STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 16

 

  Главная      Manuals     STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14)

 

Search            copyright infringement  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Content      ..     14      15      16      17     ..

 

 

 

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 16

 

 

Section 616
Section 616. — SLOPE PAVING
Description
616.01 This work consists of constructing concrete, masonry block, rubble, or cellular concrete block
slope paving.
Reinforced geotextile is designated according to Tables 714-5 and 714-6.
Material
616.02 Conform to the following Sections and Subsections:
Bedding material
704.02
Concrete masonry units
725.07
Minor concrete
601
Mortar
712.02
Nonshrink grout
725.13(b)
Paving brick
725.08
Reinforcement geotextile
714.04
Solid concrete interlocking paving units
725.09(f)
Stone masonry (rubble)
620
Topsoil
713.01
Welded deformed steel wire fabric
709.01(j)
Construction Requirements
616.03 General. Excavate and backfill according to Section 209. Place and compact bedding material with
at least three passes of a lightweight mechanical tamper, roller, or vibratory system.
616.04 Reinforcement Geotextile. When required, place reinforcement geotextile according to
Subsection 207.05. Bury the ends of the reinforcement geotextile for anchorage. Pin the strips at 5-foot
(1.5-meter) intervals to hold the reinforcement geotextile lap in place until slope paving is placed.
616.05 Concrete Slope Paving. Construct toe walls. Place welded deformed steel wire fabric at the center
of the slab. Run the wire fabric continuously through the joints. Lap adjacent runs of wire fabric by at least
6 inches (150 millimeters).
Perform concrete work according to Section 601. Place slabs starting at the bottom of the slope. Construct
horizontal joints parallel to the bottom of the slope and the vertical joints perpendicular to the horizontal
joints. Construct cold joints without filler.
Finish the surface according to Subsection 552.14(c)(2). Use a ¼-inch (6-millimeter) radius edging tool on
slab edges and joints.
616.06 Masonry Block or Rubble Slope Paving. Begin placing masonry block or rubble at the bottom of
the slope. Place paving material on the bedding material with the flat face up and the longest dimension
parallel to the bottom of the slope. Ram the masonry block or rubble into place.
585
Section 616
Apply sufficient mortar on the exposed side to produce masonry block joints up to ½ inch (13 millimeters)
wide and rubble joints up to 1 inch (25 millimeters) wide. Ram the masonry block or rubble into place, so
the mortar is within ½ inch (13 millimeters) of the surface. Do not allow mortar to protrude above the
surface. Clean mortar stain from the surface.
616.07 Cellular Concrete Block Slope Paving. Begin placing blocks in a trench or against a suitable
anchorage at the bottom of the slope. Lay each block on the slope and bed it firmly against adjoining
blocks. Use grout to fill misaligned joints or breaks at slope changes. Do not grout individual blocks to
each other.
Spread topsoil loosely over the cellular block slope paving, partially filling the cell openings. When
required, establish turf according to Section 625.
616.08 Acceptance. See Table 616-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Cellular concrete blocks, concrete masonry blocks, mortar, and welded steel wire fabric will be evaluated
under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Bedding material will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Slope paving construction will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Reinforcement geotextile will be evaluated under Section 207.
Excavation and backfill will be evaluated under Section 209.
Minor concrete will be evaluated under Section 601.
Rubble will be evaluated under Section 620.
Topsoil will be evaluated under Section 624.
Turf establishment will be evaluated under Section 625.
Measurement
616.09 Measure the Section 616 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
616.10 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
616 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
586
Section 616
Table 616-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source
Bedding
Measured and
Gradation
Subsection
1 per
Source of
Yes
Before
Not required
material
tested for
704.02
soil type
material
using in
when using
(704.02)
conformance
and
work
Government-
(106.04 & 105)
source of
provided
material
source
Liquid limit
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
"
R 58 & T 89,
Method A
Production
Bedding
Measured and
Gradation
-
AASHTO
1 per
Production
Yes
4
-
material
tested for
T 27 & T 11
600 yd3
output or
hours
(704.02)
conformance
(450 m3)
stockpile
(106.04)
Liquid limit
-
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
-
R 58 & T 89,
Method A
587
Section 617
Section 617. — GUARDRAIL
Description
617.01 This work consists of installing guardrail systems and modifying, removing and resetting, and
raising existing guardrail systems.
(a) Guardrail systems are designated as follows:
CRG
— Curved radius W-beam guardrail
G1
— Cable guardrail
G2
— W-beam (weak post)
G3
— Box beam
G4
— Blocked-out W-beam standard barrier
G9
— Blocked-out thrie beam standard barrier
MB4
— Blocked-out W-beam median barrier
SBLG — Steel-backed log rail
SBTA — Steel-backed timber (SBT) guardrail/timber posts and block-out
SBTB — SBT guardrail/timber posts and no block-out
(b) Steel guardrail types are designated as follows:
I
— Zinc-coated, 1.80 ounces per square foot (550 grams per square meter)
II
— Zinc-coated, 3.60 ounces per square foot (1100 grams per square meter)
III
— Painted rails
IV — Corrosion resistant (weathering) steel
(c) Steel guardrail classes are designated as follows:
A — Metal thickness — 0.105 inches (2.67 millimeters) (12-guage)
B — Metal thickness — 0.135 inches (3.43 millimeters) (10-guage)
(d) Terminals consist of posts, railing, hardware, and anchorage assembly necessary to construct the
type of terminal specified. Terminal types are designated as follows:
Flared
— Straight or parabolic flared W beam terminal
G4-BAT
— Back slope anchor terminal
G4-CRT
— Cable releasing terminal
SBT-BAT
— Back slope anchor terminal
SBT-FAT
— Flared SBT anchor terminal
SBT-Tangent
— Tangent SBT terminal
Tangent
— Tangent W beam terminal
588
Section 617
Material
617.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsections:
Guardrail blocks
710.08
Guardrail hardware
710.10
Guardrail nuts, bolts, and cables
710.09
Guardrail posts
710.07
Minor concrete
601
Rail elements
710.06
Construction Requirements
617.03 General. Furnish guardrail systems and terminals that are crashworthy. When flared or tangent
terminals are required, submit drawings from the manufacturer for the terminals according to Subsection
104.03.
Place concrete according to Section 601.
Perform welding according to Subsection 555.17.
617.04 Post Installation. Treat field cuts for wood posts with two coats of preservative specified in
Subsection 710.07. Do not place field cuts in contact with the ground.
Install the posts plumb and at the location, spacing, and elevation specified, or as directed by the CO.
When the pavement surface is within 36 inches (900 millimeter) of the guardrail face, install posts before
placing the pavement surface. Protect posts from traffic by attaching the rail elements or by a method
approved by the CO.
Posts may be installed by either drilling or driving. Ensure posts installed by drilling have sufficiently
sized holes to permit thorough compaction of backfill material around the post. Backfill in compacted
layers not exceeding 12 inches (300 millimeters). Replace posts damaged during driving operations.
When a post cannot be placed at its normal location due to an impenetrable object an additional blockout
may be added. If the post cannot be offset, follow the post in rock detail or use the long span detail as
shown in the plans or as approved by the CO. Do not change the post lengths or spacings in terminal
sections.
When it is not possible to maintain a 24-inch (600-millimeter) minimum distance between the back of
the guardrail post and the top of a 1V:2H or steeper slope, increase the standard post length by 12 inches
(300 millimeters).
617.05 Rail Element Installation. Do not modify specified hole diameters or slot dimensions.
(a) Steel rail. Shop bend curved guardrail with a radius of 150 feet (45 meters) or less.
Install rail elements in a smooth continuous line with the laps in the direction of traffic flow. Use bolts
that extend at least ¼ inch (6 millimeters), but not more than 1 inch (25 millimeters) beyond the nuts.
589
Section 617
Paint scrapes on galvanized surfaces that expose the base metal with two coats of zinc-oxide paint.
(b) Steel-backed timber and log rail. Treat field cuts with two coats of preservative.
617.06 Terminal Sections. Do not connect the guardrail to cast-in-place anchors until the concrete has
cured 7 days. Install end anchor cables without slack.
617.07 Connection to Structure. Install posts, railing, hardware, and anchorage assembly necessary to
construct the type of connection to structure specified.
617.08 Guardrail Construction Exposed to Traffic. When a roadway is open to traffic during
construction, complete guardrail installations within 5 days from the day the structure, pavement, shoulder,
or whichever is the controlling item of work is sufficiently completed to allow guardrail installation. In
areas where guardrail construction is not restricted by other construction, complete removal of existing
guardrail and construct new guardrail within 48 hours of starting work.
