STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 15

 

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 15

 

 

Section 601
(i) When colored concrete is required, submit preliminary samples of the colored concrete. Prepare a
3-foot by 3-foot by 4-inch (1-meter by 1-meter by 100-millimeter) panel for each acceptable mix that
is to be colored. Finish and cure the panels in the same manner as the concrete will be finished and
cured on the project.
Table 601-1
Composition of Minor Concrete
Property
Specification
Cement content
611 pounds per cubic yard
(362 kilograms per cubic meter)
minimum
Water/cementitious material
0.49 maximum
Slump
5 inches
(125 millimeters)
maximum
Air content
4 % minimum
Size of coarse aggregate
AASHTO M 43
with 100% passing the
1½-inch
(37.5-millimeter) sieve
28-day compressive strength
3,000 pounds per square inch
(25 megapascal)
minimum
601.04 General. Excavate and backfill according to Section 209. When concrete is cracked, spalling, or
scaling, remove concrete to the nearest joint.
Design and construct forms that are free of bulge and warp and allow for removal without injuring the
concrete. Design the forms for a lateral pressure equal to that exerted by a fluid weighing 150 pounds per
cubic foot (2400 kilograms per cubic meter).
Use wood, metal, or other suitable material for forms. Keep forms clean and coat with a form release agent
or form oil before placing concrete.
Place and fasten reinforcing steel according to Subsection 554.08.
601.05 Placing Concrete. Conform to Subsection 552.10. Moisten the forms and foundation immediately
before placing concrete. Discharge concrete within the time limit shown in Table 552-4.
Place concrete to avoid segregation of material. Consolidate with vibrators according to Subsection
552.11(d). Do not use aluminum pipe for transporting or placing concrete. Do not exceed 30 minutes
between deliveries of batches for a single pour on a structure.
Do not apply water to plastic concrete surfaces during finishing operations.
545
Section 601
601.06 Curing Concrete. Cure concrete at least 7 days. If high early strength cement is used, cure
concrete at least 3 days. Cure according to Subsection 552.15. Finish exposed concrete surfaces according
to Subsection 552.16 as applicable.
601.07 Acceptance. Material for minor concrete structures including concrete, reinforcing steel, and
structural steel for minor structures will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Construction of minor concrete structures will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Excavation and backfill will be evaluated under Section 209.
Measurement
601.08 Measure the Section 601 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When concrete is measured by the cubic yard (cubic meter), measure in the structure.
Payment
601.09 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
601 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Payment for concrete lump sum bid item will be prorated based on the progress of the work under this
Section.
546
Section 602
Section 602. — CULVERTS AND DRAINS
Description
602.01 This work consists of furnishing and installing culverts, drains, and precast concrete box culverts.
Material
602.02 Conform to the following Sections and Subsections:
Asphalt mastic
702.04
Concrete pipe
706
Gaskets for concrete pipe
706.08
Gaskets for ductile iron pipe
707.18
Gaskets for metal pipe
707.17
Gaskets for plastic pipe
708.08
Lean concrete backfill
614
Metal pipe
707
Mortar
712.02
Plastic pipe
708
Precast concrete units and accessories
725.09
Precast reinforced concrete box sections
706.07
Sealants, fillers, and seals
712.01
Supplemental concrete pipe ties
706.09
Construction Requirements
602.03 General. Furnish culvert pipe with a wall thickness not less than that shown in the plans or
determined from the fill-height tables included in the plans. Use the same material and coating on
contiguous pipe sections and special sections (such as elbows and branch connections). For culvert
extensions, furnish the same material as the existing culvert.
Plans show the size, length, and approximate location of culverts. Determine final location, skew, length,
elevations, and grade according to Section 152. Do not order culvert material until the CO has accepted the
final structure size, length, and alignment.
Construct cast-in-place concrete box culverts according to Section 552. For precast concrete box culverts,
submit design drawings and details with supporting calculations according to Subsection 104.03.
Excavate and backfill according to Section 209.
Place elongated pipes with the minor axis within 5 degrees of vertical.
Construct a piping plug unless the culvert inlet is protected with a full-height headwall, slope paving, or an
embankment consisting of AASHTO M 145 classification A-6 or A-7 material. Construct the piping plug
with AASHTO M 145 classification A-6, A-7, or other approved material with a permeability not
exceeding 0.004 inches (0.1 millimeters) per second.
547
Section 602
602.04 Laying Concrete Pipe and Precast Concrete Box Culverts. Start at the lower end and lay the
bell or groove end upgrade. Fully join sections with leak-resistant seals using one of the following
methods:
(a) Mortared joints. Clean the lower portion of the receiving end of the pipe. Plaster the inside with
sufficient joint mortar to bring the inner surfaces of the abutting pipe sections flush and even. Fit the
sections as close as the construction of the culvert permits. Fill and seal joints with mortar inside and
out. Use the mortar within 30 minutes after mixing. Clean excess mortar from the inside of the joint.
Cure mortar outside of joints by covering with polyethylene sheeting or spraying with a curing
compound. Backfill while mortar is plastic or, if mortar sets before backfilling, wait at least 24 hours
before backfilling.
(b) Gasket joints. Conform to ASTM C990 or ASTM C443 and the following:
(1) Protect the joint ends from mud, silt, gravel, or other foreign material. Lay the pipe sections
with gaskets attached. Remove, clean, relubricate, and reseat gaskets disturbed or contaminated.
(2) Align the pipe sections. Force the joints home using the pipe manufacturer’s recommended
procedure. Do not drive or ram by hand or machinery. Block the last section of each day's run to
prevent creep.
Install supplemental concrete pipe ties on the last downstream pipe-to-pipe joint and at the downstream
pipe-to-end section joint, if present.
602.05 Laying Metal Pipe. Position the pipe with a longitudinal joint so the joint is opposite the invert.
Fully join pipe sections with leak-resistant seals according to AASHTO M 36 or AASHTO M 196. Use
one of the following:
(a) Gasket, bell and spigot joints. Use on slopes of 10 percent or less and lay the pipe with the bell
end up slope.
(b) Coupling bands with gaskets. Limit the use of coupling bands with projections (dimples) to
attaching prefabricated flared end sections.
When aluminum alloys come in contact with other metals, coat the contacting surfaces with asphalt mastic
or a preapproved impregnated caulking compound.
602.06 Laying Plastic Pipe. Lay plastic pipe according to the pipe manufacturer’s recommendation.
Fully join pipe sections with leak-resistant seals using gasket, bell and spigot joints according to
ASTM D3212.
602.07 Laying Slotted Drain Pipe. Fully join pipe sections with leak-resistant seals using coupling bands
and gaskets. Cover the slots with roofing paper or other approved covering during backfilling and paving
to keep material out of the pipe. Backfill with a lean concrete backfill.
