STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 13

 

  Главная      Manuals     STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14)

 

Search            copyright infringement  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Content      ..     11      12      13      14     ..

 

 

 

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 13

 

 

Section 559
Patch tears, cuts, or narrow overlaps using a satisfactory adhesive and by placing sections of
membrane sheet over the defective area such that the patch extends at least 6 inches (150 millimeters)
beyond the defect. On modified bitumen sheets with a permanent polyester film, use a propane torch to
melt the polyester film on the section to be patched, then place the patch over the heated surface. Press
or roll patches firmly onto the surface.
Apply a protective coving.
559.06 Protective Coving. Apply a protective covering immediately after waterproofing to prevent
damage to the membrane from sunlight, weather, traffic, or construction operations.
For waterproofed surfaces against which backfill will be placed, cover the membrane with ⅛ inch
(3 millimeters) thick hardboard or other approved material.
559.07 Alternate Membrane Systems. Submit for approval waterproofing membrane systems from the
state department of transportation’s Qualified Products List (QPL) that complies with the maximum
profile grade and superelevations shown in the plans.
Construct alternate membrane systems according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and as
approved by the CO.
559.08 Overlay Placement. Limit traffic on the membrane to necessary construction equipment and
emergency vehicles. For roadway surfaces of bridge decks, place a protective layer of asphalt concrete
pavement as specified.
Place the overlay continuously over masked areas and subsequently cut at or near the expansion joint
after the overlay is in place. Place a hot asphalt concrete overlay within 48 hours after placing the
membrane.
Do not windrow asphalt concrete on the membrane ahead of the paving machine. Do not use an asphalt
concrete pickup machine. Do not turn equipment on the membrane to avoid membrane movement and
damage. Avoid abrupt starts and stops.
Sweep the membrane surface before placing the overlay. Repair damaged areas on the membrane before
commencing overlay placement. Apply a light tack coat according to Section 412 before placing the
overlay.
Limit the lay-down temperature of the mix to a maximum of 300 ºF (150 ºC).
559.09 Acceptance. Material for waterproofing will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Applying of waterproofing will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
465
Section 559
Measurement
559.10 Measure the Section 559 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
559.11 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement, for the Section
559 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
466
Section 560
Section 560. — REMOVAL OF CONCRETE BY
HYDRODEMOLITION
Description
560.01 This work consists of removing concrete with high pressure water jets.
Material
560.02 Conform to the following Subsection:
Water
725.01(c)
Construction Requirements
560.03 Submittal. Submit the following for approval by the CO:
(a) Sequence and schedule of work;
(b) Concrete removal procedures; and
(c) List of equipment to be used.
560.04 General. Furnish water required to operate the hydrodemolition equipment.
Protect adjacent property from dislodged concrete during operations. Construct debris shields to prevent
debris and wastewater from entering waterways, travel lanes open to public traffic, or areas designated
not to be disturbed.
Use filtering methods to ensure wastewater is free of concrete particles and sediment.
Dispose of wastewater and debris off the project according to Subsection 203.05.
560.05 Equipment.
(a) Hydrodemolition system. Furnish a self-propelled and completely programmable
hydrodemolition system designed for concrete removal as specified.
Calibrate equipment to specific project parameters before beginning hydrodemolition production
work. If hydrodemolition equipment cannot be calibrated to the satisfaction of the CO, remove
equipment and provide another hydrodemolition system. Adjust equipment at the beginning of each
day on an area of representative concrete designated by the CO before commencing operations.
Verify settings will remove concrete as specified. Adjust settings as necessary to achieve the desired
removal of concrete. Recalibrate during the work if parameters change (such as degree of concrete
deterioration or the concrete strength changes).
467
Section 560
Record the following settings and notify the CO:
(1) Water pressure gauge;
(2) Water usage in gallons (liters) per minute;
(3) Machine staging control (step) - feet (meters) per minute forward travel;
(4) Nozzle size;
(5) Nozzle speed (revolutions per minute);
(6) Transverse nozzle travel speed. Only applicable if hydrodemolition nozzle is not fixed and
moves transversely on a track between stops before staging to the next step. Report transverse
nozzle travel speed in feet (meters) per second; and
(7) Effective pass width of hydrodemolition unit. Effective pass width is defined as the width of
hydrodemolition that has uniform pressure, water, and dwell time per machine staging control
(step). Report effective width in feet (meters).
(b) Vacuum System. Furnish a vacuum system equipped with:
(1) Fugitive dust control devices capable of removing wet debris and water in the same pass; and
(2) A pressurized washing system capable of cleaning the concrete surface during the vacuum
operation to dislodge debris and slurry.
560.06 Concrete Removal. Remove concrete as follows:
(a) Shallow concrete removal for deck scarification. If a hydrodemolition machine is used for
concrete scarification in preparation for a deck overlay, clean the deck by an approved method of
water blasting with 7000 pounds per square inch (335 kilopascals) minimum pressure until sound
concrete is exposed. Scarify to the depth shown in the plans. If no depth is shown, remove at least
¼ inch (6 millimeters) of material.
(b) Concrete cover removal. For planned removal of concrete or removal of unsound or
deteriorated concrete, remove concrete to the depth shown in the plans or down to sound concrete.
Provide at least 1 inch (25 millimeters) below the bottom of the exposed reinforcing steel. When
removing unsound concrete be careful to remove only to the depth that sound concrete is
encountered provided it meets the at least
1 inch
(25 millimeters) below the bottom of the
reinforcing steel. Do not damage remaining sound concrete or reinforcing steel. When the bond
between existing concrete and reinforcing steel is destroyed, remove the concrete adjacent to the
reinforcing steel to a depth that permits new concrete to bond to the reinforcing steel.
Remove loose and unsound concrete resulting from the hydrodemolition operations below the
minimum depth.
Verify concrete removal as necessary or at least every 30 feet (9 meters) along the cutting path.
468
Section 560
In areas inaccessible to the hydrodemolition equipment, use approved hand-held water blasting
equipment or power-driven hand tools (such as jack hammers, mechanical chipping tools, or chipping
hammers). Do use jack hammers heavier than nominal 30 pound (14 kilogram) class and chipping
hammers heavier than 15 pound (7 kilogram) class. Operate mechanically driven tools at a maximum
angle of 45 degrees from the concrete surface.
If necessary, use hand tools (such as hammers and chisels) to remove the final particles of concrete to
achieve the required depth. Leave a rough surface after the concrete is removed.
Immediately remove residue, water, dust, and concrete to prevent rebonding to the surface or reinforcing
steel.
560.07 Reinforcing Steel. Do not cut or damage reinforcing steel designated to remain. Use methods
acceptable to the CO to repair or replace reinforcing steel damaged by operations.
Inspect the reinforcement with the CO after the concrete has been removed. Replace reinforcing steel by
tying new reinforcing steel to the existing reinforcing steel when more than 10 percent of its section is
lost. If the deteriorated portion of the reinforcing steel is closer to the edge of the patch than the overlap
distance designated in the plans, extend the limits of the patch to provide the required overlap distance
with acceptable reinforcing steel. Provide a minimum 2-inch (50-millimeter) clearance between the ends
of new reinforcing steel and the existing slab face. Match the number, type, and spacing of the new
reinforcement steel to the existing reinforcing steel.
560.08 Surface Preparation. Before placing new concrete, clean the concrete surface and exposed
reinforcing steel of rust, loose and rebounded material, and other contaminants that may inhibit bonding
with new concrete. If compressed air is used, provide a filter in the air line to ensure that the air
delivered is oil-free. Protect the steel and surface from contamination until the new concrete is placed.
560.09 Acceptance. Removal of concrete by hydrodemolition will be evaluated under Subsection
106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
560.10 Measure the Section 560 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
560.11 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
560 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
469
Section 561
Section 561. — STRUCTURAL CONCRETE INJECTION AND
CRACK REPAIR
Description
561.01 This work consists of repairing cracks in concrete structures by injecting epoxy into the cracks.
Material
561.02 Conform to the following Subsection:
Epoxy resin adhesives
725.18
Polymer concrete and mortar
725.14
Construction Requirements
561.03 Crack Preparation. Notify the CO at least 14 days before beginning work. The CO will identify
work areas and mark the cracks to be repaired.
Submit the following for approval 14 days before beginning work:
(a) Personnel qualifications;
(b) The manufacturer’s recommended material; and
(c) Describe the material to be used including the properties of each material and the specifications
to which the material comply.
An injection procedure for performing the work.
Remove dirt, laitance, and other debris from the exterior and interior of the crack. Apply a temporary
surface seal material to the face of the crack. Use a surface seal material with sufficient strength and
adhesion to confine the injected epoxy resin adhesive until cured.
Provide openings (entry ports) in the surface seal along the crack. Make the distance between entry ports
at least the thickness of the concrete member being repaired.
561.04 Injection Procedure. Maintain the epoxy resin adhesive component mix ratio within 5 percent
by volume as prescribed by the manufacturer. Do not use solvents to thin the epoxy.
Use positive inline displacement type equipment to meter, mix, and inject the epoxy at pressures not to
exceed 200 pounds per square inch (1380 kilopascals). Begin injecting epoxy at the lowest entry port.
Continue the injection at the first port until epoxy flows from the next highest port. Plug the first port
and inject epoxy into the second port until epoxy flows from the next highest port. Continue this
sequence until the entire crack is filled.
Perform the following tests for each injection unit at the beginning and at the end of each day the unit is
used.
470
Section 561
(a) Ratio check test. Disconnect the mixing head of the injection equipment. Pump the two adhesive
components through a ratio check device having two independent valved nozzles capable of
controlling the flow rate and back pressure by opening or closing the valves. Use a pressure gauge
capable of sensing back pressure behind each valve. Adjust the discharge pressure to 200 pounds per
square inch (1380 kilopascals) for both epoxy components. Simultaneously discharge both epoxy
components into separate calibrated containers. Compare the discharged quantities to determine the
mix ratio.
