STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 10

 

  Главная      Manuals     STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14)

 

Search            copyright infringement  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Content      ..     8      9      10      11     ..

 

 

 

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 10

 

 

Section 411
Leave a 6-inch (150-millimeter) wide uncovered strip of asphalt to permit an overlap of asphalt
material during part-width construction.
Do not allow the wheels of the aggregate spreader to come in contact with the asphalt. Immediately
seat the aggregate using a roller. Operate rollers at a maximum speed of 5 miles (8 kilometers) per
hour.
(c) Method 3 (processed). Scarify the surface to a depth of 2 to 3 inches (50 to 75 millimeters) before
applying the asphalt as a prime coat. Apply emulsified asphalt at an undiluted rate of 0.25 gallons per
square yard per inch
(1.10 liters per square meter per
25 millimeters) of scarification depth.
Immediately process, re-spread, and compact the material. When required, dilute a slow-setting
emulsified asphalt by adding water. Other methods of incorporating asphalt into the aggregate may be
used when approved by the CO.
411.07 Curing. Cure surfaces primed with emulsified asphalt for at least 24 hours before covering with
the next course.
411.08 Maintenance. Maintain the primed surface by keeping it free of corrugations, potholing, and loose
material until the next course is placed. Remove dirt or other deleterious material and repair damaged
areas.
Spread additional blotter to cover unabsorbed asphalt. Remove excess blotter after the asphalt is absorbed.
411.09 Acceptance. Emulsified asphalt will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Crushed aggregate and blotter will be evaluated under Subsection 106.03.
Construction of the prime coat will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
411.10 Measure the Section 411 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring prime coat by the square yard (square meter), measure the length along the centerline of
the roadway. Include treated widen areas when measuring the width.
When measuring prime coat by the cubic yard (cubic meter) volume, measure in the hauling vehicle. Do
not measure water added for dilution. Indicate a breakdown of total emulsion and water added on the
load invoices supplied to the CO.
Payment
411.11 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
411 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
345
Section 412
Section 412. — ASPHALT TACK COAT
Description
412.01 This work consists of applying an emulsified asphalt tack coat.
Tack coat emulsified asphalt grade is designated according to AASHTO M 140 or AASHTO M 208.
Material
412.02 Conform to the following Subsection:
Emulsified asphalt
702.02
Construction Requirements
412.03 Equipment. Use equipment conforming to Subsection 407.05.
412.04 Surface Preparation. Clean the existing surface of loose material, dirt, or other deleterious
material by approved methods. When the surface is concrete, remove excess joint and crack filler.
412.05 Weather Limitations. Apply asphalt tack only when the following apply:
(a) Surface is dry and unfrozen;
(b) Ambient air temperature is above 35 °F (2 °C) and rising; and
(c) Weather is not foggy or rainy.
412.06 Asphalt Application. When using slow-setting emulsified asphalt, dilute by adding an equal
quantity of water to the emulsified asphalt.
Apply the asphalt tack coat according to Subsection 407.09 at a rate of 0.03 to 0.15 gallons per square yard
(0.15 to 0.70 liters per square meter).
Apply the asphalt tack coat uniformly and completely by fogging with a hand spray attachment or by
another approved method when application with a distributor spray bar is not practical.
Squeegee the excess asphalt from the surface. Allow the tacked surfaces to completely cure before placing
the covering course. Place the covering course within 4 hours of placing the asphalt tack coat.
412.07 Acceptance. Emulsified asphalt will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Construction of the tack coat will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
346
Section 412
Measurement
412.08 Measure the Section 412 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Measure tack coat including water added for dilution. Indicate a breakdown of total emulsion and water
added on the load invoices supplied to the CO for payment.
Payment
412.09 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
412 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
347
Section 413
Section 413. — ASPHALT PAVEMENT MILLING
Description
413.01 This work consists of removing asphalt pavement by a cold milling process.
Construction Requirements
413.02 Equipment.
(a) Milling machine.
(1) Self-propelled;
(2) Sufficient power, traction, and stability to accurately maintain depth of cut;
(3) Capable of removing the pavement thickness to provide profile and cross slope;
(4) Automatic system to control grade elevations by referencing from the existing pavement by
means of a ski, matching shoe, or from an independent grade control;
(5) Automatic system to maintain cross slope;
(6) System to effectively limit dust and other particulate matter from escaping removal operations;
(7) Loading system or adequate support equipment to completely recover milled material at
removal rate; and
(8) Cutting width equal to at least one-third of the lane width.
(b) Sweeper. See Subsection 409.05(c).
413.03 Milling. Use a longitudinal reference to accurately guide the machine. References may include a
curb, edge of pavement, or string attached to the pavement surface. Mill in a longitudinal direction.
Mill the transverse slope to within ¼ inch in 10 feet (6 millimeters in 3 meters) of the required slope.
Transition from one transverse slope to another at a uniform rate. Uniformly mill the entire roadway lane
width so the cross-section of the new surface forms a straight line.
Transition between different depths of cut at a uniform rate of ½ inch (17 millimeters) of depth per 10 feet
(10 meters). At the beginning and end of the milling work, construct a smooth transition to the original
surface at this rate. Do not leave an exposed vertical edge perpendicular to the direction of travel. When
the pavement remains open to traffic, limit differences in elevation between adjacent lanes according to