548
Section 602
602.08 Acceptance. Material for culverts, drains, and precast concrete box culverts furnished will be
evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Installation of culverts, drains and precast concrete box culverts will be evaluated under Subsections
106.02 and 106.04.
Excavation and backfill will be evaluated under Section 209.
Measurement
602.09 Measure the Section 602 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring pipe and box culverts by the linear foot (meter), measure along the invert.
Measure end sections, elbows, and branch connections by the each. If there is no pay item for elbows or
branch connections, measure them as additional pipe length along the invert.
Measure pipe anchor assemblies under Section 606.
Payment
602.10 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
602 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
549
Section 603
Section 603. — STRUCTURAL PLATE STRUCTURES
Description
603.01 This work consists of constructing structural plate pipes, arches, pipe arches, boxes, and
underpasses.
Material
603.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Aluminum-alloy structural plate structures
707.06
Asphalt-coated structural plate structures
707.07
Steel structural plate structures
707.05
Construction Requirements
603.03 General. Excavate and backfill according to Section 209.
603.04 Erecting. Furnish steel, aluminum alloy, asphalt coated steel, or asphalt-coated aluminum alloy
structural plate structures.
Submit a copy of manufacturer’s assembly instructions before assembly. Show the position of each plate
and assembly order.
Assemble the structural plates according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Exercise care in the use of
drift pins and pry bars to prevent damage to the structural plate and its coating. Clear sand, gravel, and
other foreign material from the corrugations within lapped sections of the plates. Ensure plates have a
proper fit-up.
Where aluminum alloys come in contact with other types of metal, coat the contacting surfaces according
to Subsection 602.05.
Torque steel bolts on steel plates to at least 100 foot-pounds (135 newton-meters) and a maximum of
300 foot-pounds (400 newton-meters).
Torque steel bolts and aluminum bolts on 0.1-inch (2.5-millimeter) thick aluminum plates to at least
90 foot-pounds (120 newton-meters) and a maximum of 115 foot-pounds (155 newton-meters).
Torque steel bolts and aluminum bolts on 0.1-inch (2.5-millimeter) thick and heavier aluminum plates to at
least 90 foot-pounds (155 newton-meters) and a maximum of 115 foot-pounds (180 newton-meters).
For long-span structures:
(a) Tighten the longitudinal seams when the plates are assembled unless the plates are held in shape by
cables, struts, or backfill. Properly align plates circumferentially to avoid permanent distortion from
the design shape. Before backfilling, do not exceed 2 percent variation from the design shape.
(b) Do not distort the shape of the structure by operating equipment over or near it.
550
Section 603
(c) Provide suitable survey control on the structure to check structure movement.
(d) Check and control the deflection movements of the structure during the entire backfilling
operation. Do not exceed the manufacturer’s recommended limits.
(e) Provide a manufacturer’s representative to monitor the erecting and backfilling of the structure.
603.05 Acceptance. Material for structural plate structures will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.03.
Installation of structural plate structures will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Excavation and backfill will be evaluated under Section 209.
Measurement
603.06 Measure the Section 603 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
603.07 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
603 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
551
Section 604
Section 604. — MANHOLES, INLETS, AND CATCH BASINS
Description
604.01 This work consists of constructing, adjusting, shifting, or modifying manholes, inlets, and catch
basins.
Material
604.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsections:
Concrete building brick
725.06
Concrete masonry units
725.07
Corrugated metal units
725.11
Frames, grates, covers, and ladder rungs
725.10
Gaskets for concrete pipe
706.08
Gaskets for metal pipe
707.17
Minor concrete
601
Mortar
712.02
Neat hydraulic cement grout
725.13(a)(2)
Reinforced concrete manhole sections
725.09(a)
Reinforcing steel
709.01
Sealants, fillers, and seals
712.01
Construction Requirements
604.03 General. Excavate and backfill according to Section 209.
Separate catch basins and inlets from adjacent concrete structures with at least ½-inch (13-millimeter)
thick preformed expansion joint.
Construct minor concrete according to Section 601.
604.04 Concrete Construction. Concrete units may be cast-in-place or precast. Finish surfaces according
to Subsection 552.16 as applicable.
Finish the flow line in manholes, inlets, and catch basins to match the pipe flow line.
Assemble precast concrete manhole sections with flexible gaskets or fillers in the tongue and groove
joints. Handle the precast units carefully after the gasket has been attached to avoid damaging the gasket or
contaminating the joint. Attain the proper alignment before the joints are forced home. Ensure gasket is
uniformly seated. Apply mastic joint filler according to manufacturer’s recommendations if mastic is used.
Set metal frames in a full mortar bed.
Space ladder rungs uniformly on 12-inch (300-millimeter) centers and align vertically. Grout ladder rungs
into precast concrete walls.
552
Section 604
604.05 Concrete Masonry Unit Construction. Construct masonry block plumb. Stagger vertical joints
and set block with the cells vertical. Moisten blocks before using in work. Butter bearing members and
vertical joints full of mortar. Bond block with mortar on sides. Construct joints straight, level, plumb,
flush, and ¼ to ½ inch (6 to 13 millimeters) thick. Backfill the structure after the masonry block joints
have moist cured for 7 days.
604.06 Metal Construction. Fabricate metal drop inlets from the same material and thickness as adjoining
metal pipes. Connect metal inlets to adjoining metal pipes according to Subsection 602.05.
604.07 Grade Adjustment of Structures. Adjust metal frames and grates to grade before placing the
surface course.
Remove and clean the frames, covers, and grates. Trim the walls down to solid material. Reconstruct the
walls with the same material as existing and reset the cleaned frames at the required elevation.
When the existing casting and supporting walls are in good condition, an approved device may be used to
adjust the manhole casting cover to the correct grade.
Clean each structure of foreign material.
604.08 Shifting and Modifying Structures. Shift structures using methods to ensure structural integrity.
Reshape the channel flow line in manholes, inlets, and catch basins as necessary to match the pipe flow
line.
Set and reassemble structures according to the applicable requirements of Subsections 604.04 through
604.07. Furnish and install gaskets, seals, and other accessories according to the applicable requirements
of Subsections 604.04 through 604.06. Grout or use a preformed joint seal to make joints and openings
leak resistant. Finish mortar joints with a bead on the outside and a smooth finish on the inside.
When modifying a concrete structure, do not cut the concrete and reinforcing steel in a manner that loosen
the reinforcement in the wall. Cut the reinforcing steel flush with the opening wall face. Grout joints and
openings cut in the wall.
Seal openings no longer required in the structure.
When an existing structure is abandoned, seal pipes entering the structure with a tight fitting plug of
concrete at least 6 inches (150 millimeters) thick or water tight masonry at least 8 inches (200 millimeters)
thick. Ensure the structure does not entrap water. Obliterate the top of the structure to an elevation at least
36 inches (900 millimeters) below finished grade and backfill according to Section 209.
