio, plus ⅜-inch (9.5-mm) sieve, calculated
by mass, weighted average)
(f) Sand equivalent, AASHTO T 176,
45 min.
Alternative Method No. 2, Reference Method
(g) Gradation. Size, grade and combine the aggregate fractions in mix proportions that result in a
composite blend conforming to the specified gradation. Nominal maximum size is one sieve size
greater than the first sieve to retain more than 10 percent of the combined aggregate. Test according
to AASHTO T 27 and AASHTO T 11. Volumetric asphalt concrete aggregate gradation. See Table
703-4.
For the surface course, do not use aggregates known to polish or carbonate aggregates containing less than
25 percent by mass of insoluble residue when tested according to ASTM D3042.
657
Section 703
Table 703-4
Asphalt Concrete Aggregate Gradation
Sieve
Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size - Percent Passing
Size
Grading Designation
1 inch
¾ inch
½ inch
⅜ inch
No. 4
(25 mm)
(19 mm)
(12.5 mm)
(9.5 mm)
(4.75 mm)
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max.
2 inch (50 mm)
1½ inch (37.5 mm)
100
1 inch (25 mm)
90
100
100
¾ inch (19 mm)
90
90
100
100
½ inch (12.5 mm)
90
90
100
100
⅜ inch (9.5 mm)
90
90
100
100
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
90
95
100
No. 8 (2.36 mm)
19
45
23
49
28
58
32
67
70
80
No. 16 (1.18 mm)
No. 30 (600 µm)
No. 50 (300 µm)
No. 200 (75 µm)
1.0
7.0
2.0
8.0
2.0
10.0
2.0
10.0
4.0
10.0
* Contractor specified target values. See Table 703-5 for allowable deviations.
658
Section 703
Table 703-5
Allowable Deviation Based on Target Value
Percent by Mass Passing
Allowable
Minimum
Maximum
Deviation
70.1
89.9
4
60.1
70.0
5
55.1
60.0
6
45.1
55.0
7
40.1
45.0
6
30.1
40.0
5
21.1
30.0
4
8.1
21.0
3
0
8.0
2
703.08 Open-Graded Asphalt Friction Course Aggregate. Furnish hard, durable particles or fragments
of crushed stone, crushed slag, or crushed gravel conforming to the following:
(a) Los Angeles abrasion, AASHTO T 96
35 percent max.
(b) Soundness of aggregate using sodium sulfate,
12 percent loss max.
AASHTO T 104 (5 cycles), coarse aggregate
(c) Fractured faces, ASTM D5821 (two or more)
75 percent min.
(d) Gradation
Table 703-6
Table 703-6
Target Value Ranges for
Open Graded Friction Course Aggregate Gradation
Sieve
Percent by Mass Passing
Size
Designated Sieve
(AASHTO T 27 & T 11)
Grading Designation
A
B
½ inch (12.5 mm)
-
100
⅜ inch (9.5 mm)
100
95 - 100
No. 4 (4.75 mm)*
30 - 45
50 - 70
No. 8 (2.36 mm)*
5 - 15
5 - 15
No. 200 (75 µm)*
2.0
- 5.0
2.0
- 5.0
* Contractor specified target values. See Table
703-5 for allowable
deviations.
659
Section 703
703.09 Chip Seal Aggregate. Furnish hard durable particles or fragments of crushed gravel, crushed
stone, crushed slag, or lightweight aggregates. Use only one type of aggregate on the surface treatment.
Conform to the following:
(a) Gradation
Table 703-7
(b) Clay lumps and friable particles, AASHTO T 112
1.0 percent max.
(c) Flat and elongated particles, ASTM D4791
10 percent max.
(1:3 ratio, plus ⅜-inch (9.5-mm) sieve, calculated
by mass, weighted average)
(d) Fractured faces, ASTM D5821
90 percent min.
(e) Los Angeles abrasion, AASHTO T 96
40 percent max.
(f) Soundness of aggregate using sodium sulfate,
12 percent loss max.