After the test is completed at 200 pounds per square inch (1380 kilopascals) discharge pressure,
repeat the procedures for 0 pounds per square inch (0 kilopascals) discharge pressure.
(b) Pressure check test. Disconnect the mixing head of the injection equipment. Attach the two
adhesive component delivery lines to a pressure check device having two independent valved
nozzles capable of controlling the flow rate and pressure by opening or closing the valves. Use a
pressure gauge capable of sensing the pressure build-up behind each valve. Close the valves on the
pressure-check device and operate the equipment until the gauge pressure on each line reads
200 pounds per square inch (1380 kilopascals). Stop the pumps and check that the gauge pressure
does not drop below 190 pounds per square inch (1310 kilopascals) within 3 minutes.
(c) Records. Maintain and make available complete and accurate records of the ratio and pressure
check tests. Additional ratio and pressure check tests may be required.
561.05 Coring. Take one 2-inch (50-millimenter) diameter test core according to AASHTO T 24 for
every 50 feet (15 meters) of repaired crack at designated locations. The crack repair is acceptable when
the epoxy bonding has penetrated at least 90 percent of the crack volume within the core sample.
When a test core is unacceptable, redo that 50-foot (15-meter) crack segment or the segment that the
core represents and resample. Repeat this procedure until acceptable crack repair is achieved.
561.06 Finishing. Remove the surface seal and fill sample core holes with polymer concrete and mortar.
Finish the face of the crack, the entry ports, and the core holes flush with the adjacent surface and finish
the surface to match the adjacent concrete.
561.07 Traffic Control. Provide traffic control beginning with the application of epoxy paste surface
seal. Continue providing traffic control for 6 hours after completion of the crack injection work or until
the injected epoxy resin adhesive has reached a compressive strength of at least 1,450 pounds per square
inch (10 megapascals), whichever is less.
Provide traffic control to slow traffic to a maximum speed of 15 miles (25 kilometers) per hour.
For bridge deck repairs, stage traffic so that the edge of the nearest travel lane is no closer than the
center of the adjacent girder, unless specified in the contract.
561.08 Acceptance. See Table 561-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Material for structural concrete injection and crack repair will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02
and 106.03.
Structural concrete injection and crack repair work will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.04.
471
Section 561
Measurement
561.09 Measure the Section 561 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
561.10 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
561 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
472
Section 561
Table 561-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Daily Start-up & Shutdown Testing
Epoxy resin
Process
Ratio
Subsection
Daily
Injection
No
Subsection
adhesive
control
check
561.04(a)
before starting
unit
561.04(c)
(153.03)
(Mix)
work and after
ending work
Pressure
Subsection
"
"
"
"
check
561.04(b)
Production
Epoxy resin
Measured and
Penetration
Subsection
1 core
In-place
No
Upon
adhesive
tested for
of material
561.05
for every
after epoxy
completion
conformance
into crack
50 feet
resin
of test
(106.04)
(15 meters)
injection
of repaired
completed
crack length
473
Section 562
Section 562. — TEMPORARY WORKS
Description
562.01 This work consists of the design, construction, inspection, maintenance and removal of temporary
works for the construction and repair of permanent structures. This work also includes temporary facilities
used in construction that do not become part of the permanent structure.
Material
562.02 Select material consistent with the safety and quality required by the design assumptions.
Furnish factory fabricated components of vertical shoring towers according to FHWA-RD-93-033,
Certification Program for Bridge Temporary Works.
Design Requirements
562.03 Design. Design temporary works that will support loads imposed and provide the necessary
rigidity to produce the lines and grades shown in the plans for the final structure. Design temporary works
according to the AASHTO, Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Specifications or
AASHTO, Guide Design Specifications for Bridge Temporary Works. Ensure the design load on
manufactured devices is within the load rating recommended by the manufacturer.
Design falsework and forms that support deck slabs and overhangs on girder bridges to ensure no
differential settlement between the girders and the deck forms during placement of deck concrete.
Limit the calculated deflections of falsework and formwork members for cast-in-place concrete structures
as follows:
(a) Falsework member vertical deflection: 1360 of the span under the dead load of the concrete only,
regardless of the fact that deflection may be compensated for by camber strips;
(b) Formwork (other than sheathing): 1360 of the span under the dead load of the concrete only or
the lateral pressure of fluid concrete only; and
(c) Formwork (sheathing): ⅛ inch (3 millimeters) or 1270 of the center-to-center distance between
studs, joists, form stiffeners, form fasteners, or wales.
Design falsework and forms for concrete supported on steel structures to ensure loads are applied to girder
webs within 6 inches (150 millimeters) of a flange or stiffener. Distribute the loads in a manner that does
not produce local distortion of the web. Brace or tie exterior girders, upon which overhanging bridge deck
falsework brackets are hung, to the adjacent interior girders as necessary to prevent rotation of exterior
girders or overstressing the exterior girder web.
Submit foundation design calculations and other relevant foundation design data for approval.
Do not use deck overhang form brackets that require holes to be cast or drilled into the bridge girders.
474
Section 562
Do not apply loads to existing, new, or partially completed structures in excess of the load carrying
capacity of any part of the structure as determined according to AASHTO, LRFD Bridge Design
Specifications.
Do not use permanent or stay-in-place deck forms unless specified.
562.04 Drawings. Submit drawings according to Subsection 104.03. Furnish design calculations and
supporting data in sufficient detail to permit a structural and safety review of the proposed design. Show
information to allow the design of components to be checked independently. Provide catalog or equivalent
data indicating a manufactured device’s recommended safe load capacity.
Indicate the proposed sequence, rate of placement, direction of placement, and location of construction
joints when concrete placement is involved. Show anticipated total settlements and deflections of the
falsework and forms. Include falsework footing settlements, joint take-up, and deflection of beams or
girders.
Submit the erection procedure and temporary support system for steel girder erection. Include calculations
in sufficient detail to substantiate that the girder geometry is correct. Provide supporting calculations
showing the falsework design accommodates the erection procedure without over stressing the structural
steel and produces the required final structural geometry, intended continuity, and structural action.
Construction Requirements
562.05 Foundations. Determine the allowable bearing capacity of the foundation material on which the
supports for temporary works will rest. Perform load tests to verify proposed bearing capacity values that
are in doubt, marginal or in other high risk situations.
Specified foundation support values for the permanent structure may be used in the design of falsework
foundations provided foundations are at the same elevation and on the same soil as those of the permanent
structure. If temporary works are to be supported on temporary fill, construct the fill according to Section
204 and verify the bearing capacity of the placed material.
Do not locate the edge of footings closer than 12 inches (300 millimeters) from the intersection of the
bench and the top of the slope. Do not locate the edge of the footings closer than
48 inches
(1200 millimeters) or the depth of excavation, whichever is greater from the edge of excavation, unless
shoring adequately supports the footing excavation.
Provide adequate site drainage and erosion control protection to ensure the integrity of the foundation
material for the temporary works supports.
If piles are used, capacities may be estimated and later confirmed during construction using standard
procedures based on the driving characteristics of the pile. Use the dynamic formula according to Section
551 to determine ultimate pile capacity in the absence of more sophisticated methods of determining pile
capacity. The Contractor may use load tests to confirm the estimated capacities. Perform load tests to
verify proposed bearing capacity values that are in doubt, marginal, or in other high risk situations.
562.06 Construction. Construct temporary works according to the approved drawings and the AASHTO,
Construction Handbook for Bridge Temporary Works. Use material and workmanship consistent with that
assumed in the design of the temporary works.
475
Section 562
Do not weld or use driven devices to fasten temporary works to portions of the permanent structure unless
shown on the approved drawings.
Furnish and place form panels for exposed surfaces in uniform widths of not less than 36 inches
(900 millimeters) and in uniform lengths of not less than 6 feet (1.8 meters), except where the width of the
member formed is less than
36 inches
(900 millimeters). Arrange panels in symmetrical patterns
conforming to the general lines of the structure. Place panels for vertical surfaces with the long dimension
horizontal and with horizontal joints level and continuous. Place panels with the long dimension parallel to
the footing for walls with sloping footings and that do not abut other walls. Align form panels on each side
of the panel joint by supports or fasteners common to both panels.
Devices may be cast into the concrete for later use in supporting forms or for lifting precast members. Do
not use driven devices for fastening forms or form supports to concrete. Use form ties consisting of form
bolts, clamps, or other devices necessary to prevent spreading of the forms during concrete placement. Do
not use form ties consisting of twisted wire loops.
Make the angle points for chords in wall stems fall at vertical rustication joints when architectural
treatment is required. Form exposed curved surfaces to follow the shape of the curve, except on retaining
walls that follow a horizontal curve. The wall stems may be a series of short chords if all of the following
apply:
(a) Chords within the panel are the same length;
(b) Chords do not vary from a true curve by more than ½ inch (13 millimeters) at any point; and
(c) All panel points are on the true curve.
Provide tell-tales with surveyed measurements, or other acceptable means, for accurate measurement of
falsework settlement. Do not use the ground surface near falsework supports as a reference elevation.
Record settlement to the nearest ⅛ inch (3 millimeters) during concrete placement.
Discontinue concrete placement and take corrective action if settlement or deflections occur that deviate
more than ⅜ inch (10 millimeters) from those shown on the falsework drawings. If satisfactory corrective
action is not taken before initial set, remove unacceptable concrete.
562.07 Maintenance and Inspection. Inspect and maintain temporary works in an acceptable condition.
Clearly mark the capacity on each manufactured component according to FHWA-RD-93-033.
Perform an in-depth inspection of the temporary works in the presence of the CO not more than 24 hours
before beginning each concrete placement, or before allowing people to enter a cofferdam or excavation
support structure. Perform inspections and provide certifications according to FHWA-RD-93-033. Submit
written results of the inspections before:
(a) Placing concrete;
(b) Allowing people to enter a cofferdam or excavation support structure; or
(c) Loading temporary works.