604.09 Acceptance. Material for metal, concrete brick, concrete masonry, precast concrete units, and
cast-in-place concrete (except concrete) units will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Concrete for cast-in-place concrete units will be evaluated under Section 601.
Construction of metal, concrete brick, concrete masonry, and cast-in-place concrete units will be evaluated
under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Installation of precast concrete units will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Shifting, modifying, and adjusting units will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
553
Section 604
Excavation and backfill will be evaluated under Section 209.
Measurement
604.10 Measure the Section 604 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When manholes are measured by the linear foot (meter), measure from finished grade to the flow line
surface of the manhole.
Do not measure metal frames and grates when included as part of the original inlet, manhole, or catch
basin construction.
Payment
604.11 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
604 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
554
Section 605
Section 605. — UNDERDRAINS, SHEET DRAINS, AND
PAVEMENT EDGE DRAINS
Description
605.01 This work consists of furnishing and installing underdrains, sheet drains, and
pavement edge
drains.
Geotextile filter is designated according to Table 714-1.
Material
605.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsections:
Aluminum-alloy corrugated pipe
707.03
Asphalt-coated pipe
707.04
Geocomposite drain
714.02
Geotextile
714.01
Granular backfill
703.03
Metallic-coated corrugated steel pipe
707.02
Perforated concrete pipe
706.03
Plastic pipe
708
Sand
703.14
Structural backfill
704.04
Construction Requirements
605.03 General. Elevate and protect sheets, panels, or rolls of geotextile filter and geocomposite with a
waterproof and ultraviolet resistant cover if stored outdoors. Limit geotextile filter and geocomposite
exposure to less than 10 days when using for a permanent installation.
Use the same material and coating on contiguous drain sections, extensions, elbows, branch connections,
and other special sections.
Drain material, size, and approximate location are shown in the plans. Determine the final location and
length in the field.
Do not install drain material until the CO has accepted the final location and length.
Excavate and backfill according to Section 209.
If geotextile filter or geocomposite is used, smooth the trench surfaces by removing projections that may
damage the geotextile filter or geocomposite. Replace geotextile filter or geocomposite damaged during
installation.
Do not allow soil or other foreign material to enter the drain systems. Plug the upgrade end of installations.
555
Section 605
Furnish nonperforated pipe for outlet pipe. Install outlet pipe according to Section 602. Immediately place
and secure a screen made of 0.055-inch (1.4-millimeter) diameter galvanized wire having approximately
½- by ½-inch (13- by 13-millimeter) mesh openings over the outlet ends of exposed pipes and weep holes.
605.04 Placing Underdrain. Join pipe sections securely with coupling fittings or bands. Join PVC and
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) pipe using either a flexible elastomeric seal or solvent cement. Join
polyethylene pipe with snap-on, screw-on, or wrap around coupling bands as recommended by the
manufacturer.
Backfill and compact trenches within the limits of the roadbed according to Section 209, except use
granular backfill material. Trenches for geocomposite underdrains within the limits of the roadbed may
also be backfilled with sand and compacted.
When underdrain is placed in ditch lines, prevent infiltration of surface water by placing material
conforming to AASHTO M 145, classification A-4, A-5, A-6, or A-7 in the top 12 inches (300 millimeter)
of the trench.
(a) Standard underdrain. Place the long dimension of the geotextile filter parallel to the centerline of
the trench. Position the geotextile filter, without stretching, in contact with the trench surface. Overlap
the joints at least
24 inches (600 millimeter) with the upstream geotextile filter placed over the
downstream geotextile filter.
Place collector pipe with the perforations facing downward.
Place granular backfill to a height of 12 inches (300 millimeter) above the top of the collector pipe and
compact. Do not displace the collector pipe. Place and compact the remainder of the granular backfill
material according to Section 209.
Fold the geotextile filter over the top of the granular backfill with a minimum overlap of 12 inches
(300 millimeter).
(b) Geocomposite underdrain. Extend the geotextile filter from the bottom of the drainage core
around the collector pipe.
Construct splices and install outlet fittings according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Prevent
infiltration of soil into the geocomposite core.
Place the assembled geocomposite in the trench with the face of the geocomposite against the inflow
side of the trench. If the trench wall is irregular, smooth the trench wall or place a layer of granular
backfill between the geocomposite and the trench wall. Temporarily support the drain against the
trench wall while backfilling.
When the trench is less than 18 inches (450 millimeter) wide, backfill the trench using sand.
Backfilling and compacting in layers is not required. Compact the sand by vibrating or tamping with a
mechanical tamper.
When the trench is equal to or greater than 18 inches (450 millimeter) wide, place granular backfill or
sand to a height of 12 inches (300 millimeter) above the top of the collector pipe and compact. Place
and compact the remainder of the granular backfill material or sand according to Section 209.
556
Section 605
For pipe drain installations draining directly to daylight, cover the outlet end of the pipe with a
removable screen made of 0.055-inch (1.4-millimeter) diameter galvanized wires having approximate
½- by ½-inch (13- by 13-millimeter) mesh openings.
605.05 Placing Geocomposite Sheet Drain. Do not place sheet drain against a mortar course less than
4 days old.
When a geocomposite is used in conjunction with a waterproof membrane, install drainage panels
compatible with the membrane using methods recommended by the membrane manufacturer. Assemble
and place the geocomposite drain against the surface to be backfilled according to the manufacturer’s
recommendations.
Splice geocomposite drains so the flow across the edges is continuous. Overlap the geotextile filter at least
3 inches (75 millimeter) in the direction of water flow. For vertical splices, overlap the geotextile filter in
the direction backfill proceeds.
Connect the drainage core to the collector pipe or weep holes so the flow is continuous through the system.
Extend the geotextile filter from the bottom of the drainage core around the collector pipe.
Backfill with structural backfill and compact according to Subsections 209.09 and 209.10.
605.06 Placing Geocomposite Pavement Edge Drain. Assemble the geocomposite pavement edge drain
and outlet material according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and place it in the trench. If the
trench wall is irregular, smooth the trench wall or place a layer of sand between the geocomposite and the
trench wall. Temporarily support the drain against the trench wall while backfilling.
When the trench is less than 18 inches (450 millimeter) wide, backfill the trench using sand. Backfilling
and compacting in layers is not required. Compact the sand by vibrating or tamping with a mechanical
tamper.
When the trench is 18 inches (450 millimeter) wide or more, place and compact granular backfill or sand
according to Section 209.
605.07 Acceptance. See Table 605-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Material (except granular backfill) for underdrains, sheet drains, and edge drains will be evaluated under
Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Granular backfill will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Geocomposites will be evaluated under Subsection 106.03. Submit a production certification with each
shipment of geocomposite that includes the name of the manufacturer, product name, style number,
chemical composition of the core and encapsulating geotextile filaments or yarns, and other pertinent
information to fully describe the geocomposite drain.