At the end of each day, securely bolt a rounded end section to the exposed end of the guardrail.
Schedule guardrail installation so work is finished before work suspension or other extended periods of
time.
617.09 Removing and Resetting Guardrail. Remove and store the existing rail elements, posts, and
appurtenances. Remove and dispose of posts that are set in concrete. Replace guardrail, posts, and
hardware damaged during removal, storage, or resetting. Backfill holes resulting from the removal of
guardrail posts and anchors with material approved by the CO. Dispose of material not used in resetting
guardrail according to Section 203.
617.10 Raising Guardrail. Remove the existing rail elements and appurtenances. Replace and reset posts
as needed. Replace rail elements, posts, and hardware damaged during the removal and raising. Dispose of
damaged material according to Section 203.
617.11 Acceptance. Material for guardrail will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Construction of guardrail will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Welding will be evaluated under Section 555.
Measurement
617.12 Measure the Section 617 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Measure transition sections from G9 rail to G4 rail as G9 rail.
Measure removing and resetting guardrail and raising guardrail including reset terminal sections.
Measure replacement posts (except replacement posts for posts damaged by construction operations) used
in the removing and resetting, or raising guardrail.
590
Section 617
Payment
617.13 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
617 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
591
Section 618
Section 618. — CONCRETE BARRIERS AND PRECAST GUARDWALLS
Description
618.01 This work consists of constructing and resetting concrete barrier and precast guardwall systems.
Material
618.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsections:
Backer rod
712.01(f)
Guardrail hardware
710.10
Joint sealants
712.01(a)
Precast concrete barrier
725.09(b)
Preformed expansion joint filler
712.01(b)
Reinforcing steel
709.01
Structural concrete
552
Construction Requirements
618.03 General. Excavate and backfill according to Section 209.
Construct barriers and guardwalls that are crashworthy.
Furnish concrete Class A(AE) conforming to Section 552.
618.04 Concrete Barriers. Concrete barriers may be cast-in-place, slip-formed, or precast according to
Section 552. Finish the sides and top according to Subsection 552.16(a).
(a) Cast-in-place. Tool or saw cut contraction joints ¼ inch (6 millimeters) wide and 2 inches
(50 millimeters) deep at 20-foot (6-meter) intervals. Saw cut after the concrete has set sufficiently, but
before shrinkage cracking occurs. Decrease the depth of the saw cut at the edge adjacent to the
pavement to prevent pavement damage.
Place ¾-inch (19-millimeter) preformed expansion joint filler in construction joints. Cut the joint filler
to fit the cross-sectional area at structures and barrier construction joints. Tool construction joint edges.
Seal joints according to Subsection 501.11.
(b) Slip-formed. Do not contact extruded concrete surface as it leaves the slip-form machine, except to
remove offsets and fins by light troweling.
Make adjustments in the operation to correct conditions causing surface blemishes larger than ½ inch
(13 millimeters). Do not use water on the completed barrier to correct imperfections.
(c) Precast. Precast barriers in section lengths. Prepare the barrier foundation so it does not vary over
¼ inch (6 millimeters) when a 10-foot (3-meter) straightedge is laid along the centerline of the barrier.
Align the joints and connect adjacent sections.
592
Section 618
Use cast-in-place barrier where transitions, split barriers, or gaps shorter than 10 feet (3 meters) require it.
At each joint between precast and cast-in-place barrier, provide hardware in the cast-in-place section to tie
its end to the abutting precast section.
618.05 Precast Concrete Guardwall.
(a) Fabrication. A full-size sample of the guardwall will be provided at a specified location. Fabricate
the guardwall to match the sample's shape, color, texture, and the following:
(1) Fabricate in a facility certified by the National Precast Concrete Association (NPCA) and
according to the NPCA, Manual of Quality Control for Precast and Prestressed Concrete Plants;
(2) Formulate the facing mixes, backing mixes, and structural concrete backup to produce
concrete mix designs of similar aggregate-cement ratios to minimize differences in shrinkage
factors and coefficients of thermal expansion and contraction. Formulate a concrete mixture
according to Subsection 552.03 to match the approved sample;
(3) Use epoxy-coated reinforcing steel at locations where the reinforcing steel is less than
2 inches (50 millimeters) from the exposed surface;
(4) Cast the sections straight and true;
(5) Cast the facing mixes at least 1 inch (25 millimeters) thick. Ensure a good bond between
facing and backup mixes; and
(6) Provide lifting devices with removable caps for each precast segment.
(b) Test section. Demonstrate the ability to match the sample by fabricating a 10-foot (3-meter) full-
scale guardwall test section and delivering it to the location of the sample for comparison. If the test
section is not approved, fabricate another test section according to Subsection 618.05(a). Do not
construct additional guardwall before the sample is approved. Approved test sections may be used in
the guardwall construction.
(c) Installation. Produce guardwall sections to match the approved test section. Repair or replace
damaged sections. Prepare the foundation by compacting the bedding material with at least three
passes of a vibratory roller until there is no visible evidence of further consolidation. Place the sections
using backer rods and joint sealant in the section joints to match the false joints.
At 100-foot (30-meter) intervals and at low points in the guardwall, excavate outlet ditches and
backfill with 6 inches (150 millimeters) of aggregate conforming to Subsection 703.12.
618.06 Terminal Sections. Where concrete barrier or precast guardwall is being constructed next to
roadway lanes open to traffic; connect an approved temporary terminal section, crash cushion, or impact
attenuator to the barrier or guardwall at the end of each shift.
618.07 Resetting. Reset concrete barrier, precast guardwall, and terminal sections according to
Subsections 618.03 and 618.06. Store concrete barrier and precast guardwall sections in an approved
location if not reset immediately.
593
Section 618
618.08 Acceptance. Material for concrete barrier and precast guardwall (except concrete and reinforcing
steel) will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Concrete barrier and precast guardwall appearance will be evaluated under Subsection 106.02.
Construction of concrete barriers and precast guardwalls will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.04.
Concrete will be evaluated under Section 552.
Reinforcing steel will be evaluated under Section 554.
Measurement
618.09 Measure the Section 618 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Measure concrete barrier and precast guardwall excluding terminal sections.
Measure reset concrete barrier and precast guardwall in their relocated position including terminal
sections.
Payment
618.10 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
618 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
594
Section 619
Section 619. — FENCES, GATES, CATTLE GUARDS
AND BOLLARD POSTS
Description
619.01 This work consists of constructing fences, gates, cattle guards, and bollard posts and removing and
resetting fence.
Material
619.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsections:
Barbed wire
710.01
Chain link fence
710.03
Fence gates
710.05
Fence posts and bollards
710.04
Minor concrete
601
Neat hydraulic cement grout
725.13(a)(2)
Precast concrete units and accessories
725.09(g)
Reinforcing steel
709.01
Temporary plastic fence
710.11
Woven wire
710.02
Construction Requirements
619.03 Fences and Gates.
(a) General. Clear along the fence line. Remove and dispose of trees, brush, logs, upturned stumps,
roots of downed trees, rubbish, and debris according to Subsection 201.06. Clear a 10-foot (3-meter)
width for chain link fence and a 36-inch (900-millimeter) width for wire fence.
Grubbing is not required, except where short and abrupt changes in the ground contour require
removal of stumps to properly grade the fence line. Remove or cut stumps according to Subsection
201.04(b).
Perform clearing and leveling with minimum disturbance to the terrain outside the fence line.
Schedule the fence installation, provide temporary fence, or other adequate means to prevent livestock
from entering the project right-of-way, easements, or adjoining properties.
At bridges, cattle underpasses, and culverts, connect new fence to structure to permit free passage of
livestock under or through the structure.
(b) Chain link fence and gates.
(1) Posts. Space posts at not more than 10-foot (3-meter) intervals. Measure the post spacing
interval horizontally. Set posts vertically.
Set posts in concrete according to Section 601.
595
Section 619
Where solid rock is encountered without overburden, drill line post holes at least 14 inches
(350 millimeters) deep. Drill end, corner, gate, and pull posts at least 20 inches (500 millimeters)
deep in the solid rock. Make the hole width or diameter at least 1 inch (25 millimeters) greater
than the post width or diameter. Cut the post to the required length before installation or drill the
hole deep enough to set the post at the required height. Set and plumb the post and fill the hole
with grout. Thoroughly work the neat hydraulic cement grout into the hole to eliminate voids.