AASHTO T 104 (5 cycles)
Table 703-7
Target Value Ranges for
Single and Double Course Chip Seal Aggregate Gradation
Sieve
Percent by Mass Passing Designated Sieve
Size
(AASHTO T 27 & AASHTO T 11)
Grading Designation
A
B
C
D
1½ inch (37.5 mm)
1 inch (25 mm)
100 (1)
¾ inch (19 mm)
90 - 100 (3)
100 (1)
½ inch (12.5 mm)
0 - 35 (5)
90 − 100 (3)
100 (1)
⅜ inch (9.5 mm)
0 - 12 (3)
0 - 35 (5)
85 - 100 (3)
100 (1)
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
0 - 12 (3)
0 - 35 (5)
85 - 100 (3)
No. 8 (2.36 mm)
0 - 8 (3)
0 - 23 (4)
No. 200 (75 µm)
0.0 - 1.0 (0.5)
0.0 - 1.0 (0.5)
0.0 - 1.0 (0.5)
0.0 - 1.0 (0.5)
(1) Statistical procedures do not apply.
( ) The value in the parentheses is the allowable deviation (±) from the target values.
703.10 Slurry Seal and Micro Surfacing Aggregate. Furnish hard durable particles or fragments of
crushed gravel or crushed stone.
(a) Slurry seal aggregate. Conform to ISSA A105 and the following:
(1) Gradation
Table 703-8
(2) Los Angeles abrasion, AASHTO T 96, Grading D
35 percent max.
660
Section 703
(3) Sand equivalent, AASHTO T 176,
45 min.
Alternate Method No. 2, Reference Method
(4) Soundness of aggregate using sodium sulfate,
15 percent loss max.
AASHTO T 104 (5 cycles)
(b) Micro surfacing aggregate. Conform to ISSA A143 and the following:
(1) Gradation
Table 703-8
(2) Los Angeles abrasion, AASHTO T 96, Grading D
30 percent max.
(3) Sand equivalent AASHTO T 176,
65 min.
Alternate Method No. 2, Reference Method
(4) Soundness of aggregate using sodium sulfate,
15 percent loss max.
AASHTO T 104 (5 cycles)
Table 703-8
Micro Surfacing and Slurry Seal Aggregate
Gradation
Sieve
Percent by Mass Passing Designated
Size
Sieve (AASHTO T 27 & AASHTO T 11)
Grading Designation
I
II
III
⅜ inch (9.5 mm)
100
100
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
100
90 − 100
70 − 90
No. 8 (2.36 mm)
90 - 100
65 − 90
45 − 70
No. 16 (1.18 mm)
65 - 90
45 − 70
28 − 50
No. 30 (600 µm)
40 - 65
30 − 50
19 − 34
No.50 (300 µm)
25 - 42
18 − 30
12 − 25
No. 100 (150 µm)
15 − 30
10 − 21
7 − 18
No. 200 (75 µm)
10.0 − 20.0
5.0 − 15.0
5.0 − 15.0
703.11 Reserved.
703.12 Blotter. Furnish sound durable particles of gravel or crushed stone conforming to the following:
(a) Material passing ⅜-inch (9.5-mm) sieve,
100 percent
AASHTO T 27
(b) Liquid limit, AASHTO T 89, Method A
25 max.
(c) Without organic matter and clay balls.
703.13 Aggregate for Aggregate-Topsoil Course. Conform to AASHTO M 80, Class E and AASHTO
M 43, Size Number 57.
661
Section 703
703.14 Sand. Furnish clean material conforming to the following:
(a) Gradation
AASHTO M 6
(b) Deleterious material
AASHTO M 6, Class B
703.15 Aggregate for Lean Concrete Backfill. Furnish hard, clean, durable, nonplastic, nonorganic,
nonreactive aggregate to meet the designated gradation in Table 703-10.
Table 703-10
Aggregate for Lean Concrete Backfill
Sieve
Percent by Mass Passing
Size
Designated Sieve
(AASHTO T 27 & T 11)
1 inch (25 mm)
100
No. 200 (75 µm)
0.0
- 10.0
703.16 Shotcrete Aggregate. Combine fine and coarse aggregates to meet the designated gradation in
Table 703-11.