Installation of underdrains, sheet drains, and edge drains will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.04.
Excavation and backfill will be evaluated under Sections 208 and 209.
Geotextile filter will be evaluated under Section 207.
557
Section 605
Outlet pipes will be evaluated under Section 602.
Measurement
605.08 Measure the Section 605 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measurement is for a system, do not measure geotextile filters, geocomposites, collector pipes,
backfill, and outlet pipes that are part of the system.
When measuring granular backfill and sand by the cubic yard (cubic meter), measure in place.
Payment
605.09 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
605 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
558
Section 605
Table 605-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
of
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Sampling
Source
Granular
Measured and
Quality
Subsection
1 per
Source of
Yes
Before
Not required
backfill
tested for
703.03
aggregate type
material
using
when using
(703.03)
conformance
and
in work
Government-
(106.04 & 105)
source of
provided
material
source
Production
Granular
Measured and
Gradation
AASHTO
1 per
Production
Yes
4
backfill
tested for
T 27 & T 11
600 yd3
output
hours
(703.03)
conformance
(460 m3)
or
(106.04)
stockpile
559
Section 606
Section 606. — CORRUGATED METAL SPILLWAYS
Description
606.01 This work consists of furnishing and installing corrugated metal spillways.
Material
606.02 Conform to the following Section:
Culverts and drains
602
Construction Requirements
606.03 Placing Corrugated Metal Spillways. Spillway, inlet, outlet, and connector dimensions and
proportions may vary to permit the use of manufacturer’s standard jigs and templates.
Install spillway inlet assemblies as shown in the plans and consolidate the earth backfill by tamping.
Lay spillway outlet pipe according to Section 602. Anchor the spillway as shown in the plans.
606.04 Acceptance. Pipes, anchor assemblies, hardware, and other material furnished to fabricate metal
spillways will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Construction of corrugated metal spillways will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Excavation and backfill will be evaluated under Section 209.
Measurement
606.05 Measure the Section 606 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Measure downdrain and outlet pipes under Section 602.
Payment
606.06 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
606 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
560
Section 607
Section 607. — CLEANING, RELAYING, AND
REPAIRING EXISTING DRAINAGE STRUCTURES
Description
607.01 This work consists of cleaning, relaying, and repairing existing drainage and appurtenant
structures.
Construction Requirements
607.02 Cleaning Drainage Structures in Place. Remove foreign material within the structure and
accessories by approved methods.
Remove debris, vegetation, and earthen material that impedes inlet and outlet channel flow to the structure.
Obtain approval from the CO before removing trees.
Dispose of removed material according to Subsection 203.05.
Regrade inlet and outlet channels at structures to provide positive drainage. Reshape inlet to direct flow
into the structure entrance.
607.03 Relaying or Stockpiling Salvaged Pipe. Relay removed and cleaned pipe according to
Section 602.
Salvage and stockpile pipe according to Subsection 203.03.
Replace damaged pipe and install according to Section 602. Dispose of damaged pipe according to
Subsection 203.05(a).
607.04 Repairing Drainage Structures. Remove debris from structures designated to be repaired. Repair
leaks and structural damage and replace missing or broken metalwork according to Sections 602 and 603.
607.05 Acceptance. Cleaning and repairing existing drainage structures will be evaluated under
Subsection 106.02.
Relaying pipe will be evaluated under Section 602.
Measurement
607.06 Measure the Section 607 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
607.07 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
607 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
561
Section 608
Section 608. — PAVED WATERWAYS
Description
608.01 This work consists of constructing paved waterways not contiguous to the traveled way.
Paved waterways are designated as follows:
Type 1 - Grouted rubble
Type 2 - Mortared rubble
Type 3 - Concrete and rubble
Type 4 - Concrete
Type 5 - Asphalt
Material
608.02 Conform to the following Sections and Subsections:
Asphalt concrete
403
Bedding material
704.02
Minor concrete
601
Mortar
712.02
Neat hydraulic cement grout
725.13(a)(2)
Reinforcing steel
709.01
Rock for masonry structures (rubble)
705.03
Sand
703.14
Construction Requirements
608.03 General. Excavate and backfill according to Section 209. Place and compact the bedding material
with at least three passes of a lightweight mechanical tamper, roller, or vibratory system.
608.04 Grouted Rubble Paved Waterway (Type 1). Clean and wet the rubble to near saturation. Set
rubble in a broken pattern with no continuous joint across the waterway or parallel to the flow line. Place
rubble into the mortar bed with the flat faces up and the longest dimension at right angles to the flow line.
Make the joints 1 to 2 inches (25 to 50 millimeters) wide.
Ram each piece of rubble until it is firm and true to the surface in grade, alignment, and cross-section.
Remove and relay rubble having an irregular or uneven surface.
Fill the joints with sand to within 4 inches (100 millimeters) of the surface. Pour and broom grout into the
joints until the grout is ½ inch (13 millimeters) below the surface of the rubble. Clean excess grout from
the rubble surface.
562
Section 608
608.05 Mortared Rubble Paved Waterway (Type 2). Clean and wet the rubble to near saturation. Set
rubble in a broken pattern with no continuous joint across the waterway or parallel to the flow line. Place
rubble into the mortar bed with the flat face up and the longest dimension parallel to the flow line. Make
joints 1 to 2 inches (25 to 50 millimeters) wide.
Ram each piece of rubble until it is firm and true to the surface in grade, alignment, and cross-section.
Remove and relay rubble having an irregular or uneven surface.
Fill joints to within ½ inch (13 millimeters) below the surface of the rubble. Clean excess mortar from the
rubble surface.
608.06 Concrete and Rubble Paved Waterway (Type 3). Perform concrete work according to Section
601. Secure the reinforcing steel within the middle third of the depth of the concrete foundation when
required.
Clean and wet the rubble to near saturation. Embed rubble into the concrete foundation in a broken pattern
with no continuous joint across the waterway or parallel to the flow line.
Make the joints 1 to 2 inches (25 to 50 millimeters) wide. Fill the joints with mortar to
1 inch
(25 millimeters) below the surface of the rubble. Clean excess mortar from the rubble surface.
608.07 Concrete Paved Waterway (Type 4). Perform the work according to Section 601.
608.08 Asphalt Paved Waterway (Type 5). Perform the work according to Section 403. Clean and seal
the cracks according to Section 414 before overlaying existing asphalt paved waterway.
608.09 Acceptance. See Table 608-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Material for grout and mortar will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03. Mortar will be
evaluated under Subsection 106.04.
Bedding material and sand will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Construction of paved waterways will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Excavation and backfill will be evaluated under Section 209.
Asphalt concrete will be evaluated under Section 403.