476
Section 562
Inspect other temporary works at least once a month to ensure they are functioning properly. Use a
professional engineer to inspect cofferdams, shoring, support of excavation structures, and support systems
for load tests before loading.
Include a certification that the system meets the requirements.
562.08 Removal. Remove temporary works, except as follows:
(a) Portions of driven falsework piles that are more than 12 inches (300 millimeters) below subgrade
within roadbeds, 24 inches (600 millimeters) below the original ground or finished grade outside of
roadbeds, or 24 inches (600 millimeters) below the established limits of a navigation channel;
(b) Footing forms where their removal would damage the structural integrity of the cofferdams or
other work; and
(c) Forms from enclosed cells where access is not provided.
Remove temporary works as to permit the structure to uniformly and gradually take the stresses due to its
own dead-load.
Remove temporary works upon completion of the work unless permitted to remain. Do not disturb or
damage the finished work. Remove debris and restore the area to its original or planned condition. The
removed temporary works remain the property of the Contractor.
After the concrete has been in place for 24 hours, removal of railing and barrier forms and forms that do
not support the dead load of concrete members is permitted. Do not remove forms until the concrete has
reached at least 500 pounds per square inch (3.5 megapascals) strength and in a manner that produces no
damage to the surface. Cure concrete according to Subsection 552.15 when forms are removed less than
7 days after concrete placement.
Do not remove forms supporting the dead load of concrete members until the concrete has reached
90 percent of the design compressive strength and has been in place for at least 7 days.
Do not remove falsework supporting any span of a simple span bridge until the concrete, excluding
concrete above the bridge deck, has reached 90 percent of the design compressive strength and has been
in-place at least 10 days.
Do not remove falsework supporting any span of a continuous or rigid frame bridge until the concrete in
that span and in the adjacent portions of each adjoining span for a length equal to at least one-half the
length of the span where the falsework is to be released meets the requirements for simple span bridges.
Do not release falsework for post-tensioned portions of structures until the prestressing steel has been
tensioned.
Remove falsework for arch bridges uniformly and gradually. Begin at the crown and work toward the
springing points. Remove falsework for adjacent arch spans simultaneously.
477
Section 562
Install a reshoring system if falsework supporting the sides of girder stems with slopes steeper than 1V:1H
are removed before placing deck slab concrete. Design the reshoring system with lateral supports, which
resist rotational forces acting on the stem, including those caused by the placement of deck slab concrete.
Install the lateral supports immediately after each form panel is removed and before release of supports for
the adjacent form panel.
562.09 Acceptance. Temporary works will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02, 106.03, and 106.04.
Measurement and Payment
562.10 Do not measure temporary works for payment. See Subsection 109.05.
478
Section 563
Section 563. — PAINTING
Description
563.01 This work consists of removing and applying paint.
Material
563.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsection:
Paint
719
Water
725.01(a)
Construction Requirements
563.03 Qualifications. Provide the following:
(a) Painting contractors certified according to SSPC QP1, Certification
(Field Application to
Complex Industrial and Marine Structures), SSPC QP2, Certification Program (Field Removal of
Hazardous Coatings), or SSPC QP3, Certification Program (Shop Painting Certification Program)
as appropriate for the work.
When painting more than 1,500 square feet (140 square meters) of steel surface, demonstrate
qualifications by obtaining SSPC QP
1 certification for field painting or either SSPC QP
3 certification or the AISC Sophisticated Paint Endorsement (SPE) for shop painting. Maintain the
qualification throughout the work. Notify the CO if the qualification expires or is revoked.
(b) Competent personnel according to SSPC QP 2 with the following:
(1) SSPC Competent Person Certificate;
(2) Certificate of completion of 29 CFR 1926.62, Lead in Construction training;
(3) Minimum of 2 years’ industrial field painting experience; and
(4) Minimum of 90 days of field supervisory or management experience in paint removal
projects.
563.04 Submittals. Submit a written plan for approval at least 14 days before beginning work that
details the measures to be used for protecting the environment, public, adjacent property, and workers.
Include the following:
(a) Manufacturer’s MSDS and product data sheets for cleaning and painting products.
(b) A detailed containment plan for removed material, cleaning products and paint.
Design and construct safe containment structures that will support the loads imposed. Do not apply
loads to the existing structure in excess of the load carrying capacity of any part of the structure.
Include details of attachment. Make connections that do not require welding or drilling holes in the
existing structure. Make connections with clamps or other approved devices. Submit working drawings
and construction details according to Subsection 104.03.
479
Section 563
(c) A detailed disposal plan for removed material, used cleaning products, and paint debris.
(d) Specific safety measures to protect workers from site hazards including falls, fumes, fires, or
explosions.
(e) If paint being removed is a hazardous material, include specific safety measures to comply with
29 CFR 1926.62, 40 CFR 50.6, 40 CFR 50.12, and 40 CFR Parts 260-268. Document compliance
upon request.
(f) Emergency spill procedures.
(g) Certifications and experience according to Subsection 563.03.
563.05 Protection of Public, Property, and Workers. Comply with SSPC-PA, Guide 10 Guide to
Safety and Health Requirements for Industrial Painting Projects and OSHA requirements.
If a hazardous material containing lead or chromium is removed, comply with the following:
(a) SSPC Guide 6 - Guide for Containing Surface Preparation Debris Generated During Paint
Removal Operations;
(b) SSPC Guide 7 - Guide to the Disposal of Lead-Contaminated Surface Preparation Debris;
(c) 29 CFR 1926.62 - Lead (OSHA Safety and Health Regulations for Construction);
(d) 40 CFR 50.6 - EPA National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM10
(EPA);
(e) 40 CFR 50.12 - EPA National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead;
and
(f) 42 U.S.C. §6901 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).
Collect and dispose of material including waste water that is used in preparing, cleaning, or painting
according to Subsection 107.01.
563.06 Protection of the Work. Use tarps, screens, paper, cloth, or other suitable means to protect
adjacent surfaces that are not to be painted. Prevent contamination of freshly painted surfaces by dust, oil,
grease, or other harmful or deleterious material.
563.07 General. Perform work according to the accepted plan in Subsection 563.04. Stop work and take
corrective action if the measures fail to perform as intended.
(a) Surface preparation. Notify the CO at least 7 days before beginning operations. Perform the
following:
(1) Remove dirt, dust, and other contaminants from the surface using methods recommended by
the paint manufacture; and
(2) Clean the surface to the specified cleanliness level.
480
Section 563
(b) Paint. Conform to the following:
(1) Handling and storing material. Use safe handling practices conforming to the manufacturer’s
MSDS and product data sheets. Store paint in original unopened containers with labels intact and
in weather-tight spaces where temperature is maintained between 40 and 100 °F (4 and 38 °C). Do
not open paint containers until required for application that day. Do not use paint from a punctured
container or from a container with its lid seal broken. Do not use paint with an expired shelf life.
Mix paint according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Mix paint with mechanical mixers
for sufficient time to thoroughly blend the pigment and solvent together. Continue the mixing
during application. Do not thin paint that is formulated ready for application. Strain paint after
mixing, except where application equipment is provided with strainers. Use strainers of a size to
remove only skins and undesirable matter, but not to remove the pigment. Where a skin has formed
in the container, cut the skin loose from the sides of the container and remove and discard it. If the
volume of the skin is visually estimated to be more than 2 percent of the remaining paint, discard
the paint.
(2) Surface preparation and weather limitations. Thoroughly dry the surface to be painted. If no
information is provided, apply paint when:
(a) The surface temperature is between 50 and 100 ºF (10 and 40 ºC);
(b) The surface temperature is 5 ºF (3 ºC) or more above the dew point according to
ASTM D4230; and
(c) The humidity is 85 percent or less, unless specified otherwise on the manufacturer’s product
data sheets.
Provide a controlled environment to meet requirements when necessary.
(3) Application. Apply paint according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Apply paint by
brush, spray, roller, or combination of methods permitted by the manufacturer’s product data sheet.
(a) Brushes. Use brushes with sufficient bristle body and length to spread the paint in a uniform
film. Use round, oval shaped brushes, or flat brushes no wider than
4½ inches
(120 millimeters). Evenly spread and thoroughly brush out the paint as it is applied.
(b) Sprayers. Use airless or conventional spray equipment with suitable traps, filters, or
separators to exclude oil and water from the compressed air. Use compressed air that does not
show black or wet spots when tested according to ASTM D4285. Use the spray gun tip sizes
and pressures recommended by the manufacturer.
(c) Rollers. Select rollers and covers suitable for the surface and paint to be applied. Use rollers
only on flat, even surfaces. Do not use rollers that leave a stippled texture in the paint film.
Use sheepskin daubers, bottle brushes, or other acceptable methods to paint surfaces that are
inaccessible for painting by regular means.
Paint in a neat and workmanlike manner that does not produce excessive paint build-up, runs, sags,
skips, holidays, or thin areas in the paint film. Correct thin areas, skips, holidays, and other
deficiencies before the next application of paint.
Tint succeeding applications of paint to contrast with the paint being covered. Obtain color
approval for the finish coat before application.
481
Section 563
Paint surfaces that will be inaccessible after erection with the full number of undercoats required
before erection. After erection, thoroughly clean areas where the undercoating is damaged or
deteriorated, and spot coat these with the specified undercoats to the required thickness before
applying the final coat.
Measure the wet film thickness during application and adjust the application rate to obtain the
required dry film thickness.
(4) Curing. Cure each coat of paint according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.
563.08 Structural Iron and Steel.
(a) Surface preparation.