Crown the grout to drain water away from the post.
Where solid rock is covered with soil or loose rock overburden, set posts to the plan depth or to
the minimum depth into the solid rock as specified above, whichever is less. When solid rock is
encountered before the plan depth, grout the portion of the post in solid rock and backfill the post
hole from the solid rock to the top of the ground with concrete.
Provide end, gate, corner, and pull posts with adjacent brace posts as shown in the plans. A
change in the fence alignment of 20 degrees or more is considered a corner.
(2) Top rail. Install top rails through the loop caps of the line posts, forming a continuous brace
from end-to-end of each stretch of fence. Join lengths of top rail with sleeve-type couplings.
Securely fasten top rails to terminal posts by pressed steel fittings or other appropriate means.
(3) Tension wire. Attach tension wire to end, gate, corner, or pull posts by bands and clamps.
Either thread the top tension wire through the line post loop caps or hold in open slots in a
manner to limit vertical movement. Tie or attach the bottom tension wire to the bottom of the
line posts by ties or clamps in a manner that prevents vertical movement. Apply sufficient
tension to avoid excess sag between posts. On the top tension wire, provide one turnbuckle or
ratchet take-up in each run of fence.
(4) Fence fabric. For fences placed on the right-of-way, place fence fabric on the post face away
from the highway. On curved alignment, place the fence fabric on the post face on the outside of
the curve. For residential fences and fences off the right-of-way, place fence fabric on the post
face designated by the CO.
Place the fabric approximately 1 inch (25 millimeters) above the ground and on a straight line
between posts. Excavate high points of the ground to maintain grade. Do not fill in depressions
without prior approval.
Stretch the fabric taut and securely fasten the fabric to the posts. Do not stretch using a motor
vehicle. Use stretcher bars and fabric bands to fasten to end, gate, corner, and pull posts or weave
the fabric into the fastening loops of roll-formed posts.
Fasten fabric to line posts using wire ties, metal bands, or other approved method. Fasten the top
and bottom edge of the fabric with tie wires or hog rings to the top rail or tension wires as
applicable.
Join rolls of fabric by weaving a single strand into the ends of the rolls to form a continuous
mesh.
(5) Gates. Fasten fabric to the end bars of the gate frame by stretcher bars and fabric bands.
Fasten fabric to the top and bottom bars of the gate frame by tie wires similar to the method
specified for fence fabric or by other approved standard methods.
596
Section 619
Thoroughly clean welded connections on gate frames where the smelter coating has been burned
with a wire brush. Remove traces of the welding flux and loose or cracked smelter. Paint the
cleaned areas with two coats of zinc-oxide paint.
Provide a concrete footing for the drop-bar locking device on double metal gates. Make a hole to
receive the locking bar to the depth specified by the manufacturer of the locking device.
Hinge each single gate to prevent removal of the gate without tools. Set the gate in an
approximately horizontal plane. Set the gate so it swings freely inward and outward and fastens
securely in its latch holder, or in the case of double gates, in its latch holder and gate stops. Set
double gates on their respective hinge pintles to provide a common horizontal plane in which
each single gate swings. Set gates to swing open at least 90 degrees in each direction.
(c) Wire fences and gates.
(1) Posts. Excavate holes for posts, footings, and anchors as shown. Space posts at intervals
shown for the type of fence being installed. Measure post spacing interval parallel to the existing
ground slope. Set posts in a vertical position. Backfill post holes in 6-inch (150-millimeter) lifts.
Tamp and compact each lift.
Wood posts may be driven in place if the method of driving does not damage the post. Metal
posts may be driven. Set metal corner, gate, end, and pull posts in concrete.
Where solid rock is encountered without overburden, drill line post holes at least 14 inches
(350 millimeters) deep and end, corner, gate, and pull posts at least 20 inches (500 millimeters)
deep in the solid rock. Make the hole width or diameter at least 1 inch (25 millimeters) greater
than the post width or diameter. Cut the post to the required length before installation or drill the
hole deep enough to set the post at the required height. Set and plumb the post and fill the hole
with grout. Thoroughly work the grout into the hole to eliminate voids. Crown the grout to drain
water away from the post. Metal posts set in this manner do not require anchor plates and
concrete footings.
Where solid rock is covered with soil or loose rock overburden, set posts to the plan depth or to
the minimum depth into the solid rock as specified above, whichever is less. When the depth of
overburden is greater than 12 inches (300 millimeters), use an anchor plate on steel line posts
and backfill steel end, corner, gate, and pull posts with concrete from the solid rock to top of the
ground. When the depth of overburden is 12 inches (300 millimeters) or less, anchor plates and
concrete backfill are not required. Grout the portion of the post in solid rock.
Install corner posts at changes in alignment of 30 degrees or more. Where new fence joins an
existing fence, set end or corner posts, as necessary, and attach in a manner satisfactory to the
CO.
(2) Braces. Limit fence runs to no more than 650 feet (200 meters) between adjacent corner
braces, gate braces, end braces, or line braces. Install line braces at uniform intervals so the
distance between any two braces is 650 feet (200 meters) or less. Construct braces before placing
the fence fabric and wires on posts.
(a) Metal braces. Provide corner posts and pull posts with two braces, one each direction
from the post in the main fence line. Provide end posts and gate posts with one brace in the
line of the fence. Attach metal braces to the metal end, corner, pull, and gate posts and set in
concrete as shown in the plans.
597
Section 619
(b) Wood braces. Tap the posts to receive the braces. Anchor the brace to the post with three
16d nails or a ⅜- by 4-inch (10- by 100-millimeter) dowel. Install brace wires as shown and
twist together until the entire assembly is taut and firm. Lightly notch the posts to position
the brace wire. Drive three staples at each notch to secure wire.
(3) Barbed wire and woven wire. Place barbed wire and woven wire on the side of the post
facing away from the highway. On curved alignment, place the barbed wire and the woven wire
on the post face on the outside of the curve. Tightly stretch and fasten barbed wire and woven
wire to the posts.
Apply tension according to the manufacturer’s recommendations using a mechanical stretcher or
other device designed for such use. Evenly distribute the pull over the longitudinal wires in the
woven wire so not more than 50 percent of the original depth of the tension curves is removed.
Do not use a motor vehicle to stretch the wire.
Splicing of barbed wire and woven wire between posts is permitted provided not more than two
splices, spaced at least 50 feet (15 meters) apart, occur in a run of fence. Use wrap or telephone
type splices for the longitudinal woven wire and barbed wire with each end wrapped around the
other wire for not less than six complete turns.
(4) Fastening barbed wire and woven wire. End the woven wire and barbed wire at each end,
corner, gate, and pull post. Wrap each line of barbed wire and each longitudinal wire of the
woven wire around the post and then itself with at least four turns. Where wood posts are used,
staple the wires tightly to the posts.
At line posts, fasten the woven wire to the post at top and bottom and at intermediate points not
exceeding 12 inches (300 millimeters) apart. Fasten each strand of barbed wire to each line post.
Use wire ties or clamps to fasten the wires to metal posts. Securely splice tie wires to the fence
on both sides of the post so there are two loops behind the post and one loop in front. On wood
line posts, drive U-shaped staples diagonally across the wood grain so that both points do not
enter between the same grain. In depressions where wire uplift occurs, drive staples with points
slightly upward. On level ground and over knolls, slope the points slightly downward. Drive the
staples just short of actual contact with the wires to permit free longitudinal movement of those
lines and to prevent damage to the protective coating.
At grade depressions, alignment angles, and other locations where stresses tending to pull posts
from the ground or out of alignment are created, snub or guy the wire fence. Attach the guy wire
to each strand of barbed wire and to the top and bottom wires of woven wire in a manner to
maintain the entire fence in its normal shape. Attach the guy wire to a deadman anchor buried
not less than 24 inches (600 millimeters) in the ground or to an approved anchor at a point that
best serves to resist the pull of the wire fence. If necessary to guy the fence in solid rock, grout
the guy wire in a hole 2 inches (50 millimeters) in diameter and 10 inches (250 millimeters)
deep. Deadman may also be fastened to posts. Place the deadman anchors at locations as
directed.
Where required, install vertical cinch stays as shown. Twist the wire to permit weaving into the
horizontal fence wires to provide rigid spacing. Weave barbed wires and the top, middle, and
bottom wire of the woven wire as applicable, into the cinch stay.