Minor concrete will be evaluated under Section 601.
Rubble will be evaluated under Section 620.
563
Section 608
Measurement
608.10 Measure the Section 608 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring the area, measure the width horizontally to include the total width. Measure the length
parallel to the flow line.
When measuring paved waterway lengths, measure from the front face of the curb along the flow line of
the paved waterway.
Payment
608.11 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
608 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
564
Section 608
Table 608-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source
Bedding
Measured and
Gradation
Subsection
1 per
Source of
Yes
Before
Not required
material
tested for
704.02
soil type
material
using in
when using
(704.02)
conformance
and
work
Government-
(106.04 & 105)
source of
provided
material
source
Liquid limit
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
"
R 58 & T 89,
Method A
Sand
"
Gradation &
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
"
(703.14)
deleterious
M 6
material
Production
Bedding
Measured and
Gradation
AASHTO
1 per
Production
Yes
4
"
material
tested for
T 27 & T 11
600 yd3
output or
hours
(704.02)
conformance
(500 m3)
stockpile
(106.04)
Liquid limit
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
"
R 58 & T 89,
Method A
Sand
"
Gradation
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
"
(703.14)
T 27 & T 11
565
Section 609
Section 609. — CURB AND GUTTER
Description
609.01 This work consists of constructing or resetting curb, combination curb and gutter, or wheelstops.
Material
609.02 Conform to the following Sections and Subsections:
Asphalt concrete
403
Bedding material
704.02
Concrete coloring agents
711.05
Minor concrete
601
Mortar
712.02
Reinforcing steel
709.01
Rock for masonry structures (stone curbing)
705.03
Sealants, fillers, and seals
712.01
Construction Requirements
609.03 General. Excavate and backfill according to Section 209. Place and compact the bedding material.
Compact the bedding material with at least three passes of a lightweight mechanical tamper, roller, or
vibratory system.
609.04 Stone and Precast Concrete Curb. Do not use stone with visible drill marks on the exposed
faces.
Conform to the dimensions of stone curb specified and the following:
(a) Type 1. Saw or point the top surface of vertical stone curb to an approximate true plane with no
depression or projection on that surface of over ¼ inch (6 millimeters). Pitch the front and back arris
lines straight and true. Limit projections or depressions on the back surface to not exceed a batter of
1 inch (25 millimeters) horizontal to 3 inches (75 millimeters) vertical.
Saw, point, or smooth quarry split the front exposed face of the vertical stone curb and form to an
approximately true plane. Limit projections or depressions on the remaining face distance to 1 inch
(25 millimeters) or less from the plane of the exposed face.
Square the ends of vertical stone curb with the top back and face and finish so when the sections are
placed end to end, shows no space more than ½ inch (13 millimeters) in the joint for the full width of
the top surface and for the entire exposed front face. The remainder of the end may break back no
more than 4 inches (100 millimeters) from the plane of the joint. Cut the joints of circular or curved
stone curb on radial lines.
Make stone curb segments at least 48 inches (1200 millimeters) long, but the length may vary where a
depressed or modified section of curb is required for driveways, crossings, or closures.
566
Section 609
(b) Type 2. Conform to the requirements of Type 1 stone curb for slope stone curb, except as follows:
The maximum allowable projection or depression on a horizontal top surface is limited to ½ inch
(13 millimeters). On other exposed faces, the maximum allowable projection or depression is limited
to 1 inch (25 millimeters).
For unexposed surfaces, the maximum allowable projection or depression from a true plane on a
24-inch (600-millimeter) length is 3 inches (75 millimeters).
The maximum allowable space showing on exposed faces between adjacent segments of slope stone
curb is ¾ inch (19 millimeters). Make slope stone curb segments at least 24 inches (600 millimeters)
long.
Clean the curb material thoroughly and wet it just before setting. Set the curb in bedding material so the
face and top lines are to line and grade. Make the joints ½ to 1 inch (13 to 25 millimeters) wide and fill the
joints with mortar.
Complete the first 25 feet (8 meters) of curb to demonstrate the ability to build a curb conforming to these
requirements. Do not continue construction until the 25-foot (8-meter) test section is approved.
Where a concrete pavement is constructed contiguous to the curb, construct the joints in the curb directly
in line with the pavement expansion joints.
Make the curb joint ¾ inch (19 millimeters) wide and fill it with expansion joint filler of the same nominal
thickness as the pavement joint. Fill voids between the joint filler and the curb with mortar.
609.05 Concrete Curb or Curb and Gutter. Perform work according to Section 601. The curb or curb
and gutter may be cast-in-place or slip-formed.
(a) Cast-in-place. Use forms that extend for the full depth of the concrete. Use curved forms for curb
with a radius of 300 feet (90 meters) or less.
(1) Contraction joints. Construct curb in sections of uniform
10-foot
(3-meter) lengths.
Construct contraction joints ⅛ inch (3 millimeters) wide. Use metal divider plates. When the
curb is constructed adjacent to or on concrete pavement, match the contraction joints in the
pavement.
(2) Expansion joints. Form expansion joints at intervals of 60 feet (18 meters) using a ¾-inch
(19-millimeter) thick preformed expansion joint filler. Where the curb is constructed adjacent to
or on rigid pavement, match the expansion joints in the pavement.
Finish the concrete smooth and even with a wood float. Broom finish parallel to the curb line
according to Subsection 552.14(c)(2). When an exposed aggregate finish is required, finish according
to Subsection 552.14(c)(4). Leave forms in place for 24 hours or until the concrete has set sufficiently
so the forms can be removed without harming the curb.
(b) Slip-formed. Use a self-propelled automatic curb machine or a paver with curb attachments. Use a
machine that is heavy enough to obtain consolidation without the machine riding above the foundation.
567
Section 609
Adjust the concrete aggregate gradation, if necessary, to produce a curb or curb and gutter that has well
defined web marks of water on the surface. Remove and replace sections with craters larger than
316 inch (5 millimeters) or other sections determined to be damaged or defective. Repairing surface
craters and other defective sections by plastering is not permitted.
After the concrete has hardened sufficiently to permit sawing without damage, saw contraction joints
according to Subsection
609.05(a)(1). Construct expansion joints according to Subsection
609.05(a)(2).
609.06 Asphalt Concrete Curb. Where curb is constructed on a pavement, place a tack coat according to
Section 412 on the area under the curb.
Construct asphalt concrete curb according to Section 403. Use a self-propelled automatic curb machine or
a paver with curb attachments that is heavy enough to compact a curb without riding above the foundation.
Make the curb uniform in texture, shape, and density. Curb may be constructed by other means only in
short sections or sections with short radii.
609.07 Resetting Stone or Precast Concrete Curb. Carefully remove, clean, and store the curb. Cut or fit
the curb as necessary for installation. Replace lost, damaged, or destroyed curb. Reset the curb according
to Subsection 609.04.