(1) New surfaces or surfaces with existing paint removed. Remove dirt, mill scale, rust, and
other foreign material from exposed surfaces by blast cleaning to near white metal according to
SSPC-SP 10/NACE No. 2 - Near-White Blast Cleaning. Prepare surfaces inaccessible to
near-white metal blast cleaning according to SSPC-SP 11 - Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal.
Use compressed air without oil or moisture when tested according to ASTM D4285. Do not use
unwashed sand or abrasives that contain salts, dirt, oil, or other foreign matter. Protect
machinery, sealed bearings, journals, motors, and moving parts against entry of abrasive dust.
Blast clean with clean dry slag, mineral grit, steel shot, or steel grit. Use a suitable gradation to
produce a dense, uniform anchor pattern. Produce an anchor profile height of 1 to 2 mils (25 to
50 micrometers), but not less than that recommended by the paint system manufacturer’s product
data sheet. Measure anchor profile height according to ASTM D4417, Method C.
Remove dirt, dust, and other debris from the surface by vacuuming or other approved methods.
Apply primer to bare metal surfaces within three days of cleaning. Repeat the blast cleaning if
the cleaned surfaces rust or become contaminated before painting.
(2) Surfaces with existing sound paint. Do not remove sound paint unless specified. Protect
adjacent areas of work from damage.
Clean visible oil, grease, and road tar according to SSPC SP 1 - Solvent Cleaning.
Prepare surfaces according to:
(a) NACE WJ-1/SSPC-SP WJ-1 Waterjet Cleaning of Metals - Clean to Bare Substrate
(WJ-1); or
(b) SSPC-SP 7/NACE No. 4 - Brush-Off Blast Cleaning.
Prepare surfaces inaccessible to water jetting or brush-off blasting according to SSPC-SP
15 - Commercial Grade Power Tool Cleaning.
(3) Surface with unsound paint. Perform spot abrasive blast cleaning according to
SSPC-SP 6 - Commercial Blast Cleaning. Provide a sharp angular surface profile by an abrasive
blasting procedure. Produce a minimum profile of
1 mil
(25 micrometers) or the paint
manufacturer’s recommendation, whichever is greater.
Extend the prepared area at least 2 inches (50 millimeters) into adjacent tightly adhering, intact
coating.
482
Section 563
Feather edges of tightly adherent existing paint to produce a smooth appearance when repainting
the surface.
Repeat solvent and surface cleaning if surfaces rust or become contaminated before painting.
Before painting, clean surfaces and staging areas with a vacuum or other approved methods.
(b) Paint application. Apply each coat to the wet film thickness as recommended by the paint
manufacturer to obtain the specified dry film thickness. Verify the application rate of each coat with
a wet film paint thickness gauge immediately after applying paint to the surface. Confirm the
application rate by measuring the dry film thickness after the solvent has evaporated from the
surface.
(1) New surfaces or surfaces with existing paint removed. Furnish a paint system shown in
Table 563-1.
Table 563-1
Structural Iron and Steel Painting Systems for
New Surfaces or Surfaces with Existing Paint Removed
Paint System
Primer
Intermediate
Finish
1 (1)
Aggressive
Zinc-Rich
Epoxy-Polyamide
Aliphatic
Environments
paint
(SSPC-Paint 22)
polyurethane
(Salt)
(SSPC-Paint 20)
2 - 3 mils dry
(SSPC-Paint 36)
2.5 - 3.5 mils
(50 - 75 µm dry)
2 - 3 mils dry
dry
(50 - 75 µm dry)
(65 - 90 µm dry)
2 (1)
Aggressive
Zinc-Rich
Zinc-Rich
Moisture-cured
Environments
Moisture-cured
Moisture-cured
polyurethane
(Salt)
polyurethane
polyurethane
(SSPC-Paint 38)
(SSPC-Paint 40)
(SSPC-Paint 40)
2 - 3 mils dry
2 - 3 mils dry
2 - 3 mils dry
(50 - 75 µm dry)
(50 - 75 µm dry)
(50 - 75 µm dry)
3 (2)
Less
Latex primer
Latex
Latex
Aggressive
(SSPC-Paint 23)
(SSPC-Paint 24)
(SSPC-Paint 24)
Environments
2 - 3 mils dry
2 - 3 mils dry
2 - 3 mils dry
(No Salt)
(50 - 75 µm dry)
(50 - 75 µm dry)
(50 - 75 µm dry)
(1) Paint Systems 1 or 2 are for the corrosion protection of iron and steel in aggressively corrosive
atmospheric environments (such as marine, industrial, high humidity, or structures exposed to deicing
salts).
(2) Paint System 3 is for use in those environments without high concentrations of salts or pollutants that
cause aggressive corrosion environments.
483
Section 563
(2) Surfaces with existing sound paint. Furnish a paint system shown in Table 563-2.
Table 563-2
Structural Iron and Steel Painting Systems for
Surfaces with Existing Sound Paint
Paint System
Primer (1)
Intermediate
Finish
4 (2)
Aggressive
Moisture-cured
Moisture-cured
Moisture-cured
Environments
Polyurethane
Polyurethane
Aliphatic
(Salt)
(SSPC-Paint
(SSPC-Paint 41)
Polyurethane
40 or 41)
2 - 3 mils dry
(SSPC-Paint 38)
2 - 3 mils dry
(50 - 75 µm dry))
or Aliphatic
(50 - 75 µm dry)
Polyurethane
(SSPC-Paint 36)
2 - 3 mils dry
(50 - 75 µm dry)
5 (2)
Aggressive
Epoxy-
Epoxy-Polyamide
Epoxy-Polyamide
Environments
Polyamide
(SSPC-Paint 22)
(SSPC-Paint 22)
(Salt)
(SSPC-Paint 22)
3 - 4 mils dry
3 - 4 mils dry
3 - 4 mils dry
(75 - 100 µm dry)
(75 - 100 µm dry)
(75 - 100 µm
dry)
6 (3)
Less Aggressive
Zinc Oxide,
Alkyd
Silicone Alkyd
Environments
Alkyd,
(SSPC-Paint 104)
(SSPC-Paint 21,
(No Salt)
Linseed Oil
2 - 3 mils dry
Type II)
Primer
(50 - 75 µm dry)
2 - 3 mils dry
(SSPC-Paint 25,
(50 - 75 µm dry)
Type II)
2 - 3 mils dry
(50 - 75 µm dry)
(1) Use primer only on areas where paint is removed to bare metal. Otherwise apply only intermediate
and finish paints.
(2) Paint Systems 4 or 5 are for the corrosion protection of iron and steel in aggressively corrosive
atmospheric environments (such as marine, industrial, high humidity, or structures exposed to deicing
salts).
(3) Paint System 6 is for use in those environments without high concentrations of salts or pollutants that
cause aggressive corrosion environments.
Verify the compatibility of the proposed system with the existing system as follows:
(a) Select a test area of at least 30 square feet (3 square meters) in a condition representative
of the condition of the structure. Perform the specified level of surface preparation, and apply
the proposed system to the existing topcoat and to the existing primer. Perform tests
according to ASTM D5064. Observe for lifting, bleeding, blistering, wrinkling, cracking,
flaking, or other evidence of incompatibility.
(b) Verify that no indication of incompatibility exists at least 14 days after the application of
each product. Perform adhesion tests according to ASTM D4541 self-aligning system.
484
Section 563
Notify the CO if failure is due to adhesion (between coating and substrate or between applied
coats) or cohesion
(failure within a coating layer). If failure occurs, choose a more
compatible paint system and repeat the compatibility process.
The dry paint thickness on steel structures will be determined using a Type 2 (electronic) film thickness
gauge according to SSPC-PA 2 - Measurement of Dry Coating Thickness with Magnetic Gages, an
ultrasonic coating thickness gage according to SSPC-PA 9 - Measurement of Dry Coating Thickness on
Cementitious Substrates, or by using destructive methods according to ASTM D4138. If destructive
methods are used, repair test locations in an approved manner.
563.09 Lumber and Timber. Dry timber to a moisture content of 15 percent or less.
Remove cracked or peeled paint, loose chalky paint, dirt, and other foreign material on previously painted
timber. Use wire brushing, scraping, or other approved methods.
When timber is treated with a water borne preservative, wash and brush away visible salt crystals on the
wood surface. Allow wood to dry before painting.
Remove dust or other foreign material from the surface just before painting.
Furnish a paint system shown in Table 563-3.
The primer may be applied before erection. Fill cracks, checks, nail holes, or other depressions flush with
the surface using approved putty after the primer dries and the timber is in place. Evenly spread and
thoroughly work the paint into corners and recesses. Allow the full thickness of the applied coat of paint to
dry before applying the next coat.
485
Section 563
Table 563-3
Paint for Other Structural Material
Substrate
Primer
Intermediate
Finish
Lumber & Timber
Exterior Alkyd/Oil
Exterior Latex (MPI 5)
Exterior Latex (MPI 5)
(Dressed Surface)
Wood Primer
or Alkyd/Oil (MPI 6)
or Alkyd/Oil (MPI 6)
(MPI 5)
Wood Primer
Wood Primer
1 - 2 mils dry
1 - 2 mils dry
1 - 2 mils dry
(60 - 70 µm dry)
(35 - 50 µm dry)
(35 - 50 µm dry)
Lumber & Timber
Exterior Latex (MPI 5)
Exterior Latex (MPI 5)
Exterior Latex (MPI 5)
(Rough Surface)
or Alkyd/Oil (MPI 6)
or Alkyd/Oil (MPI 6)
or Alkyd/Oil (MPI 6)
Wood Primer
Wood Primer
Wood Primer
2 - 3 mils dry
1 - 2 mils dry
1 - 2 mils dry
(35 - 50 µm dry)
(35 - 50 µm dry)
(35 - 50 µm dry)
Masonry Block
Exterior Latex
Exterior Latex
Exterior Latex
Masonry Block Primer
Flat (MPI 10) or
Flat (MPI 10) or
(MPI 4)
Semi-Gloss (MPI 11)
Semi-Gloss (MPI 11)
2 - 3 mils dry
1 - 2 mils dry
1 - 2 mils dry
(60 - 70 µm dry)
(35 - 50 µm dry)
(35 - 50 µm dry)
Concrete
Epoxy Single Coat Low Gloss (MPI 108) or Semi-Gloss (MPI 177)
3 - 4 mils dry (80 - 100 µm dry).