Where existing fence intersects the new fence, cut the existing fence material or, splice in kind,
new material as necessary, and fasten each longitudinal wire of the woven wire and each strand
of the barbed wire to a new end post in line with or immediately adjacent to the new fence line.
598
Section 619
(5) Gates.
(a) Wire gates. Construct wire gates of the same material as the fence and as shown. Provide
a taut and well-aligned closure of the opening, capable of being readily opened and closed by
hand.
(b) Metal gates. Install metal gates and fittings to gate posts previously set. Firmly attach the
fittings to the posts and gates. Hinge each single gate to prevent removal of the gate without
tools. Set the gate in a horizontal plane. Set the gate so it swings freely inward and outward
and fastens securely in its latch holder, or in the case of double gates, in its latch holder and
gate stops. Set double gates and their respective pintles to provide a common horizontal
plane in which each single gate swings. Set gates to swing open at least 90 degrees in each
direction.
For double gates, provide a drop-bar locking device with a concrete footing 12 inches
(300 millimeters) in diameter and 12 inches (300 millimeters) deep. Crown the top of the
footing and make a hole to receive the locking bar. Make the diameter and depth of the hole
in the footing as specified by the manufacturer of the locking device.
(c) Wood gates. Install wood gates similar to metal gates and as shown in the plans.
619.04 Grounding Fences. Where an electric line crosses the fence line, ground the fence. Drive an 8-foot
(2.4-meter) long, ½-inch (13-millimeter) minimum diameter galvanized or copper coated steel rod into the
ground under the fence directly below the point of crossing. Drive the rod vertically until the top is
6 inches (150 millimeters) below the ground surface. Connect the grounding rod to each fence element
with a ¼-inch (6-millimeter) diameter solid copper conductor or equivalent. Either braze the connections
or fasten with noncorrosive clamps.
Where an electric line runs parallel or nearly parallel to and above the fence, ground the fence at each end
or gate post or at intervals not exceeding 1,600 feet (500 meters).
Where vertical penetration of the grounding rod cannot be accomplished, use an equivalent horizontal
grounding system.
619.05 Remove and Reset Fence. Remove existing fence and reset to approximately the same condition
as the original fence. Salvage material in the existing fence and incorporate the material into the reset
fence. When posts are set in concrete, remove concrete from old post and reset in new concrete. Replace
fence material damaged beyond reuse. Firmly reset posts on new alignment. Space posts and attach the
horizontal members or wires to posts the same as the original fence. Furnish and use new material to fasten
members or wires to posts.
619.06 Temporary Fence. When necessary, construct temporary fence to keep traffic (such as pedestrian,
livestock, and vehicular) off the project. Maintain the temporary fence during construction of the project or
until the fence is directed to be removed. Dispose of temporary fence according to Subsection 203.05(a).
619.07 Cattle Guards.
(a) Excavating and backfilling. Perform the work described under Section 209. Excavate foundation
to depth with sufficient space for proper installation of formwork.
When the cattle guard is to be installed on new embankment, complete and compact the embankment
according to Section 204 before excavating for footing.
599
Section 619
(b) Concrete foundation. Concrete cattle guard foundations may be cast-in-place or precast.
Construct cast-in-place concrete foundations according to Section 601. Set cattle guard units in the
foundation concrete before it hardens.
Finish stringer bearings to allow full bearing under each stringer. Firmly seat cattle guard on the
concrete to prevent rocking.
(c) Cattle guard. Fabricate cattle guard according to Section 555. Assemble and place guards as
shown in the plans. Securely fasten the cattle guard to the foundation. Fasten the metal wings as shown
in the plans. Connect fences and gates as shown in the plans. Weld according to AASHTO/AWS,
Bridge Welding Code D1.5 (D1.5M).
Standard manufactured cattle guards may be used if approved. Furnish cattle guards with HS-20 (M-
18) loading rating according to AASHTO, Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design
Specifications. Provide suitable cleanouts. Submit drawings according to Subsection 104.03.
(d) Painting. Paint according to Section 563. Apply one shop coat to metal parts. Apply two additional
coats in either the shop or in the field.
619.08 Bollards. Drill holes for bollards. Set posts plumb, backfill with approved material, and compact.
619.09 Acceptance. Material for fences, gates, cattle guards, and bollards will be evaluated under
Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Construction and erection of fences, gates, cattle guards, and bollards will be evaluated under Subsections
106.02 and 106.04.
Excavation and backfill for cattle guards will be evaluated under Section 209.
Structural steel work for cattle guards will be evaluated under Section 555.
Painting of cattle guards will be evaluated under Section 563.
Concrete work for cattle guards will be evaluated under Section 601.
Measurement
619.10 Measure the Section 619 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
619.11 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
619 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
600
Section 620
Section 620. — STONE MASONRY
Description
620.01 This work consists of constructing or rehabilitating stone masonry structures and the stone masonry
portions of composite structures.
Masonry class is designated as follows:
(a) Dimensioned masonry. Stones are cut in two or more dimensions and laid in a broken-course
pattern in mortar;
(b) Class A masonry. Stones are shaped, dressed to within ¼ inch (6 millimeters) of true line, and laid
in mortar;
(c) Class B masonry. Stones are shaped, dressed to within ¾ inch (19 millimeters) of true line, and
laid in mortar; and
(d) Rubble masonry. Stones vary in size and shape, are roughly dressed, and laid in random courses
in mortar.
Material
620.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsections:
Minor concrete
601
Mortar
712.02
Neat hydraulic cement grout
725.13(a)(2)
Preformed expansion joint fillers
712.01(b)
Reinforcing steel
709.01
Rock for masonry structures
705.03
Construction Requirements
620.03 General. Submit stone samples representing the range of colors and sizes to be used 14 days
before beginning work.
Keep an adequate inventory of stone on the site to provide a variety of stones. Mix new stone with existing
stone to produce a uniform pattern and color.
Perform excavation and embankment according to Section 209.
601
Section 620
620.04 Dressing Rock. Remove thin or weak portions of rock. Dress face rock bed and joint lines to a
maximum variation from true line as follows:
Dimensioned masonry
Reasonably true
Class A masonry
¼ in (6 mm)
Class B masonry
¾ in (19 mm)
Rubble masonry
1½ in (38 mm)
(a) Bed surfaces. Dress face rock bed surfaces normal to the face to a depth of
3 inches
(75 millimeters). Beyond that point, do not exceed
1 inch
(25 millimeters) in
12 inches
(300 millimeters) the departure from normal for dimensioned masonry or 2 inches (50 millimeters) in
12 inches (300 millimeters) for other classes.
(b) Joint surfaces. For dimensioned masonry, dress face rock joint surfaces normal to the bed surface.
For other classes of masonry, dress face rock joint surfaces to form an angle with the bed surface of not
less than 45 degrees.
Dress face rock joint surfaces normal to the face to a depth of 2 inches (50 millimeters). Beyond that
point, do not exceed 1 inch in 12 inches (25 millimeters in 300 millimeters) departure from normal.
Do not round corners at the meeting of the bed and joint lines in excess of the following radii:
(1) Dimensioned masonry
No rounding
(2) Class A masonry
No rounding
(3) Class B masonry
1 inch (25 millimeters)
(4) Rubble masonry
1½ inches (38 millimeters)
(c) Arch ring rock joint surfaces. Dress ring rock joint surfaces radial to the arch or normal to the
front face to a depth of 3 inches (75 millimeters). Beyond that point, the departure from the radial or
normal may not exceed ¾ inch in 12 inches (19 millimeters in 300 millimeters).
Dress the back surface adjacent to the arch barrel concrete parallel to the front face and normal to the
intrados to a depth of 6 inches (150 millimeters). When concrete is placed after the masonry is
constructed, vary adjacent ring stones at least 6 inches (150 millimeters) in depth.
(d) Finish for exposed faces. Remove drill or quarry marks from exposed faces. Pitch face stones to
the line along beds and joints. Finish the exposed faces as specified in the contract. The following
abbreviations are used to represent the type of surface or dressing specified:
(1) Fine pointed (F.P.). Make point depressions approximately ⅜ inch (10 millimeters) apart.
Limit surface variations to ⅛ inch (3 millimeters) or less from the pitch line.
(2) Medium pointed (M.P.). Make point depressions approximately ⅝ inch (15 millimeters)
apart. Limit surface variations to ¼ inch (6 millimeters) or less from the pitch line.
(3) Coarse pointed (C.P.). Make point depressions approximately 1⅛ inches (29 millimeters)
apart. Limit surface variations to ⅜ inch (10 millimeters) or less from the pitch line.