609.08 Wheelstops. Pin the wheelstops in place with two 36-inch (900-millimeter) sections of No. 6
(19M) reinforcing steel or ¾-inch (19-millimeter) steel rods. Reset wheelstops in the same manner.
609.09 Acceptance. See Table 609-1 for sampling, testing, acceptance requirements.
Material for mortar will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03. Mortar will be evaluated
under Subsection 106.04.
Precast units (curb and wheel stops) will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Bedding material will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Stone for stone curbing will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Construction of curb and gutter, and wheelstops will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Excavation and backfill will be evaluated under Section 209.
Asphalt concrete will be evaluated under Section 403.
Minor concrete will be evaluated under Section 601.
568
Section 609
Measurement
609.10 Measure the Section 609 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring for curb or curb and gutter, make no deduction in length for drainage structures installed
in the curb section or for driveway and handicap access ramp openings where the gutter is continuous
across the opening.
Payment
609.11 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
609 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
569
Section 609
Table 609-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source
Bedding
Measured and
Gradation
Subsection
1 per
Source of
Yes
Before
Not required
material
tested for
704.02
soil type
material
using in
when using
(704.02)
conformance
and source
work
Government-
(106.04 & 105)
of material
provided
source
Liquid limit
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
"
R 58 & T 89,
Method A
Production
Bedding
Measured and
Gradation
AASHTO
1 per
Production
Yes
4
material
tested for
T 27 & T 11
600 yd3
output
hours
(704.02)
conformance
(500 m3)
or
(106.04)
stockpile
Liquid limit
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
R 58 & T 89,
Method A
570
Section 610
Section 610. — HORIZONTAL DRAINS
Description
610.01 This work consists of constructing horizontal drains, including collector systems.
Material
610.02 Conform to the following Subsection:
Horizontal drains
708.05(d)
Construction Requirements
610.03 Qualifications. Provide on-site supervisors and installation personnel with experience installing
and testing horizontal drains. Submit the following for approval at least 30 days before starting work:
(a) Names of personnel; and
(b) A résumé for each individual describing their experience on at least five horizontal drain projects
of similar complexity over the past 5 years. Include project names, locations, and contact information
for project owners.
610.04 General. Verify location, elevation, spacing, and orientation of the horizontal drains installation.
Furnish pipe and fittings with a minimum outside diameter of 1½ inches (38 millimeters) or as specified.
Furnish slotted pipe with three rows of slots cut circumferentially in the pipe 120 degrees apart. Make the
width of the slots 0.01 inches (0.25 millimeters), with the total slot opening area equal to 0.46 square
inches per foot (0.0003 square meters per meter) of pipe. Material for couplings, cleanouts, elbows, and
other fixtures required for collection of water are to be compatible with the installed drain pipe.
The locations for installing horizontal drains as shown in the plans are approximate. The exact locations
will be determined by the CO. Pipe drains that begin more than 12 inches (300 millimeters) or end more
than 3.5 feet per 100 foot (1.1 meter per 30 meter) installed pipe from their planned locations, damaged in
construction, or are improperly installed will be rejected by the CO.
610.05 Drilling Holes. Drill holes with rotary equipment capable of drilling
3- to
6-inch
(75- to
150-millimeter) diameter holes up to 600 feet (180 meters) to designated lines and grades through soil and
rock formations. Keep a log of material types, production rates, and estimated water flows encountered
during drilling. Install horizontal drains as shown in the plans. During drilling operations, determine the
elevation of the drilled hole at 100-foot (30-meter) intervals and at the upper end of the completed
horizontal drain hole by inserting tubes or pipes and measuring liquid levels or by other approved means.
Dispose of drilling water and water encountered during drilling according to Federal, state, and local
regulations.
571
Section 610
610.06 Installing Horizontal Drain. Tightly plug the entrance end of the slotted pipe with a rounded or
pointed extension that does not extend more than 6 inches (150 millimeters) beyond the end of the pipe.
Insert the pipe inside the drill rod and then retract the drill rod so the drilled hole is cased with the slotted
pipe for the full drilled depth. Connect additional pipe as necessary to form a continuous tube.
Use un-slotted pipe for the last 20 feet (6 meters) at the outlet end. Seal the space between the drilled hole
and the un-slotted pipe for at least 10 feet (3 meters) at the outlet end with an approved impermeable
material. Do not seal the space between the drilled hole and the slotted pipe.
610.07 Installing Outlet Drains and Collector Systems. Attach outlet drain pipe to the ends of horizontal
drains by a tee or street ell. Install a collector system of the type, kind, and size as shown in the plans.
For pipe drain installations draining directly to daylight, cover the outlet end of the pipe with a removable
screen made of 0.055-inch (1.4-millimeter) diameter galvanized wires having approximate ½- by ½-inch
(13- by 13-millimeter) mesh openings.
610.08 Acceptance. Material furnished for horizontal drains will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02
and 106.03.
Construction of horizontal drains will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
610.09 Measure the Section 610 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
610.10 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
610 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
572
Section 611
Section 611. — WATER SYSTEMS
Description
611.01 This work consists of constructing or reconstructing water systems.
Material
611.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Bedding material
704.02
Seamless copper water tube and fittings
707.16
Smooth wall polyethylene (PE) pipe
708.01
(for water distribution systems)
Smooth wall polyvinyl chloride pipe
708.05
(for water distribution systems)
Steel pipe
717.06
Construction Requirements
611.03 General. Conform to the standards of APWA, the AWWA, International Building Code and
local/agency plumbing and safety codes.
Submit at the preconstruction conference, a certified cost breakdown by individual items when water
systems are paid the lump sum item for use in making progress payments and price adjustments.
Obtain permits, arrange for inspections, and pay fees necessary to obtain water service.
Excavate according to Section 209. Bed the pipe according to Subsection 209.08(b).
Coordinate service interruptions with the user or owner of the waterline. Provide temporary waterlines to
ensure a water supply is maintained. Connection work may be required during times other than normal
working hours. Do not stop work on a connection until it is completed.
Dispose of disinfectant for water lines according to Subsection 107.01. Do not dispose of disinfectant in a
manner that could enter a body of water.
611.04 Backfilling. Backfill according to Subsection 209.09, except hand-place the backfill to a depth of
12 inches (300 millimeters) above the top of the pipe. Remove rocks and hard lumps from the hand-placed
layer.
611.05 Acceptance. Material for water systems will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Installation of water systems will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Excavation and backfill will be evaluated under Section 209.
573
Section 611
Measurement
611.06 Measure the Section 611 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring waterlines and encasement pipes, measure along the flow line including the length
through tees, bends, valves, or other fixtures.
Payment
611.07 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
611 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Payment for lump sum pay items will be prorated based on the total work completed.