Aluminum
Metal Primer
Light Industrial Coating,
Light Industrial Coating,
(MPI 95)
Exterior, Water-Based
Exterior, Water-Based
1 - 2 mils dry
(MPI 161, 163, or 164)
(MPI 161, 163, or 164)
(35 - 50 µm dry)
1 - 2 mils dry
1 - 2 mils dry
(35 - 50 µm dry)
(35 - 50 µm dry)
Other Metals
Metal primer (1)
Exterior Latex (MPI 5)
Exterior Latex (MPI 5)
1 - 2 mils dry
or Alkyd/Oil (MPI 6)
or Alkyd/Oil (MPI 6)
(35 - 50 µm dry)
Wood Primer
Wood Primer
1 - 2 mils dry
1 - 2 mils dry
(35 - 50 µm dry)
(35 - 50 µm dry)
(1) For galvanized
surfaces, use a vinyl wash primer
(SSPC-Paint 27),
0.3 to
0.5 mil
(8 to
13 micrometers) dry thickness.
563.10 Masonry Block and Concrete Structures. Remove laitance, dust, or other deleterious material
from the concrete surface. Give the cleaned surface a light abrasive sweep to remove mortar wash or other
contaminants. Remove residue and dust by vacuuming or other approved methods.
Furnish a paint system shown in Table 563-3.
Evenly spread and thoroughly work the paint into corners and recesses. Allow the full thickness of the
applied coat of paint to dry before applying the next coat.
563.11 Other Metals. Furnish the paint system shown in Table 563-3.
(a) Aluminum. Prepare aluminum surfaces to be painted according to ASTM D1730. Use the type of
treatment and method of preparation appropriate to the condition of the surface and paint to be applied.
(b) Galvanized surfaces. Prepare galvanized surfaces to be painted according to ASTM D6386. Use
the method of preparation appropriate to the condition of the surface to be painted (newly galvanized,
partially weathered, or weathered galvanized steel).
486
Section 563
563.12 Acceptance. Paint material will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03. Sample
paint according to ASTM D3925. Test paint properties according to FED-STD 141D, Paint, Varnish,
Lacquer And Related Materials: Methods Of Inspection, Sampling And Testing if required.
Surface preparation will be evaluated under Subsection 106.02.
Painting application will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
563.13 Measure the Section 563 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
563.14 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
563 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
487
Section 564
Section 564. — BEARING DEVICES
Description
564.01 This work consists of furnishing and installing bridge bearings.
Bearing devices are designated as elastomeric, rocker, roller, and sliding plate.
Material
564.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsections:
Bearings (elastomeric, plain or laminated)
717.10(a)
Bolts and nuts (threaded anchor bolts)
717.01(d)
Galvanized coatings
717.07
Nonshrink grout
725.13(b)
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surfaces for bearings
717.11
Steel Structures (rocker, roller, and sliding bearings)
555
Construction Requirements
564.03 General.
(a) Drawings. Submit drawings according to Subsection 104.03 and Section 18 of the AASHTO,
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Construction Specification. Show details of
bearings including material proposed for use. Do not begin fabrication until drawings are approved by
the CO.
(b) Fabrication. Fabricate bearings according to Section 18 of AASHTO, LRFD Bridge Construction
Specification. Finish bearing components surfaces in contact with each other or with concrete, but not
embedded in concrete according to Subsection 555.07(e).
Preassemble bearing assemblies and check for proper completeness and geometry. Galvanize steel
bearing components and anchor bolts. Do not galvanize stainless steel bearing components or anchor
bolts.
(c) Packaging, handling, and storing material. Clearly identify each bearing component and mark
on its top the location and orientation in the structure before shipping. Securely bolt, strap, or
otherwise fasten bearings to prevent relative movement.
Package bearings to prevent damage during shipping, handling or storing.
Do not dismantle bearing assemblies on-site unless necessary for inspection or installation. Dismantle
under the direct supervision or with the approval of the manufacturer.
Furnish a listing of all individual bearing numbers.
Store bearing devices to prevent damage from weather or other hazards.
488
Section 564
(d) Construction and installation. Clean bearings of deleterious material. Install and set bearings to
the dimensions shown on the drawings or prescribed by the manufacturer. Adjust bearings according
to the manufacturer’s instructions to compensate for installation temperature and future movements.
Set bearings level, at the elevation, and position shown on the drawings. Provide full and even bearing
on all external bearing contact surfaces. Notify the CO if bearing surfaces are at improper elevations,
not level, or if bearings cannot be set properly. Submit a written proposal to modify the installation for
approval.
Bed metallic bearing assemblies on concrete with an approved filler or fabric material when not
embedded in concrete.
Set elastomeric bearing pads directly on properly prepared concrete surfaces without bedding material.
Machine bearing surfaces seated directly on steel to provide a level and planar bearing surface.
564.04 Elastomeric Bearings. Fabricate, comply with testing and acceptance criteria, and mark
elastomeric bearings according to AASHTO M 251. Test and accept bearings specified by hardness and
designed according to Method A of AASHTO, Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge
Design Specifications according to Appendix X1 of AASHTO M 251 instead of Section 8 full size bearing
test.
Place bearings on a level surface. Correct misalignments in the support to form a level surface. Do not
weld steel girders or base plates to the exterior plates of the bearing unless there is more than 1½ inches
(38 millimeters) of steel between the weld and elastomer. Do not expose the elastomer or elastomer bond
to instantaneous temperatures greater than 400 °F (200 °C).
564.05 Rocker, Roller, and Sliding Plate Bearings. Fabricate and finish rocker, roller, and sliding plate
bearings according to Section 555. Remove burrs, rough and sharp edges, and other flaws. Stress relieve
rocker, roller, and other bearings that are built up by welding sections of plate together before boring,
straightening, or final machining.
Thoroughly coat contact surfaces with oil and graphite before placing roller bearings. Install rocker, roller,
and sliding bearings vertically at the specified mean temperature after release of falsework and after
shortening due to prestressing forces. Account for variations from mean temperature of the supported span
at time of installation and other anticipated changes in length of the supported span.
Ensure the superstructure has full and free movement at movable bearings. Position cylindrical bearings so
their axes of rotation align and coincide with the axis of rotation of the superstructure.
564.06 Masonry, Sole, and Shim Plates for Bearings. Provide metal plates conforming to AASHTO
M 270, Grade 36 (250).
Fabricate and finish steel according to Section 555. Form holes in bearing plates by drilling, punching, or
controlled oxygen cutting. Remove burrs by grinding.
Set bearing plates in a level position and provide a uniform bearing over the bearing contact area. When
plates are embedded in concrete, make provisions to keep them in correct position as the concrete is
placed.
489
Section 564
564.07 Polytetrafluoroethylene
(PTFE) Surfaces for Bearings. Furnish PTFE material that is
factory-bonded, mechanically connected, or recessed into the backup material.
Bond or mechanically attach the fabric containing PTFE fibers to a rigid substrate. Use a fabric capable of
carrying unit loads of
10,000 pounds per square inch (70 megapascals) without cold flow. Use a
fabric-substrate bond capable of withstanding, a shear force equal to 10 percent of the perpendicular or
normal application loading plus other bearing shear forces without delamination.
Use approved test methods and procedures according to Section
18 of AASHTO, LRFD Bridge
Construction Specification. Perform at least one material test on the material used in the sliding surface for
each lot of bearings. If required by the contract, test complete bearings for complete bearing friction. If the
test facility does not permit testing of completed bearings; manufacture extra bearings and prepare samples
of at least 100-kip (450-kilonewton) capacity at normal working stresses by sectioning the bearing.
Measure the coefficient of friction between two mating surfaces. Provide test results showing the static and
dynamic coefficients of friction meet the requirements for the design coefficient of friction specified in the
contract or by the manufacturer for approved material.
564.08 Anchor Bolts. Furnish threaded anchor bolts.
Adjust bolt locations for superstructure temperature and anticipated lengthening of bottom chord or bottom
flange due to dead load after setting as required. Do not restrict free movement of the superstructure at
movable bearings.
Preset anchor bolts before concrete placement or install anchor bolts in drilled holes after concrete
placement. Drill holes 1 inch (25 millimeters) in diameter greater than the bolt if nonshrink cement grout is
used to secure the bolts. Follow adhesive manufacturer’s recommendations for hole-diameter if an
approved chemical adhesive is used to secure the bolts.
564.09 Bedding of Masonry Plates. Clean the contact surfaces of the concrete and steel before placing
the bedding material and installing bearings or masonry plates. If bedding is specified, place filler or fabric
as bedding material under masonry plates and install it to provide full bearing on contact areas. If bedding
material is not specified, comply with Subsection 18.10.2 of AASHTO, LRFD Bridge Construction
Specifications as directed by the CO.
564.10 Acceptance. Bearing devices will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03. Submit a
production certification with each shipment of bearing devices.
Bearing device installation will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
564.11 Measure the Section 564 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
564.12 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
564 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
490
Section 565
Section 565. — DRILLED SHAFTS
Description
565.01 This work consists of furnishing and constructing reinforced concrete drilled shafts.
Material
565.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsections:
Neat hydraulic cement grout
725.13(a)(2)
Reinforcing steel
709.01
Slurry (Drilling fluids)
725.16
Structural carbon steel (Casings)
717.01(a)
Structural concrete
552
Water
725.01(a)
Construction Requirements
565.03 Qualifications. Provide a crosshole sonic logging engineer, on-site supervisors, and installation
personnel with experience installing and testing drilled shafts. Submit the following for approval at least
30 days before starting work:
(a) Names of personnel; and
(b) A résumé for each individual describing their experience on at least 5 drilled shaft projects of
similar complexity over the past 5 years. Include project names, locations, and contact information for
project owners.