602
Section 620
(4) Split or seam face
(S.). Provide a smooth appearance, without tool marks, with no
depressions below the pitch line, and no projection exceeding ¾ inch (19 millimeters) beyond the
pitch line.
(5) Rock faced (R.F.). Provide an irregular projecting surface without tool marks, concave
surfaces below the pitch line, and projections beyond the specified pitch line. For example, the
specification "1.50 R.F." ("38 R.F") means no projections 1½ inches (38 millimeters) beyond the
pitch line. Where a "variable rock face" is specified, uniformly distribute stones of the same
height of projection.
620.05 Placing Stone. Do not place stone masonry when the ambient temperature is below 32 °F (0 °C).
Clean stones and moisten before placing. Use hand tools to clean the exposed faces of the stones of mortar
when removing and resetting stone masonry. Clean and moisten the bed. Clean the bearing surface and
moisten before spreading the mortar bed on footings.
Level the cross beds for vertical walls. Lay beds for battered walls from level to normal to the batter line of
the face of the wall.
Place stone to provide a consistent pattern and color. Lay stones with the longest face horizontal and the
exposed face parallel to the masonry face.
Construct masonry joints to the thicknesses shown in Table 620-1 for face stones. Construct ring stone
joints on the faces and soffits between ¼ inch (6 millimeters) and 1½ inches (38 millimeters) thick, but
make the bed of each course of a uniform thickness throughout. Construct head joints vertically in
dimensioned masonry. Construct head joints in other masonry classes at angles with the vertical from 0 to
45 degrees.
Maintain completed masonry at a temperature above 40 °F (4 °C) for 24 hours after construction.
Remove stones loosened after the mortar has taken initial set, clean off the mortar, and relay the stone with
fresh mortar.
Table 620-1
Masonry Joint Thicknesses
Class
Bed Joint
Head Joints
⅜ - 1 inches
¾ - 1 inches
Dimensioned
(10 - 25 millimeters)
(19 - 25 millimeters)
½ - 2 inches
½ - 1½ inches
Class A
(13 - 50 millimeters)
(13 - 38 millimeters)
½ - 2 inches
½ - 2 inches
Class B
(13 - 50 millimeters)
(13 - 50 millimeters)
½ - 2½ inches
½ - 2½ inches
Rubble
(13 - 64 millimeters)
(13 - 64 millimeters)
603
Section 620
620.06 Pointing.
(a) Pointing new joints. Crown the joint mortar slightly on top surfaces to provide drainage.
Where raked joints are required, squarely rake mortar in exposed face joints and beds to the required
depth. Slightly rake the mortar where weather joints are required. Do not leave the mortar flush with
the stone faces.
Clean stone faces of mortar stains while the mortar is fresh. After the mortar sets, clean stone faces
again using wire brushes and acid. Protect masonry during hot or dry weather by keeping it moist for at
least 3 days after the work is completed.
(b) Repointing joints. Remove loose mortar from joints using a small mason’s chisel, small
pneumatically-power chisel, or other raking tool approved by the CO. Do not use power saws or
grinders. Demonstrate proficiency if power equipment is used before removing mortar from the
structure. Remove mortar to a depth of two and one-half times the width of the joint. Remove dirt or
vegetation with a wire brush or other approved tools. Clean joint of loose fragments and dust with
pressurized air or water.
Construct a 36-inch (900-millimeter) test section of joint along the structure for approval before
continuing with work. Approved test section may be incorporated into the work. Moisten adjacent
stone before filling the joint. Do not place mortar to a depth greater than two and one-half times the
joint width. Place mortar in layers of approximately ¼ inch (6 millimeters) for joints deeper than
⅛ inch (3 millimeters). Add successive layers once mortar has reached thumb-print hardness. Tool the
final layer to match the approved joint appearance.
Clean excess mortar and stain from stone masonry using a bristle brush after the mortar has dried, but
before the initial set. Do not use chemicals for cleaning. Protect masonry during hot or dry weather by
keeping it moist for at least 3 days after the work is completed.
620.07 Constructing Walls. Construct an L-shaped test section of wall at least 5 feet (1.5 meters) high
and 8 feet (2.4 meters) long; showing examples of face wall, top wall, method of turning corners, and
method of forming joints. Do not construct masonry other than the foundation masonry before the test
section is approved.
Set face stones to produce the effect demonstrated in the approved test section. Do not extend bed joints in
an unbroken line through more than five stones and head joints through more than two stones. Bond each
face stone with contiguous face stones at least 6 inches (150 millimeters) longitudinally and 2 inches
(50 millimeters) vertically. Do not allow the corners of four stones to be adjacent to each other.
Do not bunch small stones or stones of the same size, color, or texture. Construct walls using stones
decrease in size from the bottom to the top. Use large, stones in corners.
(a) Headers. Distribute headers uniformly throughout the walls of structures to form at least
20 percent of the faces.
(b) Backing. Construct the backing out of large stones. Bond the individual stones composing the
backing and heart with the stones in the face wall and with each other. Fill openings and interstices in
the backing with mortar or with spalls surrounded by mortar.
604
Section 620
(c) Coping. Finish with coping when shown in the plans. When copings are not required, finish the top
of the wall with stones wide enough to cover the top of the wall from 1.5 to 5 feet (0.5 to 1.5 meters) in
length, and of random heights, with a minimum height of 6 inches (150 millimeters). Lay stones in a
manner that the cap course is an integral part of the wall. Pitch the top of the capstones to align in both
vertical and horizontal planes.
(d) Parapet walls. Use stones squared and pitched to line and with heads dressed in the ends of
parapet walls and in exposed angles and corners. Interlock spreaders with as many headers as possible.
Extend headers through the entire wall thickness. Interlock both the headers and stretchers in the two
faces of the wall. Use headers and stretchers to comprise a majority of the wall volume. Fill openings
and interstices with mortar or with spalls surrounded by mortar.
(e) Weep holes. Place weep holes at the lowest points where free outlets can be obtained. Space holes
no more than 10 feet (3 meters) apart.
620.08 Facing for Concrete.
(a) Stone placed before concrete. Make the back of the masonry uneven. Pack voids in the back of
the masonry with grout.
Use No. 4 (13M) reinforcing steel bent into an elongated letter "S" to anchor the stone. Embed each
anchor in a mortar bed to within 2 inches (50 millimeters) from the face of the stones. Project the other
end about 10 inches (250 millimeters) into the concrete backing. Space the anchors 18 inches
(450 millimeter) apart both horizontally and vertically.
Clean the back masonry surface of dirt, loose material, and mortar drippings after the mortar has
attained sufficient strength. Wash surfaces with pressurized water before placing concrete.
(b) Concrete placed before stone. Set galvanized metal anchor slots flush with the projected face of
concrete. Set the slots vertically at maximum horizontal spacings of 24 inches (600 millimeters). Use
foam filled slots to prevent filling with concrete.
Fit the metal anchors in the slots at a maximum vertical spacing of 24 inches (600 millimeters). Extend
the anchors to within 2 inches (50 millimeters) of the face of the stones.
If the shape of the concrete face is unsuitable for the use of metal slots, use 9 gage (3.8-millimeter)
galvanized iron wire ties at a rate of six ties for each square yard (seven ties for each square meter) of
exposed surface.
Keep the concrete face continuously wet for 2 hours preceding the placing of the stone and fill
interstices with mortar or with spalls surrounded by mortar.
620.09 Constructing Arches. Submit drawings for falsework according to Section 562. Stratify arch ring
stones parallel to the radial joint and stratify other stones parallel to the beds.
Lay out a full-size template of the arch ring showing face dimensions of each ring stone and thickness of
joints. Do not shape or dress ring stones until falsework drawings have been approved. Do not place ring
stones until all ring stones have been shaped and dressed.
605
Section 620
Construct arch centering according to the drawings. Provide suitable wedges for adjusting the elevation of
the forms.
Set arch ring stones and hold in place with wedges until the joints are packed with mortar. If required,
support centering with jacks to prevent settlement during masonry placement. Lower the centering
gradually and symmetrically to avoid overstresses in the arch. Ensure the arch is self-supporting before
installing coping or other features.
Strike the centers of filled spandrel arches before constructing the spandrel walls to avoid jamming of the
expansion joints. Place the backfill so the ring is uniformly and symmetrically loaded.
620.10 Guardwall. Use rubble masonry. Construct cast-in-place or precast concrete corewalls according
to Section 601. Use concrete with a minimum 28-day compressive strength of 3,500 pounds per square
inch (25 megapascals).