574
Section 612
Section 612. — SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS
Description
612.01 This work consists of constructing sanitary sewer systems.
Material
612.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsections.
Bedding material
704.02
Cast iron soil pipe and fittings
707.15
Concrete water and waste water structures
725.09(e)
Plastic pipe
708
Construction Requirements
612.03 General. Furnish either cast iron or plastic sanitary sewer lines. Furnish material and workmanship
conforming to the standards of the AWWA, International Building Code and local/agency plumbing and
safety codes.
Submit at the preconstruction conference, a certified cost breakdown by individual items when sanitary
sewer systems are paid the lump sum item for use in making progress payments and price adjustments.
Obtain permits, arrange for inspections, and pay fees necessary to obtain sewerage service.
Excavate according to Section 209. Bed the pipe according to Subsection 209.08(b).
Coordinate service interruptions with the user or owner of the sewerline. Provide temporary sewerlines to
ensure a sewer supply is maintained. Connection work may be required during times other than normal
working hours. Do not stop work on a connection until it is completed.
Dispose of disinfectant for sewer lines according to Subsection 107.01. Do not dispose of disinfectant in a
manner that could enter a body of water.
612.04 Laying Sewer Lines. Inspect each joint and clean the pipe and bell before placing in the trench.
Lay the sewer line from the lower end with the spigot ends pointing in the direction of flow. Fully support
each length between joints and check for line and grade before placing the next length.
Check the gasket for proper positioning and shove sewer pipe into proper position where premolded
watertight gaskets are used.
Position the pipe and fill the joint completely with joint sealer when poured joints are used. Allow the
sealer to cool completely before removing the runner.
612.05 Backfilling. Backfill according to Subsection 611.04. Flush the lines with water to ensure they are
unobstructed after backfilling.
575
Section 612
612.06 Acceptance. Material for sanitary sewer systems will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.03.
Installation of sanitary sewer systems will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Excavation will be evaluated under Section 209.
Backfilling will be evaluated under Subsection 611.04.
Measurement
612.07 Measure the Section 612 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring sewer lines, measure along the flow line including the length through valves, ells, tees,
valve boxes, reducers, manholes, or other fixtures. Where two different sizes enter or exit a manhole,
measure each size to the center of the manhole.
Payment
612.08 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
612 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Payment for lump sum pay items will be prorated based on the total work completed.
576
Section 613
Section 613. — SIMULATED STONE MASONRY SURFACE
Description
613.01 This work consists of using concrete, color/stain, and grout to simulate the texture and color of
native stone masonry in the stone pattern shown in the plans. This work also consists of the following:
(a) Designing and furnishing textured form liners;
(b) Installing form liners;
(c) Applying a surface finish (color/stain application) that duplicates the unique coloring and mottled
appearance of stone masonry; and
(d) Preparing a simulated stone masonry test wall and demonstrating the surface finish before
beginning production work.
Material
613.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Neat hydraulic cement grout
725.13(a)(2)
Penetrating stain
719.08
Preformed expansion joint filler
712.01(b)
Construction Requirements
613.03 Form Liner Fabrication. Take an impression of the stone shape, texture, and mortar joints from a
designated location. Design form liners from the impressions according to the stone pattern shown in the
plans. Submit detailed drawings of the form liner for approval according to Subsection 104.03.
613.04 Test Wall. Before production work on the simulated stone masonry, construct a
36-inch
(900-millimeter) high, by 24-inch (600-millimeter) wide, by 10-foot (3-meter) long test wall according to
Section 552 and these specifications.
Cast the test wall on site, using the same forming methods, procedures, form liner, texture configuration,
expansion joint, concrete mixture, and color/stain application proposed for the production work.
Demonstrate the quality and consistency of joint treatment, end treatment, top embossing methods, back
treatment, and color/stain application on the test wall. If a test wall is unacceptable, construct a new test
wall.
Begin production structural concrete work only after the test wall is approved. Begin production
color/stain application only after the color/stain application on the test wall is approved. Dispose of the test
wall after use.
577
Section 613
613.05 Form Liner Installation. Furnish a form liner that attaches easily to the forming system. Install
the form liner so it does not compress more than ¼ inch (6 millimeters) during the concrete pour.
Attach the form liners to the form. Attach adjacent form liners to each other with less than a ⅛-inch
(3-millimeter) seam. Do not repeat the form liner pattern between expansion joints or within 20-foot
(6-meter) intervals, whichever is greater.
Form expansion joints at the intervals shown in the plans. Blend the butt joints into the pattern and the
final concrete surface.
Coordinate the forms with wall ties. Place form tie holes in the high point of rustication or in the mortar
joint.
Clean off build-up before reusing form liners. Visually inspect each liner for blemishes and tears. Repair
the liner before installation.
613.06 Top Surface. Emboss the plastic concrete in the exposed top surface by stamping, tooling,
troweling, hand shaping, or a combination thereof, to simulate the stone masonry texture and mortared
joints. Match the side pattern of the formed mortared joints. Immediately after the free surface water
evaporates and the finish embossing is complete, cure the concrete for 7 days according to Subsection
552.15(b). Do not use liquid membrane curing compounds.
613.07 Form Liner Removal. Within 24 hours after placing concrete, remove or break free the form
liners without causing concrete surface deterioration or weakness in the substratum. Remove form tie
material to a depth of at least 1 inch (25 millimeters) below the concrete face without spalling and
damaging the concrete.
Cure the concrete for 7 days according to Subsection 552.15(b). Do not use liquid membrane curing
compounds.
613.08 Preparation of Concrete Surface. Finish exposed formed concrete surfaces according to
Subsection 552.16(b). Finish so that vertical seams, horizontal seams, and butt joint marks are not visible.
Minimize grinding and chipping to avoid exposing aggregate.
Provide a completed surface free of blemishes, discolorations, surface voids, and conspicuous form marks.
Make the finished texture and patterns continuous without visual disruption.
613.09 Color/Stain Application. Age concrete, including patches, at least 30 days. Clean the surface of
latency, dirt, dust, grease, and foreign material by approved methods.
Remove efflorescence with a pressure water wash. Use a fan nozzle held perpendicular to the surface at a
distance between 24 and 36 inches (600 and 900 millimeters). Use a minimum 3,000 pounds per square
inch (20-megapascals) pressure at a rate of 3 to 4 gallons (12 to 16 liters) per minute. Do not sand blast
surfaces that receive color/stain.
Correct surface irregularities created by the surface cleaning.
Maintain the concrete temperature between 40 and 85 °F (4 and 30 °C) when applying color/stain and for
48 hours after applying color/stain.
578
Section 613
Color/stain exposed concrete surfaces. Use a color/stain application suitable to obtain the appearance of
the native stone masonry. Use at least 3 colors/stains.
When required at boundaries between two color tones or between surfaces receiving color at different
times, take care and provide protection to avoid over-spray and color overlap.