565.04 Construction Plan. At least 30 days before starting drilled shaft work, submit the following
according to Subsection 104.03:
(a) Proposed drilled shaft construction schedule and sequence. Schedule shaft installation to avoid
interconnection or damage to shafts in which placed concrete has not achieved final set.
(b) Proposed drilling, hole cleaning/preparation, and reinforcement/concrete placement equipment
and procedures for the ground conditions expected to be encountered. Provide specific shaft drilling
and concreting procedures to mitigate problems associated with ground water, surface water bodies,
or both. Demonstrate an understanding of the subsurface conditions at the site by referencing
available subsurface data provided in the contract boring logs. Indicate procedures to minimize
disturbance to the construction site or overlaying or adjacent structure or services. Discuss potential
drilling difficulties and indicate methods and tooling that will be used to remove obstructions from
the excavation.
(c) Proposed drilled shaft excavation and construction methods used to ensure shaft stability during
construction and reinforcement/concrete placement. Include proposed shaft drilling procedures for
maintaining required horizontal and vertical shaft alignment and a disposal plan for excavated
material. If shaft casing is required, provide casing dimensions and detailed procedures for
permanent casing installation or temporary casing installation and removal.
491
Section 565
(d) Proposed methods for mixing, testing, circulating, using, maintaining, and disposing of slurry, if
used. Provide a detailed slurry mix design and its suitability to the subsurface conditions.
(e) Details of reinforcement placement including bracing, centering, centralizers, and lifting and
support methods.
(f) Proposed structural concrete mix design according to Subsection 565.08.
(g) Concrete placement methods including proposed operational procedures for free-fall, tremie, or
pumping methods.
(h) The method used to form an emergency horizontal construction joint during concrete placement.
Specific guidance on installation of and construction plan requirements for drilled shafts can be found in
FHWA-NHI-10-016, Drilled Shafts: Construction Procedures and LRFD Design Methods.
565.05 Trial Drilled Shafts. When trial drilled shafts are required, perform the work according to the
applicable requirements of Subsection 565.06.
Before drilling holes for production shafts, demonstrate that the proposed methods and equipment are
adequate by drilling a trial drilled shaft adjacent to the production shafts at a location approved by the CO.
Make the center-to-center spacing between the trial shaft and production shafts at least three shaft
diameters or two bell diameters, whichever is larger.
Construct the trial drilled shaft to the same size and to the tip elevation of the deepest production shaft
shown in the plans. When bells are specified for production shafts, include a bell in the final trial shaft to
verify the feasibility of belling in the specified bearing stratum.
Install casing if caving occurs or the hole deforms sufficient to encroach upon the planned placement of
the reinforcement cage with specified minimum concrete cover. Seat the casing to prevent caving and to
allow dewatering of the hole when required. Remove material from inside the hole. Keep casing in place at
least 4 hours while attempting to remove all water in the hole. Record the rate of groundwater seepage into
the hole. After this 4 hour period, fill the hole with saturated sand while the casing is removed to simulate
the concreting operation and casing removal for the production drilled shafts.
Concrete or reinforcing steel is not required in the trial drilled shaft.
Modify methods and equipment if the trial drilled shaft does not meet performance requirements as
determined by the CO. Submit a new installation plan and drill a new trial shaft for approval.
565.06 Shaft Drilling.
(a) Drilling. Drill holes according to the approved installation plan. Excavate structural footings
supported on drilled shafts and construct fills before initiating shaft drilling.
Provide equipment and tooling with the capability to drill shafts of the specified diameter and lengths
20 percent longer than those specified. Position the drilled shaft within 3 inches (75 millimeters) of the
required position in a horizontal plane at the top-of-shaft elevation. Do not allow the constructed
alignment of a vertical shaft to vary from the required alignment by more than ¼ inch per 12 inches
(6 millimeters per 300 millimeters) of hole depth.
492
Section 565
(1) Boring log. Use a geologist or an engineer to maintain a boring log of material excavated from
the drilled shaft. Include the following information:
(a) Description and approximate top and bottom elevation of each type of soil or rock
material encountered and the date and time the soil or rock material was encountered;
(b) Elevation and approximate rate of seepage or groundwater encountered;
(c) Equipment used to drill the shaft, time required to complete the shaft, bit changes,
breakdowns, and other drilling difficulties encountered; and
(d) Remarks.
(2) Drilling methods. Use the uncased dry construction method where groundwater level and soil
conditions are suitable to construct the shaft in a relatively dry-stable excavation and may be
visually inspected before placing concrete. Use casing, wet construction method, or both for shafts
that do not meet the requirements for the dry construction method.
(a) Dry method. This method consists of drilling the shaft, removing accumulated water and
loose material from the excavation, placing the reinforcing cage, and concreting the shaft in a
relatively dry excavation.
The dry construction method can only be used when the excavation meets the following:
(1) Less than 12 inches (300 millimeters) of water accumulates above the base of the hole
during a 1-hour period when no pumping is permitted;
(2) The sides and bottom of the hole remain stable without detrimental caving, sloughing,
or swelling over a 4-hour period immediately following completion of the excavation or
over-reaming when approved by CO; and
(3) Loose material and water can be satisfactorily removed before inspection and before
reinforcement and concrete placement.
(b) Wet method. This method consists of using water or slurry to maintain shaft stability
while advancing the excavation to final depth, placing the reinforcing cage, and concreting
the shaft. In addition, perform the following:
(1) Desanding and cleaning drilling slurry;
(2) Final cleaning of the excavation using a bailing bucket, air lift, submersible pump, or
other approved devices; and
(3) Placing shaft concrete with a tremie or concrete pump, beginning at the shaft bottom.
Maintain the drilled hole to the specified nominal diameter before placing reinforcement elements and
concrete. Increase the hole diameter at least ½ inch (13 millimeters) to a maximum of 3 inches
(75 millimeters) when approved by the CO if ground softening, swelling or slurry cake buildup occurs.
Case the hole, use a slurry during drilling, or both if the drilled hole continues to degrade and encroach
upon the planned placement of the reinforcement cage with specified minimum concrete cover.
Extend exterior casings from above the waterline to a subsurface elevation to protect against water
action during placement and curing of the concrete when drilled shafts are located in open waters.
Install the exterior casing in a manner that will provide a positive seal at the bottom of the casing to
prevent piping of water or entry of other material from the shaft excavation behind the casing.
493
Section 565
Remove drill cuttings, other loose debris, or both from the bottom of the hole upon completion of
drilling. Clean the drilled hole leaving no more than ½ inch (13 millimeters) of sediment on the bottom
of the hole. Reduce the depth of accumulated water to 3 inches (75 millimeters) or less before placing
concrete in shafts constructed using the dry method.
Do not drill additional shafts, allow wheel loads, vibration-inducing equipment, or other construction
activities within 15 feet (4.5 meters) or 3 shaft diameters, whichever is greater, of a newly constructed
shaft for at least 20 hours.
Fill rejected drill holes with lean concrete.
(b) Slurry. Premix slurry with potable water according to the slurry manufacturer’s instructions to
allow for hydration before introduction into the shaft excavation. Use slurry tanks of adequate capacity
for slurry circulation, storage, and treatment. Do not use excavated slurry pits or the shaft excavation to
mix the slurry. Do not add slurry component directly into the shaft excavation.
Provide desanding equipment to limit slurry sand content as specified in Tables 565-1 and 565-2, at
any point within the shaft. Verify sand content immediately before placing concrete. Desanding is not
required for setting temporary casings, sign posts, or lighting mast foundations.
Maintain the level of slurry in the excavation at least 5 feet (1.5 meters) above the highest expected
adjacent piezometric water pressure head for mineral slurry, or 10 feet (3 meters) above the highest
expected piezometric water pressure head for polymer or water slurry.
Stop drilling and take corrective measures when there is a sudden loss of slurry from the hole. Prevent
the slurry from setting up in the shaft. Discontinue the use of slurry and use an approved alternative
method if the slurry construction method fails to produce the desired results.
Maintain density, viscosity, and pH of the mineral or polymer slurry throughout shaft excavation and
concrete placement according to Tables 565-1 and 565-2. Take slurry samples using an approved
sampling tool. Extract slurry samples from the base of the shaft and 10 feet (3 meters) up from the base
of the shaft. Perform 4 sets of tests during the first 8 hours of slurry use. The testing frequency may be
decreased to one test set for every 4 hours of slurry use when results are acceptable and consistent.
494
Section 565
Table 565-1
Acceptable Range of Values for Mineral Slurry
Property
In Hole at
Method
Time of Test
Concreting
Density(1)
Density balance
API 13B-1(2), Section 1
pounds per cubic foot
64 - 72
(kilograms per cubic meter)
(1025 - 1153)
Viscosity
Marsh Funnel
AP 13B-1(2),
seconds per quart
28 - 50
Section 2.2
(seconds per liter)
(30 - 53)
pH
8 - 11
pH paper or meter
Sand content, %
4.0 max.
API 13B-1(2), Section 5
(1) Density values shown are for fresh water. Increase density values 2 pounds per cubic foot
(23 kilograms per cubic meter) for saltwater. Perform tests when slurry temperature is above
40°F (4.5 °C).
(2) American Petroleum Institute, API 13B-1, Recommended Practice for Field Testing
Water-based Drilling Fluids.
Comply with manufacturer’s recommendations and Table 565-2 test requirements for polymer
slurry. Submit the name and telephone number of the manufacturer’s representative to the CO.
Table 565-2
Acceptable Range of Values for Polymer Slurry
Property
In Hole at
Method
Time of Test
Concreting
Density(1)
Density balance
API 13B-1(2), Section 1
pounds per cubic foot
64 max.