Construct a 25-foot (8-meter) test section of guardwall. Do not construct additional guardwall until the test
section is approved.
Construct the guardwall true and uniform along its length with no stone projecting more than 1½ inches
(38 millimeters) beyond the face of the guardwall. Construct masonry beds and joints for face stones to the
thicknesses shown in Table 620-1. Rake the joints and beds to a depth of 2 inches (50 millimeters) on the
front and top sides and to a depth of 1½ inches (38 millimeters) on the back.
Use a one-piece capstone for the full width of the guardwall for at least 25 percent of the total length. Use
a two-piece capstone with the joint within 4 inches (100 millimeters) of the guardwall center for the
remaining length.
Place stones (including the capstones) randomly to avoid a pattern. Lay stones to reflect the width of the
expansion joints. Do not leave a gap or a mortar edge at the expansion joint. Use various size stones to
coin or key the corners of the guardwall.
620.11 Acceptance. Rock for masonry structures will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Material for mortar will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03. Mortar placement will be
evaluated under Subsection 106.02.
Construction or rehabilitation of stone masonry will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Minor concrete will be evaluated under Section 601.
Excavation and backfill will be evaluated under Section 209.
Measurement
620.12 Measure the Section 620 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring stone masonry by the cubic yard (cubic meter), measure in the structure.
When measuring stone masonry guardwall, measure along the gutterline including terminal sections.
606
Section 620
When measuring remove and reset stone masonry by the cubic yard (cubic meter), measure in the structure
after resetting.
When measuring repointing of stone masonry, measure along the centerline of joint.
Do not measure test wall sections not incorporated in the work.
Payment
620.13 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
620 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
607
Section 621
Section 621. — MONUMENTS AND MARKERS
Description
621.01 This work consists of constructing and reestablishing monuments and markers.
Material
621.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsections:
Minor concrete
601
Reinforcing steel
709.01
Construction Requirements
621.03 Monuments and Markers. Reestablish or locate permanent points according to Subsection 107.01
and Section 152. Excavate and backfill according to Section 209. Monuments may be cast-in-place or
precast according to Section 601. Set each monument and marker vertically at the required location and
elevation such that the monument remains stable horizontally and vertically. Unless otherwise shown in
the plans, install markers or monuments that are commercially available and typical for the area and
application. Mark the monuments with durable markings that identify the monument uniquely and
unambiguously.
621.04 Acceptance. Material (except concrete for monuments and markers) will be evaluated under
Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Construction of monuments and markers will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Location of permanent points will be evaluated under Sections 107 and 152.
Structural excavation and backfill will be evaluated under Section 209.
Minor concrete will be evaluated under Section 601.
Measurement
621.05 Measure the Section 621 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
621.06 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
621 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
608
Section 622
Section 622. — RENTAL EQUIPMENT
Description
622.01 This work consists of furnishing and operating equipment for construction work ordered by the CO
and not otherwise provided for under the contract.
Construction Requirements
622.02 Rental Equipment. The CO will order in writing rental equipment for use on the project. Submit
the model number and serial number for each piece of equipment before use. Make equipment available
for inspection and approval before use.
Furnish and operate equipment with auxiliary attachments and oilers as are usually needed for efficient
operation of the equipment. Keep the equipment in good repair and capable of operating 90 percent of the
working time.
Obtain approval of the length of workday and workweek before beginning work. Keep daily records of the
number of unit-hours of operation. Submit the records along with certified copies of the payroll.
622.03 Acceptance. Rental equipment work will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
622.04 Measure the Section 622 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Measure time for moving equipment between project work sites. Do not measure nonoperable equipment
or equipment dependent upon another piece of nonoperable equipment.
Payment
622.05 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
622 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
609
Section 623
Section 623. — GENERAL LABOR
Description
623.01 This work consists of furnishing workers and hand tools for construction work ordered by the CO
and not otherwise provided for under the contract.
Construction Requirements
623.02 Workers and Equipment. Furnish competent workers and appropriate hand tools for the work.
Obtain approval of the length of workday and workweek before beginning work. Keep daily records of the
number of hours worked. Submit the records along with certified copies of the payroll.
623.03 Acceptance. General labor work will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
623.04 Measure the Section 623 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Do not measure time for workers transportation to and from the project site.
Payment
623.05 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
623 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
610
Section 624
Section 624. — TOPSOIL
Description
624.01 This work consists of furnishing and placing topsoil and placing conserved topsoil.
Material
624.02 Conform to the following Subsection:
Topsoil
713.01
Construction Requirements
624.03 Preparing Areas. Shape slopes and disturbed areas to be covered with topsoil. Disk or scarify
slopes 1V:3H or flatter to a depth of 4 inches (100 millimeters) perpendicular to the natural flow of water.
624.04 Placing Topsoil. Provide at least 7 days notice before the start of topsoil placement. Do not place
topsoil when the ground or topsoil is frozen, excessively wet, or otherwise in a condition detrimental to the
work. Use conserved topsoil before furnishing topsoil. Keep the roadway surfaces clean during hauling
and spreading operations.
Spread topsoil to a depth that after settlement, provides the required depth. Break clods and lumps with
harrows, disks, or other appropriate equipment to provide a uniform textured soil. Remove and dispose of
clods and stones larger than 2 inches (50 millimeters), stumps, roots, and other litter according to
Subsection 203.05.
Construct longitudinal depressions at least 2 inches (50 millimeters) deep perpendicular to the natural flow
of water without overly compacting the topsoil surface.
624.05 Acceptance. Material for furnished topsoil will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Material for conserved topsoil will be evaluated under Subsection 106.02.
Placing topsoil will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
624.06 Measure the Section 624 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring furnishing and placing topsoil by the cubic yard (cubic meter), measure in the hauling
vehicle or by the acre (hectare) on the ground surface.
When measuring placing conserved topsoil by the cubic yard (cubic meter), measure in the hauling vehicle
or by the acre (hectare) on the ground surface.
611
Section 624
Payment
624.07 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
624 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
612
Section 625
Section 625. — TURF ESTABLISHMENT
Description
625.01 This work consists of soil preparation, watering, fertilizing, seeding, and mulching.
Seeding and mulching methods are designated as dry or hydraulic.
Material
625.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Agricultural limestone
713.02
Fertilizer
713.03
Mulch
713.05
Seed
713.04
Tackifiers
713.11
Water
725.01(b)
Construction Requirements
625.03 General. Apply turf establishment to finished slopes and ditches within 14 days after completion
of construction on a portion of the site when approved by the CO. Do not seed during windy weather or
when the ground is excessively wet, frozen, snow covered, extremely dry, cloddy, hard pan, or not friable.
625.04 Preparing Seedbed. Grade the seeding area to line and grade. Remove weeds, sticks, stones
2 inches (50 millimeters) in diameter and larger, and other debris detrimental to application, growth, or
maintenance of the turf.
Apply limestone and grub proofing if specified.
Cultivate the seeding area to a minimum depth of 4 inches (100 millimeters) and prepare a firm, but friable
seedbed before seeding. Do not cultivate aggregate-topsoil courses that were previously dry seeded under
Section 313.
625.05 Watering. Moisten seeding areas before seeding and maintain the moisture until turf is established
or until final acceptance.
625.06 Fertilizing. Apply fertilizer by the following methods:
(a) Dry method. Incorporate the fertilizer into the upper portion of the seedbed before seeding; or
(b) Hydraulic method. Add fertilizer to the slurry and mix before adding seed. Apply the seed and
fertilizer in one application.
613
Section 625
625.07 Seeding. Apply seed by the following methods:
(a) Dry method. Apply the seed with approved power driven seeders, drills, or other mechanical
equipment. Hand-operated seeding methods are satisfactory on areas inaccessible to mechanical
equipment; or
(b) Hydraulic method. Use hydraulic-type equipment capable of providing a uniform application
using water as the carrying agent. Add a tracer material consisting of either wood or grass cellulose
fiber mulch to the water. Apply the tracer material at a rate of 400 pounds per acre (450 kilograms per
hectare) to provide visible evidence of uniform application. Add the seed to the water slurry no more
than 30 minutes before application. Seed by hand areas inaccessible to seeding equipment.