Table 703-11
Shotcrete Gradation Limits for Combined Aggregates
Sieve
Percent by Mass Passing Designated Sieve
Size
(AASHTO T 27 & AASHTO T 11)
Grading Designation
A
B
½ inch (12.5 mm)
100
⅜ inch (9.5 mm)
100
90 - 100
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
95 - 100
70 - 85
No. 8 (2.36 mm)
80 - 98
50 - 70
No. 16 (1.18 mm)
50 - 85
35 - 55
No. 30 (600 µm)
25 - 60
20 - 35
No. 50 (300 µm)
10 - 30
8 - 20
No. 100 (150 µm)
2.0
- 10.0
2.0
- 10.0
(a) Fine aggregate. Conform to AASHTO M 6, Class B, except as amended or supplemented by the
following:
(1) Material passing No. 200 (75-µm) sieve,
3.0 percent max.
AASHTO T 11
(2) Sand equivalent value, AASHTO T 176,
75 min.
Alternate Method No. 2, Reference Method
(3) Alkali-silica reactivity
See Subsection 703.01(b)
(b) Coarse aggregate. Conform to AASHTO M 80, Class A, except as amended or supplemented by
the following:
(1) Los Angeles abrasion, AASHTO T 96
40 percent max.
662
Section 703
(2) Alkali-silica reactivity
See Subsection 703.01(b)
703.17 Granular Rock Backdrain. Furnish hard, durable rock conforming to the following:
(a) Los Angeles abrasion, AASHTO T 96
50 percent max.
(b) Apparent specific gravity, AASHTO T 85
2.50 min.
(c) Absorption, AASHTO T 85
4.0 percent max.
(d) Durability index (course), AASHTO T 210
50 min.
(e) Gradation
Table 703-12
Table 703-12
Granular Rock Backdrain Gradation
Sieve Size
Percent by Mass Passing
Designated Sieve
(AASHTO T 27 & AASHTO T 11)
6 inch (150 mm)
100
4 inch (100 mm)
0 - 25
No. 200 (75μm)
0.0
- 5.0
663
Section 704
Section 704. — SOIL
704.01 Foundation Fill. Furnish a suitable material conforming to the following:
(a) Maximum particle size
2 in (50 mm)
(b) Soil classification, AASHTO M 145
A-1-a
(c) Material passing No. 200 (75-µm) sieve,
6.0 percent max.
AASHTO T 27 and AASHTO T 11
704.02 Bedding Material. Furnish a suitable, well-graded, free draining material conforming
to
the
following:
(a) Maximum particle size
½ in (12.5 mm) or half
the corrugation depth,
whichever is smaller
(b) Material passing No. 200 (75-µm) sieve,
10.0 percent max.
AASHTO T 27 and AASHTO T 11
704.03 Backfill Material. Furnish a suitable, well-graded, compactable material conforming
to
the
following:
(a) For structures and pipes other than plastic pipe:
(1) Maximum particle size
3 in (75 mm)
(2) Soil classification, AASHTO M 145
A-1, A-2, or A-3
(b) For reinforced soil slopes and plastic pipe:
(1) Maximum particle size
1½ in (37.5 mm)
(2) Soil classification, AASHTO M 145
A-1, A-2-4, A-2-5, or A-3
704.04 Structural Backfill. Furnish a suitable, free draining material conforming to the following:
(a) Maximum particle size
3 in (75 mm)
(b) Material passing No. 200 (75-µm)
15.0 percent max.
sieve, AASHTO T 27 and AASHTO T 11
(c) Plasticity index, AASHTO T 90
6 max.
704.05 Topping. Furnish a suitable, granular material conforming to the following:
(a) Maximum particle size
3 in (75 mm)
(b) Soil classification, AASHTO M 145
A-1 or A-2-4
664

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Content      ..     15      16      17      18     ..