(kilograms per cubic meter)
(1025 max.)
Viscosity
Marsh Funnel
AP 13B-1(2),
seconds per quart
32 - 135
Section 2.2
(seconds per liter)
(34 - 143)
pH
8 - 11
pH paper or meter
Sand content, %
1.0 max.
API 13B-1(2), Section 5
(1) Density values shown are for fresh water. Increase density values 2 pounds per cubic foot
(23 kilograms per cubic meter) for saltwater. Perform tests when slurry temperature is above
40 °F (4.5 °C).
(2) See note (2) in Table 565-1.
Correct slurry when sample do not meet the requirements of Tables 565-1 or 565-2. Do not place
concrete until the results of the resampling and retesting are approved.
495
Section 565
(c) Casings. Install temporary casing to prevent sloughing of the top of the shaft excavation, unless it
can be satisfactorily demonstrated to the CO that surface casing is not required. Install temporary
casing regardless of excavation method when sidewall conditions warrant additional stabilization or
mitigation of excessive groundwater infiltration.
Use smooth, clean, watertight, steel casings of sufficient strength to withstand handling, installation
stresses, concrete placement, and surrounding earth pressures. Casing diameters are outside diameters
when shown in the plans. The diameter of a permanent casing is subject to American Petroleum
Institute tolerances applicable to regular steel pipe. Make the outside diameter of the casing no less
than the specified size of the shaft.
Install casings to produce a positive seal at the bottom of the shaft to prevent piping of water or other
material into or out of the excavated hole. Stabilize the excavation with slurry, backfill, or other
methods approved by the CO if it becomes necessary to remove a casing. Maintain an adequate head
of water or slurry inside the casing to prevent piping or sloughing of material at the bottom of the hole
when drilling below the water table.
Subsurface casings are to be considered temporary unless designated as permanent casing. Remove
temporary casing concurrent with concrete placement. Maintain the concrete within the casing so fluid
trapped behind the casing is displaced upward and discharged at the ground surface without
contaminating or displacing the shaft concrete.
Temporary casings that have become bound or fouled during shaft construction and cannot be
practically removed are considered to be a defect in the drilled shaft. Correct defective shafts using
methods approved by the CO. Corrective action may consist of, but is not limited to, the following:
(1) Removing the shaft concrete and extending the shaft deeper to compensate for loss of
frictional capacity in the cased zone;
(2) Providing straddle shafts to compensate for capacity loss; or
(3) Providing a replacement shaft.
Cut permanent casing off at the required elevation and leave in place
565.07 Reinforcing Steel and Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL) Access Tubes Placement. Perform
reinforcing steel work according to Section 554. Securely wire together contact reinforcing steel lap
splices. Tie and support the reinforcing steel so it remains within the required tolerances. Securely tie
concrete spacers or other approved spacing devices at fifth points around the cage perimeter and space at
intervals not to exceed 10 feet (3 meters) along the length of the cage. Use spacers of approved material at
least equal in quality and durability to the shaft concrete.
Install steel CSL access tubes for each drilled shaft at locations specified and according to ASTM
D6760. Extend access tubes at least 24 inches (600 millimeters) above shaft top and a maximum of
3 inches (75 millimeters) above shaft bottom. Use 1½ inch (38 millimeters) nominal diameter Schedule
40 mild steel standard black pipe conforming to ASTM A53, any grade, Type E, Type F or Type S, for
CSL access tubes. Provide a watertight end plug at the lower end of the pipe and make joints watertight.
Fill the CSL access tubes with potable water before placing concrete in the drilled shaft. Temporarily
cap the top of the tubes to prevent debris or concrete from entering the tubes.
496
Section 565
Place the reinforcing steel cage as a unit immediately after the drilled hole is inspected, accepted, and
before concrete placement. Remove cage when directed by the CO for re-inspection if concrete is not
placed immediately. Handle reinforcing cages in a manner to avoid distortion or racking of the steel.
Provide positive support at the top for the reinforcing steel cage during concrete placement. Maintain the
top of the reinforcing steel cage no more than 6 inches (150 millimeters) above and no more than 3 inches
(75 millimeters) below the required elevation. Make acceptable corrections if the reinforcing steel cage is
not maintained within tolerances. Do not construct additional shafts until the method of reinforcing steel
cage support has been approved.
Do not proceed with installation of subsequent shafts until CSL testing has been completed on the first
drilled shaft and the results have been approved in writing by the CO. Approval to proceed with the
construction of subsequent shafts, before receiving approval of the first shaft will be based on
observations of workmanship during construction of the first shaft and the following:
(a) Contractor's conformance with the approved shaft installation plan;
(b) Contractor's daily reports and inspector's daily logs of excavation, rebar, and concrete placement;
and
(c) Concrete placement logs and volume curves.
The CO will provide written notification to proceed with subsequent shaft construction within 24 hours
after completion of the first shaft. If the CO determines the first shaft to be of questionable quality,
discontinue all shaft construction until the CSL test results of the first shaft are received and reviewed
and the shaft accepted in writing by the CO.
After the first drilled shaft has been accepted, do not change construction methods, equipment, or material
used to construct subsequent shafts, unless otherwise approved.
565.08 Concrete for Drilled Shafts. Use a removable form or other approved means to form the shaft to
at least 24 inches (600 millimeters) below finished ground when the top of shaft is above ground. Forms
may be removed provided the requirements in Subsection 562.07 are complied with and the shaft concrete
has not been exposed to saltwater or moving water for 7 days. Strip the forms without damaging the
concrete.
Remove the top portion of the drilled shaft concrete before continuing with column construction when it is
determined the concrete has been affected by underwater placement.
Place concrete immediately after excavation is complete and the reinforcing steel cage with CSL access
tubes is in place.
Furnish concrete conforming to Section 552, except:
Class A structural concrete having a slump of
7±1 inches (180±25 millimeters) for shafts
constructed without drilling fluid;
Class A structural concrete having a slump of
8±1 inches (200±25 millimeters) for shafts
constructed with drilling fluid; and
Class S concrete for under water placement.
497
Section 565
Do not use seal concrete above the freeze-thaw or wet-dry zone of the hole. Place underwater concrete
according to Subsection 552.11(e), except as modified in this Section. The method of underwater
placement is subject to CO approval.
Adjust approved admixtures for project conditions to ensure that the concrete has the minimum required
slump for at least 2 hours. Submit trial mix and slump loss test results for concrete at ambient temperatures
appropriate for site conditions.
Place each load of concrete within 2 hours of batching. Longer placement time may be permitted if the
concrete mix maintains the minimum required slump for longer than 2 hours. Do not retemper concrete
that has developed its initial set.
Place concrete in one continuous operation from bottom to top of the shaft.
Continue placing concrete after the shaft excavation is full and until acceptable quality concrete is evident
at the top of shaft. Consolidate the top 10 feet (3 meters) of the shaft concrete using acceptable vibratory
equipment before initial concrete set. Finish the top of the shaft to within plus 1 to minus 3 inches (plus
25 to minus 75 millimeters) of the required elevation. Do not consolidate shaft concrete until water or
slurry above the finish concrete level has been removed.
Place concrete using the following methods:
(a) Free-fall. Use free-fall placement only in dry holes. Ensure the concrete falls directly to the shaft
base without contacting either the rebar cage or shaft sidewall.
Drop chutes may be used to direct placement of free-fall concrete. Drop chutes consist of a smooth
tube of either one-piece construction or sections that can be added and removed. Support the drop
chute so that the maximum height of free-fall of the concrete measured from the bottom of the chute is
25 feet (8 meters). Reduce the height of free-fall or rate of concrete flow into the excavation if concrete
placement causes the shaft excavation to cave or slough, strikes the rebar cage or sidewall. Use tremie
or pumping to place the concrete if placement cannot be satisfactorily accomplished by free-fall
placement.
(b) Tremies. Use tremies for concrete placement in either wet or dry holes. A tremie consists of a
hopper and tube of sufficient length, mass, and diameter to discharge concrete at the shaft base. Do not
use tremies that contain aluminum parts that will come in contact with the concrete. Furnish a tremie
tube with clean and smooth inside and outside surfaces and sufficient wall thickness to prevent
crimping or sharp bends. Provide tubes with an inside diameter at least six times the maximum size of
aggregate used in the concrete mix, but not less than 10 inches (250 millimeters). Use a watertight
tremie according to Subsection 552.11(e) for wet holes. Construct the discharge end of the tremie to
permit free radial flow of concrete during placement. Place the tremie discharge at the shaft base
elevation. Place the concrete in a continuous flow. Keep the tremie discharge immersed at least 10 feet
(3 meters) below the surface of the fluid concrete. Maintain a positive head of concrete in the tremie at
all times. If the tremie discharge is removed from the fluid concrete column and discharges concrete
above the rising concrete surface into displaced water; remove the reinforcing cage and concrete,
complete necessary sidewall removal as directed, and reconstruct the shaft.
(c) Pumps. Use pumped concrete placement in either wet or dry holes. Use a 4-inch (100-millimeter)
minimum diameter discharge tube with watertight joints. Place the discharge tube at the shaft base
elevation.
498
Section 565
Use a sealed discharge tube according to Subsection 552.11(e) for wet holes. If a plug is used, remove
it from the hole or use a plug made from approved material that will prevent a defect in the shaft if not
removed.
Place the concrete in a continuous flow. Keep the pump discharge tube immersed at least 10 feet
(1.5 meters) below the surface of the fluid concrete. Remove the reinforcing cage and concrete if the
discharge tube is removed from the fluid concrete column and discharges concrete into displaced
water. Complete necessary sidewall removal as directed by the CO, and reconstruct the shaft.
565.09 Integrity Testing.
(a) Testing. Perform integrity testing on all production drilled shafts according to ASTM D6760.