625.08 Mulching. If wood chips are used, do not import without approval from the CO. Apply mulch
within 48 hours after seeding by the following methods:
(a) Dry method. Spread mulch material, except wood and grass cellulose fibers, by a mulch spreader
utilizing forced air to blow the mulch material onto the seeded area. Apply straw mulch at a rate of
3200 pounds per acre (3600 kilograms per hectare). Anchor the mulch material with an approved
tackifier or approved mechanical method. Do not mark or deface structures, pavements, utilities, or
plant growth with tackifier; or
(b) Hydraulic method. Apply mulch in a separate application from the seed using hydraulic-type
equipment according to Subsection 625.07(b).
Apply wood fiber or grass straw cellulose fiber mulch at a rate of
1500 pounds per acre
(1700 kilograms per hectare).
Apply bonded fiber matrix hydraulic mulch at a minimum rate of
3000 pounds per acre
(3400 kilograms per hectare). Apply so no hole in the matrix is greater than 0.04 inches (1 millimeter).
Apply so that no gaps exist between the matrix and the soil.
Mulch by hand areas inaccessible to mulching equipment.
625.09 Protecting and Caring for Seeded Areas. Protect and care for seeded areas including watering
when needed. Repair or apply supplemental applications of seed, mulch, fertilizer, and water as many
times as needed until turf is established or final acceptance.
625.10 Acceptance. Material for turf establishment will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.03.
Placing of turf establishment will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
614
Section 625
Measurement
625.11 Measure the Section 625 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring turf establishment and supplemental applications by the acre (hectare), measure on the
ground surface.
When measuring water by volume or mass, measure in the hauling vehicle or by metering.
Payment
625.12 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
625 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
615
Section 626
Section 626. — PLANTS, TREES, SHRUBS, VINES,
AND GROUNDCOVERS
Description
626.01 This work consists of furnishing and planting trees, shrubs, vines, groundcovers, and other plants.
Material
626.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Fertilizer
713.03
Miscellaneous planting material
713.08
Mulch
713.05
Plant material
713.06
Topsoil
713.01
Water
725.01(b)
Construction Requirements
626.03 General. Do not plant in frozen ground, when snow covers the ground, or when the soil is
saturated, extremely dry, cloddy, hard pan, not friable, or is otherwise unsatisfactory for planting.
Furnish stock with a live and fibrous root system. Do not provide container-grown stock that is
pot-bound, has a top system out of proportion (larger) than the size of the container, has rooting media
that does not hold together when plant is removed from the container, or has roots growing out of the
container.
Tag each plant or groups of plants with a weatherproof tag showing species name and date of delivery.
Install plants received on site within 7 days.
626.04 Delivery. Notify the CO 30 days before delivery of material to permit the CO the opportunity to
select material at the source. Submit commercial certifications and complete written information
concerning the source of supply for plant material at least 14 days before delivery of plants to the project.
626.05 Protection and Temporary Storage. Package plants to provide protection against weather and
breakage during transit. Tie and cover plants to prevent wind damage and dehydration when transporting
by open vehicle. Pack and ventilate plants to prevent sweating when transporting by closed vehicle.
Keep bare root plants below 35 °F (2 °C) during transport.
Keep growing media moist. Protect bark, branches, and root systems from damage. Replace damaged
plants including plants with cracked or crushed root balls.
616
Section 626
Protect plants not scheduled for immediate planting as follows:
(a) Keep bare root plants below 35 °F (2 °C);
(b) Cover the earth balls of balled and burlapped plants with mulch or other suitable material and
keep moist;
(c) Protect container-grown plants from over-exposure to sunlight and keep moist; and
(d) Protect plants from animals and insects.
626.06 Excavation for Plant Pits and Beds. At least 14 days before planting, submit planting locations
and methods of planting for approval. Mark planting locations with stakes or flagging. Remove sod,
weeds, roots, and other unsuitable material from the planting site. Excavate plant pits as follows:
(a) Width of excavation.
(1) For root spread or ball diameters up to 48 inches (1200 millimeter), dig the pits circular in
outline to the root spread plus 24 inches (600 millimeter).
(2) For root spreads or ball diameters over 48 inches (1200 millimeter), excavate one and one-
half times the root spread.
(b) Depth of excavation. Dig the pits to a depth that permits at least 6 inches (150 millimeters) of
backfill under the roots or balls or dig the pits to the following depths, whichever is deeper:
(1) Deciduous trees.
(a) Under 1½-inch (38 millimeters) caliper
24 inches (600 millimeters) deep
(b) Over1½-inch (38 millimeters) caliper
36 inches (900 millimeters) deep
(2) Deciduous and evergreen shrubs.
(a) Under 2 feet (0.5 meters) height
12 inches (300 millimeters) deep
(b) Over 2 feet (0.5 meters) height
24 inches (600 millimeters) deep
(3) Evergreen trees.
(a) Under 5 feet (1.5 meters) height
8 inches (200 millimeters) plus ball height
(b) Over 5 feet (1.5 meters) height
12 inches (300 millimeters) plus ball height
(4) Vines and groundcovers. Double the size of the pot.
Loosen soil at the sidewalls and bottom of the plant pit to a depth of 6 inches (150 millimeters) before
setting the plant.
Do not leave planting holes open overnight.
626.07 Setting Plants. Do not plant material until inspected and approved by the CO. Plants not
conforming to specifications, arriving on site in an unsatisfactory condition, or showing sign of improper
handling will be rejected. Immediately remove and dispose of rejected plants off site and replace with
approved nursery stock.
617
Section 626
Prepare a backfill mixture of 4 parts topsoil, loam, or selected soil to one part peat moss. Place backfill
mixture in the bottom of the plant pit. Set plants approximately plumb and at the same level or slightly
lower than the depth at which they were grown in the nursery or collected in the field. Set plants as
follows:
(a) Bare root stock. Place bare rooted plants in the center of the plant pit with the roots properly
spread in a natural position. Work backfill mixture around and over the roots, tamp as hole is being
filled, and water thoroughly.
(b) Balled and burlapped stock. Handle and move plants by the ball. Place balled and burlapped
plants in the prepared pits on tamped backfill mixture. Score the root ball to a depth of 1 inch
(25 millimeters) along the entire side equally on 4 sides. Backfill around the plant ball to half the depth
of the ball. Tamp and thoroughly water. Cut the burlap and remove it from the upper half of the ball or
loosen the burlap and fold it back. If wire baskets are used cut the wire from the upper half of the
basket. Backfill the remainder of the plant with backfill mixture.
(c) Container-grown stock. Remove the container just before planting. Place plants in the prepared
pits on tamped backfill mixture. Backfill the remainder of the plant with backfill mixture and tamp.
626.08 Fertilizing. Fertilize using either of the following methods:
(a) Mix the fertilizer with the backfill mixture when it is prepared; or
(b) Spread the fertilizer uniformly around the pit area of individual plants or over shrub beds. Cultivate
the fertilizer into the top 2 inches (50 millimeters) of the backfill mixture.
626.09 Watering. Construct
4-inch
(100-millimeter) deep water basins around trees and
3-inch
(75-millimeter) deep water basins around shrubs. Make the diameter of the basin equal to that of the plant
pit.
Water plants during and immediately after planting and throughout the plant establishment period. Saturate
the soil around each plant at each watering.
626.10 Guying and Staking. When guying and staking is specified, guy deciduous trees just below the
first lateral branch and guy evergreen trees half way up the height of the tree. Do not leave the guys and
stakes on a tree for more than one growing season.
626.11 Pruning. Prune before or immediately after planting to preserve the natural character of each plant.
Use experienced personnel to perform the pruning. Use accepted horticultural practice. Paint cuts over
¾ inch (19 millimeters) in diameter with tree wound dressing.
626.12 Mulching. Remove weeds and other live vegetation from pit and water basin areas around
individual plants and from entire shrub beds. If wood chips are used, do not import without approval
from the CO. Place mulch within 24 hours after planting.
626.13 Plant Establishment Period. The plant establishment period is a 1-year period beginning at the
completion of the project. Employ necessary means to preserve the plants in a healthy growing condition
during the plant establishment period. Water, weed, prune, adjust guys and stakes, and protect from
animals, insects and disease during the plant establishment period. At the end of the plant establishment
period, remove guys and stakes.
618
Section 626
626.14 Acceptance. Material for plants, trees, shrubs, vines, and groundcovers (including fertilizer, mulch,
and topsoil) will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Planting of plants, trees, shrubs, vines, and groundcovers will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.04 and as follows:
An inspection of the plant material will be made about 15 days before the end of the plant establishment
period to identify dead, dying, or diseased plants for removal and replacement. During the following
planting season, remove and replace identified plants according to this Section. A final inspection of all
plant material within 15 days after completion of all replacement planting will be the basis for final
acceptance.