Apply grout of a natural cement color to each form joint. Use sufficient grout so the over-spray of the
color/stain is not visible. Give the form pattern grout joint the appearance of mortared joints in completed
masonry.
Recoat areas inconsistent with the approved test wall.
Treat expansion joints with caulk/grout to blend with the appearance of the adjacent stone or mortar joint.
613.10 Acceptance. Material for simulated stone masonry surface treatment will be evaluated under
Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Installation of form liners will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Application of color/stain to exposed concrete surfaces will be evaluated under Subsection 106.02.
Construction of the simulated stone masonry test wall will be evaluated under Subsection 106.02.
Construction of simulated stone masonry surfaces will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
613.11 Measure the Section 613 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
613.12 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
613 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
579
Section 614
Section 614. — LEAN CONCRETE BACKFILL
Description
614.01 This work consists of constructing lean concrete backfill or flowable fill.
Material
614.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Aggregate for lean concrete backfill
703.15
Fly ash
725.04(a)
Hydraulic cement
701.01
Water
725.01(a)
Construction Requirements
614.03 Composition of Mix. Design a well-graded, flowable, self-leveling mix. Verify the mix design
with trial batches prepared from the same sources proposed for the mix. Submit the following for approval
at least 21 days before production:
(a) Type and sources of aggregates;
(b) Type and source of cement;
(c) Mix proportions;
(d) Type of cement and fly ash (if used in the mix);
(e) Commercial certifications for cement, fly ash, admixtures, and aggregate;
(f) Target values for water/cementitious material ratio and slump; and
(g) Compressive strength at 7 days of 75 to 250 pounds per square inch (0.52 to 1.8 megapascals)
maximum.
614.04 General. Perform the work described under Section 209.
Do not place lean concrete backfill in contact with aluminum or aluminum-coated structures.
Do not use lean concrete backfill above the top of subgrade.
614.05 Mixing and Placing Lean Concrete Backfill. Mix lean concrete backfill by pugmill, rotary drum,
or other approved mixer to obtain a uniform mix.
Place lean concrete backfill in a uniform manner that prevents voids or segregation in the backfill.
When backfilling around culverts and other structures, place lean concrete backfill in a manner that does
not float or shift the structure. Bring the backfill up evenly on all sides of the structure.
580
Section 614
When placing lean concrete backfill at or below an atmospheric temperature of 35 °F (2 °C), perform the
work under Subsection 552.10(a).
Wait at least 4 hours before backfilling over lean concrete backfill.
614.06 Acceptance. Lean concrete backfill will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Backfilling with lean concrete will be evaluated under Subsection 106.02.
Measurement
614.07 Measure the Section 614 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring lean concrete backfill by the cubic yard (cubic meter), measure in the hauling vehicle.
Payment
614.08 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
614 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
581
Section 615
Section 615. — SIDEWALKS, PADS, AND PAVED MEDIANS
Description
615.01 This work consists of constructing sidewalks, pads, and paved medians.
Sidewalks, pads, and paved medians are designated as concrete, asphalt, concrete paving unit, or paving
brick.
Material
615.02 Conform to the following Sections and Subsections:
Asphalt concrete
403
Bedding material
704.02
Elastomeric joint sealant
712.01(a)(4)
Minor concrete
601
Paving brick
725.08
Precast concrete units and accessories
725.09(c) or (f)
Preformed expansion joint filler for concrete
712.01(b)(1)
Reinforcing steel
709.01
Construction Requirements
615.03 General. Excavate and backfill according to Section 209. Place bedding material in layers not
exceeding 4 inches (100 millimeters) in compacted thickness. Compact each layer with at least three
passes of a lightweight mechanical tamper, roller, or vibratory system.
615.04 Concrete Sidewalks, Pads, and Medians. Perform the work according to Section 601. Use forms
extending the full depth of concrete.
(a) Joints. Construct joints perpendicular to the outside slab edges and other joints. Match the joints in
adjacent curb or pavement. Tool and remove free mortar and concrete from joints.
(1) Expansion joints. Construct at intervals not exceeding 20 feet (6 meters). Use ¾-inch
(19-millimeter) thick preformed expansion joint filler for the full depth of the joints. If joints are
sealed, use elastomeric joint sealant.
(2) Contraction joints. Construct at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3 meters). Form joints with
a jointing tool or saw joints to a depth of ¼ to ⅓ the thickness of the concrete and about ⅛ inch
(3 millimeters) wide.
(3) Construction joints. Form construction joints around appurtenances (such as manholes,
utility poles, buildings, and bridges). Use ½-inch (13-millimeter) thick preformed expansion
joint filler to full depth of the joints. If joints are sealed, use elastomeric joint sealant.
582
Section 615
(b) Finishes. Provide a sidewalk finish. Edge slab edges and joints with a ¼-inch (6-millimeter) radius
edging tool.
(1) Sidewalk finish. See Subsection 552.14(c)(2).
(2) Exposed aggregate finish. See Subsection 552.14(c)(4).
Cure the concrete according to Subsection 552.15. Protect the work from pedestrian traffic for 72 hours.
615.05 Asphalt Concrete Sidewalks, Pads, and Medians. Perform the work according to Section 403.
615.06 Concrete Paving Unit and Paving Brick Sidewalks, Drive Pads, and Medians. Lay units or
bricks in successive courses on a prepared surface. Lay each course to grade. Relay courses that deviate
from a straight line by more than 2 inches in 30 feet (55 millimeters in 9 meters).
Sweep and inspect the surface before the bed sets. Remove and replace imperfect units or bricks.
Chock the joints flush with a dry mixture of 4 parts sand and 1 part cement by mass and carefully water
the surface to saturate the joint filler.
615.07 Acceptance. See Table 615-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Paving brick, concrete paving units, and joint filler and sealant will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02
and 106.03.
Bedding material will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Construction of sidewalks, pads, and medians will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Excavation and backfill will be evaluated under Section 209.
Asphalt concrete will be evaluated under Section 403.
Minor concrete will be evaluated under Section 601.
Measurement
615.08 Measure the Section 615 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
615.09 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
615 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
583
Section 615
Table 615-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source
Bedding
Measured and
Gradation
Subsection
1 per
Source of
Yes
Before
Not required
material
tested for
704.02
soil type
material
using in
when using
(704.02)
conformance
and
work
Government-
(106.04 & 105)
source of
provided
material
source
Liquid limit
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
"
R 58 & T 89,
Method A
Production
Bedding
Measured and
Gradation
-
AASHTO
1 per
Production
Yes
4
-
material
tested for
T 27 & T 11
600 yd3
output or
hours
(704.02)
conformance
(500 m3)
stockpile
(106.04)
Liquid limit
-
AASHTO
"
"
"
-
R 58 & T 89,
Method A
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