Test drilled shafts between 2 and 21 days after concrete placement. Furnish drilled shaft bottom and
tip elevations, access tube lengths, surveyed tube positions, and date of concrete placement before
testing to the CSL subcontractor and the CO. Perform tests between all tube pairings in the shaft,
including adjacent perimeter access tubes and diagonally between tubes.
If an access tube is unacceptable for testing (such as tube is not plumb, tube does not retain water,
tube is obstructed, tube-concrete debonding has occurred); drill a plumb core hole to the appropriate
depth and install a fully-grouted replacement tube or propose an alternative integrity test method that
is acceptable to the CO.
Tremie fill access tubes with neat hydraulic cement grout after integrity testing, inspection and data
analysis are completed and accepted by the CO.
(b) Test results and reporting. Submit preliminary results for each shaft tested before CSL test
personnel leave the site. Submit a detailed CSL report to the CO within 5 days of testing. Allow 5 days
for the CO to conduct a review of the data before continuing construction on the tested shaft and
before issuing the final written report. Include the following in the CSL report:
(1) Project identification and dates of CSL testing;
(2) Table and a schematic showing shafts tested with identification of tube coordinates and collar
elevation;
(3) Names of personnel that performed the CSL tests and interpretations and their affiliations;
(4) Type of equipment used for testing;
(5) Data logs and waterfall diagrams;
(6) X-Y plots of first arrival times, amplitude, and velocity versus shaft depth; and
(7) Interpretations, analyses, and results.
Identify and provide detailed discussion of each anomalous zone detected by the CSL. Anomalous
zones are areas where velocity reduction exceeds 20 percent of the average velocity of properly placed
and cured shaft concrete at the time of testing. Collect and process additional data sufficient to
construct three-dimensional color-coded tomographic-images with two-dimensional cross-sections
between tubes within anomalous zones.
499
Section 565
565.10 Acceptance.
(a) Material for drilled shafts will be evaluated as follows:
(1) Slurries will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
(2) Concrete will be evaluated under Section 552. Concrete, tremie placed or pumped, will be
sampled at point of discharge into the tremie or concrete pump hopper.
(3) Reinforcing steel will be evaluated under Section 554.
(b) Construction of drilled shafts will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02, 106.03, and 106.04 as
follows:
(1) Drilled shafts exhibiting velocity reductions less than or equal to 20 percent of the average
velocity of properly placed and cured shaft concrete at the time of testing are acceptable.
(2) Where velocity reductions exceed 20 percent of the average velocity of properly placed and
cured shaft concrete at the time of testing, furnish additional imaging and other data required in
Subsection 565.09(b) to enable further evaluation of the shaft. Drill at least two core holes to
intercept the anomalous zone and obtain core samples from the suspect area when required by the
CO. The CO will evaluate the crosshole sonic logging data, the tomographic imaging data, and the
retrieved core data and make a determination as to the presence of substantive defects.
Remove and replace rejected shafts or propose alternatives according to Subsection 106.01. Submit
design modifications to drilled shafts or load transfer mechanisms, foundation elements, and drawings
according to Subsection 104.03(b)(2). Do not begin remedial work until drawings have been approved
by the CO.
Measurement
565.11 Measure the Section 565 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Measure drilled shafts from the plan top elevation to the approved tip. Do not measure portions of shafts
extending deeper than approved.
Measure trial drilled shafts, determined to be satisfactory, from the approved tip elevation to the ground
surface at the center of the shaft.
Do not measure concrete or reinforcing steel.
500
Section 565
Payment
565.12 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
565 pay items listed in the bid schedule, except the drilled shaft contract price will be adjusted according
to Subsection 106.05. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this Section. See
Subsection 109.05.
Payment for drilled shafts will be made at a price determined by multiplying the contract price by the
structural concrete compressive strength pay factor.
501
Section 566
Section 566. — SHOTCRETE
Description
566.01 This work consists of constructing one or more courses of shotcrete on a prepared surface.
Shotcrete aggregate grading is designated according to Table 703-11.
Material
566.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Air-entraining admixtures (wet mix only)
711.02
Anchorage devices
722.01
Chemical admixtures (wet mix only)
711.03
Concrete coloring agents
711.05
Curing material
711.01
Hydraulic cement
701.01
Penetrating stain
719.08
Pozzolans
725.04
Reinforcing fibers
725.17
Reinforcing steel
709.01
Shotcrete aggregate
703.16
Steel welded wire reinforcement, plain, for concrete
709.01(h)
Water
725.01(a)
Welded deformed steel wire fabric
709.01(j)
Construction Requirements
566.03 Qualifications. Submit the following for approval at least 30 days before shotcrete operations
begin:
(a) Foreman. Name and a résumé describing experience in shotcrete construction on at least five
projects of similar complexity.
(b) Nozzle operator. Name and a résumé describing experience in shotcrete construction. Provide a
ACI nozzle operator certification for the orientations in which shotcrete will be applied and of having
completed at least one similar application as a nozzle operator on a project of similar complexity.
566.04 Composition (Shotcrete Mix Design). Design and produce shotcrete mixtures that conform to
Table 566-1 and ACI 506.02, Specification for Shotcrete.
Verify mix design with trial mixes prepared from the same source proposed for use. Submit the following
for approval at least 30 days before placing shotcrete:
(a) Proposed shotcrete mix design with mix proportions and aggregate grading. When applicable,
include air content, dosage, and type of admixture;
502
Section 566
(b) Representative samples of shotcrete material, if requested by the CO. Results of shotcrete
preconstruction testing demonstrating compliance with Table 566-1;
(c) Proposed method for applying shotcrete;
(d) Other information necessary to verify compliance with ACI 506.2;
(e) Shotcrete material certifications;
(f) Fiber samples, if used; and
(g) Description of proposed equipment for mixing and applying shotcrete. Include the manufacturer’s
instructions, recommendations, literature, performance and test data. In addition, conform to the
equipment requirements in ACI 506, Guide to Shotcrete and include the following:
(1) Water supply system. For dry mix, provide a job site water storage tank. Provide a positive
displacement pump with a regulating valve that is accurately controlled to provide water at the
required pressure and volume.
(2) Mixing. Use equipment capable of handling and applying shotcrete containing the specified
maximum size aggregate and admixtures. Provide an air hose and blow pipe to clear dust and
rebound during shotcrete application.
566.05 Hydration Stabilizing Admixtures. When hydration stabilizing admixtures are used, include
admixtures in the shotcrete mix design. Base dosage on the time needed to delay the initial set of the
shotcrete for delivery and discharge on the job. Include the design discharge time limit in the dosage
submittal. The maximum allowable design discharge time is 3½ hours.
Use an approved and compatible hydration activator at the discharge site to ensure proper placement and
testing.
Determine dosage required to stabilize shotcrete using job site material and field trial mixtures. The
extended-set admixture will control the hydration of cement minerals and gypsum.
When requested, provide the service of a qualified person from the admixture manufacturer to assist in
establishing the proper dose of extended-set admixture and to make dosage adjustments required to meet
changing job site conditions.
503
Section 566
Table 566-1(8)
Composition and Property Requirements of Shotcrete Mixtures
Type of
Minimum
Maximum
Air
Minimum
Maximum
Maximum
Maximum
Maximum
Shotcrete
Cement
Water-
Content
28-Day
Boiling
Permeable
Mean Core
Water-Soluble
Process
Content
Cementitious
Compressive
Absorption
Void
Grade(2) (5) (7)
Chloride Ion (Cl-)
(2)
lb/yd3
Material
Strength, f’c
((4)
Volume(2) (4)
Content
(kg/m3)
Ratio
psi
(%)
(%)
(% by Mass of
(MPa) (2) (3)
Cement)(2) (6) (7)
Wet
658 (390)
0.50
-
4000 (28)
9
17
2.5
0.15
Grading A
7 %(1)
Wet (AE)
658 (390)
0.45
4000 (28)
9
17
2.5
0.15
Grading B
6%(1)
Dry
658 (390)
0.40
-
4000 (28)
9
17
2.5
0.15
(1) Sample according to ASTM C1385. Measure air content on composite samples that have been acquired from material delivered to the
shotcrete machine before pumping according to AASHTO T 152 or AASHTO T 196. A tolerance of ±1.5 percent is allowed. A minimum in-place
shotcrete air content of 4 percent is required after shooting.
(2) Prepare and cure test panels according to Subsection 566.06(a)(1). Drill 3-inch (75-millimeter) diameter cores according to Subsection
566.06(a)(2).
(3) Conduct and report compressive strength tests according to Subsection 566.06(a)(3). Calculate mean compressive core strength as the average
strength of at least three individual cores, taken from the same nonreinforced test panel. Every arithmetic average of any three consecutive mean
core strengths must equal or exceed 0.85 f’c with no individual core less than 0.75 f’c.
(4) Perform and report coating quality tests according to Subsection 566.06(a)(3). No individual test may be greater than the maximum specified.
(5) When shotcrete is applied over reinforcement, conduct and report core grading according to Subsection 566.06(a)(3). Calculate mean core
grade as the average of at least three individual core grades, taken from the same reinforced test panel. The mean core grade must not be greater
than the maximum mean core grade with no individual core grade greater than 3.
(6) When shotcrete is applied over reinforcement, perform and report water-soluble chloride ion (Cl-) content testing according to Subsection
566.06(a)(3). No individual test may be greater than the maximum specified.
(7) Perform during preconstruction testing only.
(8) Produce a mix with a cement to aggregate ratio, based on dry loose volumes, of not less than 1 to 3.5 for the construction and repair of
concrete structures and for encasing steel members, and not less than 1 to 5 for lining ditches and channels and for paving slopes. Use a water
content as low as practical so that mix is sufficiently wet to adhere properly and sufficiently dry so that it will not sag or fall from vertical or
inclined surfaces or separate in horizontal work.
504

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Content      ..     11      12      13      14     ..