Measurement
626.15 Measure the Section 626 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
626.16 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
626 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Progress payments for plants will be paid as follows:
(a) 75 percent of the pay item amount will be paid following initial planting.
(b) The remaining 25 percent of the pay item amount price will be paid after the final inspection.
619
Section 627
Section 627. — SOD
Description
627.01 This work consists of furnishing and placing living sod of perennial turf-forming grasses.
Material
627.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Agricultural limestone
713.02
Fertilizer
713.03
Pegs for sod
713.10
Sod
713.09
Water
725.01(b)
Construction Requirements
627.03 General. Move and lay sod during dry weather and on dry, unfrozen ground.
Avoid erosion when watering.
627.04 Delivery. Provide at least 3 days notice before cutting sod. The CO will approve the sod in its
original position before cutting. Do not deliver sod until the soil is prepared.
627.05 Preparing the Soil. Clear and grade the surface. Cultivate, disk, harrow, or otherwise loosen the
grade to a depth of at least 4 inches (100 millimeters). Finish the surface to a smoothness comparable to
hand raking. Remove surface stones not passing a 1-inch (25-millimeter) sieve, sticks, stumps, and other
surface debris interferes with sod placement or subsequent growth.
Place topsoil according to Section 624.
Apply fertilizer and agricultural limestone uniformly over the sodding area. Mechanical spreaders or
blower equipment may be used. Disk or till the fertilizer and limestone into the soil to a depth of 4 inches
(100 millimeters).
Moisten the prepared soil.
627.06 Placing Sod. Place sod within 24 hours after cutting or within 5 days after cutting when the sod is
stored in moist stacks, grass-to-grass and roots-to-roots. Protect sod against drying and from freezing.
(a) Solid sod. Place sod perpendicular to drainage flows. Place sections of solid sod edge to edge with
staggered joints. Plug openings with sod or fill openings with acceptable loamy seeded topsoil. Roll or
tamp sod to eliminate air pockets and provide an even surface. On slopes 1V:2H or steeper and in
channels, peg sod on 24-inch (600-millimeter) centers after rolling or tamping. Drive pegs flush with
the sod bed surface.
(b) Strip sod. Lay strip sod in shallow trenches in parallel rows. Firmly roll or tamp until the surface
of the sod is level with or below the adjacent soil. Seed the soil between the strips of sod according to
Section 625. Rake or drag the seeded areas to cover the seed.
620
Section 627
(c) Spot sod. Place sod blocks. Roll or tamp the blocks into the soil until the sod surfaces are slightly
below the surrounding ground surface.
Blend final grades with existing adjacent areas. Leave the entire area drainable and without abrupt changes
in slope.
627.07 Maintaining Sodded Areas. Water sod to a depth of 4 inches (100 millimeters) after placing and
keep moist.
Protect newly sodded areas using methods approved by the CO. Do not allow wheeled vehicles on newly
sodded areas.
Mow sodded areas and repair or replace sodded areas that are damaged or fail to show a uniform growth of
grass. Maintain sodded areas and replace nonliving sod until final acceptance of the project.
627.08 Acceptance. Material for sod (including lime and fertilizer) will be evaluated under Subsections
106.02 and 106.03.
Placing sod will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Topsoil will be evaluated under Section 624.
Measurement
627.09 Measure the Section 627 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Do not measure non-sodded areas adjacent to strip and spot sodding.
Measure topsoil under Section 624.
Measure water and seeding under Section 625.
Payment
627.10 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
627 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
621
Section 628. — RESERVED
622
Section 629
Section 629. — ROLLED EROSION CONTROL PRODUCTS
AND CELLULAR CONFINEMENT SYSTEMS
Description
629.01 This work consists of constructing temporary and permanent installations to control erosion
and enhance vegetation establishment and survivability on slopes and channels. This work also
includes installing rolled erosion control products (RECP) and cellular confinement systems.
RECP are designated according to Subsections 713.17, 713.18, and the following:
(a) Mulch control netting. A planar woven natural fiber or extruded geosynthetic mesh used as a
temporary degradable RECP to anchor loose fiber mulches.
(b) Open weave textile. A temporary degradable RECP composed of processed natural or
polymer yarns woven into a matrix, used to provide erosion control and facilitate vegetation
establishment.
(c) Erosion control blanket. A temporary degradable RECP composed of processed natural or
polymer fibers mechanically, structurally or chemically bound together to form a continuous matrix
to provide erosion control and facilitate vegetation establishment.
(d) Turf reinforcement mat. A permanent non-degradable RECP designed for critical hydraulic
applications where design discharges exert velocities and shear stresses that exceed the limits of
mature, natural vegetation. Turf reinforcement mats provide sufficient thickness, strength, and void
space to permit soil filling and retention and the development of vegetation within the matrix. Turf
reinforcement mats are typically used in hydraulic application (such as high flow ditches and
channels, steep slopes, stream banks, and shorelines) where erosive forces may exceed the limits of
natural, unreinforced vegetation or in areas where limited vegetation establishment is anticipated.
Turf reinforcement mats may be supplemented with degradable components to provide immediate
and permanent erosion protection and vegetation reinforcement on geotechnically stable slopes.
Cellular confinement system cell depths are designated according to Table 713-2.
Material
629.02 Conform to the following Sections and Subsections:
Cellular confinement systems
713.07
Temporary rolled erosion control products
713.17
Topsoil
624
Turf establishment
625
Turf reinforcement mat
713.18
623
Section 629
Construction Requirements
629.03 General. Make the soil surface stable, firm, and free of rocks and other obstructions. Install RECP
and cellular confinement systems according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and to the following
minimum guidelines. Apply turf establishment according to Section 625.
In areas to be mowed soon after installation, use temporary RECP consisting of rapidly degrading netting
with a functional longevity of 3 months or less.
629.04 Mulch Control Netting (RECP, Types 1.A,
2.A, and 3.A). Apply mulch according to
Subsection
625.08(a). Immediately after mulching, install mulch control netting according to
Subsection 629.05.
629.05 Erosion Control Blanket, Open Weave Textile, and Turf Reinforcement Mat (RECP,
Types 1.B, 1.C, 1.D, 2.B, 2.C, 2.D, 3.B, 4, 5.A, 5.B, and
5.C). Unless soil in- filling is required,
complete turf establishment work before installing RECP.
If soil in-filling is required, first install RECP. Then apply seed and lightly brush or rake ¼ to ¾ inches
(6 to 19 millimeters) of topsoil into the voids in the RECP filling the full product thickness.
Use staples that are at least 6 inches (150 millimeters) long to secure the RECP. Longer staples may
be necessary in sandy, loose, or wet soils.
Unroll the RECP parallel to the primary direction of flow and place it in direct contact with soil surface.
Do not stretch or allow RECP to bridge over surface inconsistencies. Overlap edges of adjacent RECP by
2 to 4 inches (50 to 100 millimeters). Use a sufficient number of staples to prevent seam separation.
Overlap roll ends of joining RECP 2 to 6 inches (50 to 150 millimeters) in the direction of flow.
(a) Slope installations. At the top of slope, anchor the RECP by one of the following methods:
(1) Staples. Install the RECP 36 inches (900 millimeters) over the shoulder of the slope onto
flat final grade. Secure with a single row of staples on 12-inch (300-millimeter) centers;
(2) Anchor trench. Construct a 6- by 6-inch (150- by 150-millimeter) trench. Extend the
upslope terminal end of the RECP 36 inches (900 millimeters) past the trench. Use staples
on 12-inch (300-millimeter) centers to fasten the RECP into the trench. Backfill the trench and
compact the soil. Secure the terminal end with a single row of staples on
12-inch
(300-millimeter) centers and cover the end with soil. Apply turf establishment; or
(3) Check slot. Install two rows of staples
4 inches (100 millimeters) apart on
4-inch
(100-millimeter) centers across the top edge of the RECP. Drive staple heads flush with soil
surface.
Securely fasten RECP to the soil by installing staples at a minimum rate of 1.5 per square yard
(1.3 per square meter).
(b) Channel installations. At the beginning of the channel, construct a full width anchor trench
according to Subsection 629.05(a)(2). Construct additional anchor trenches or check slots at intervals
along the channel reach and at the channel end according to Subsection 629.05(a)(2) or (a)(3) and
the manufacturer’s installation guidelines.
624

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Content      ..     14      15      16      17     ..