Subsection 401.15.
Mill the surface to conform to Subsection 403.11.
Use a sweeper immediately behind the milling operations to remove and completely recover loose
material. Minimize the escape of dust into the air by misting. Dispose of recovered milled material
according to Subsection 211.02(a)(2).
348
Section 413
Before opening to traffic, patch defects in milled surface according to the CO.
413.04 Acceptance. Asphalt pavement milling will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Milled surfaces will be evaluated under Subsection 403.11.
Measurement
413.05 Measure the Section 413 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring asphalt pavement milling by square yard (square meter), measure the length horizontally
along the centerline of the roadway.
Payment
413.06 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
413 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
349
Section 414
Section 414. — ASPHALT PAVEMENT CRACK SEALING AND FILLING
Description
414.01 This work consists of routing, cleaning, sealing, and filling cracks in asphalt pavement surfaces.
Material
414.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsection:
Asphalt concrete
403
Joint sealants and crack fillers (hot applied)
712.01(a)
Construction Requirements
414.03 Equipment. Furnish equipment with the following capabilities:
(a) Router. A power rotary impact router or vertical spindle router capable of creating a reservoir to
the required depth and width without damaging adjacent pavement.
(b) Air lance. A hot compressed air lance capable of providing clean, oil-free compressed air at a
volume of 100 cubic feet (2.8 cubic meters) per minute, a pressure of 120 pounds per square inch
(830 kilopascals), and a temperature of 2000 °F (1100 °C).
(c) Application wand. A wand attached to a heated hose attached to a heated material chamber that
maintains material temperature within manufacturer’s tolerances. Supply proper wand tips for desired
application.
(d) Heating kettle. An indirect-heating double boiler capable of constant and effective agitation. Fill
the space between the inner and outer shells with oil or other heat transfer medium. Provide an
accurate and calibrated thermometer with a range from 200 to 600 °F in 5 °F graduations (90 to 320 °C
in 2 °C graduations) located so the material temperature can be safely checked.
(e) Squeegee or screed. A hand-held squeegee or screed of appropriate configuration for filling cracks
flush with the surface, underfilling cracks to recess below the surface, or overfilling cracks to an
overband shape.
(f) Compressor. A compressor capable of producing oil- and water-free air at a minimum rate of
100 cubic feet (2.8 cubic meters) per minute with a minimum continuous line pressure of 125 pounds
per square inch (860 kilopascals).
414.04 Routing. Rout, clean, and seal cracks in a continuous operation. Do not allow traffic to close or
damage routed cracks.
Rout ⅛- to ½-inch (3- to 13-millimeter) wide cracks to produce vertical, intact walls and a flat bottom with
a reservoir centered over the crack. Make the reservoir two to three times the width of the crack. Rout
cracks to a depth of ½ to ¾ inches (13 to 19 millimeters).
350
Section 414
414.05 Cleaning. Prevent debris from entering waterways, travel lanes open to public traffic, or areas
designated not to be disturbed. Remove dirt, dust, and other deleterious material from the crack walls
and cavity using a stream of air or other approved methods. Blow or brush dry material off the pavement
surface.
414.06 Sealing and Filling. Dry the crack surfaces with the hot air lance before sealing or filling. Do not
seal or fill cracks when the pavement surface temperature is below 35 °F (2 °C) and weather conditions are
rainy or foggy.
(a) Sealing (routed cracks or cracks averaging ¼ to 1 inch (6 to 25 millimeters) wide). Submit a
copy of and adhere to the manufacturer’s recommendations for heating and applying the hot applied
crack material. Heat the material to pouring temperature in a heating kettle and continuously agitate the
material.
Discard sealant when:
(1) Heated above the safe heating temperature recommended by the manufacturer;
(2) Held at pouring temperature for more than 12 hours;
(3) Reheated more than once; or
(4) Not consistent or uniform in appearance.
Warm and dry the crack surfaces using a hot-compressed air lance if the pavement temperature is
lower than 50 °F (10 °C) or moisture is present. Keep the lance moving to prevent burning the
pavement surface. Place and finish the material within 5 minutes after heating the pavement surface
with the lance.
Use an application wand to place material in each crack from the bottom up. Insulate the wand to
maintain pouring temperature while placing material. Return the wand to the heating kettle
immediately after sealing each crack. Use a squeegee or screed to strike off the material.
(b) Filling (cracks averaging more than 1 inch (25 millimeters) wide). Fill each crack with an
asphalt mix according to Section 403. Use a squeegee, screed, or other suitable equipment to force the
mix into the crack. Fill each crack flush with the pavement surface and compact the asphalt mixture.
Do not allow traffic on sealed or filled cracks until the sealant or filler has cured or is treated with
debonding material recommended by the manufacturer and approved by the CO.
414.07 Resealing Cracks. Reseal cracks exhibiting adhesion failure, damage, incomplete filling, foreign
objects in the sealant, or otherwise rejected by the CO.
414.08 Acceptance. Material for asphalt pavement crack sealing or filling will be evaluated under
Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Asphalt pavement crack sealing and filling will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
414.09 Measure the Section 414 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
351
Section 414
Payment
414.10 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
414 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
352
Section 415
Section 415. — PAVING GEOTEXTILES
Description
415.01 This work consists of installing paving geotextile and asphalt binder between pavement layers to
form a waterproofing and stress-relieving membrane within the pavement structure.
Material
415.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Asphalt binder
702.01
Blotter
703.12
Paving geotextile
714.01(b)
Construction Requirements
415.03 Submittals. Submit the following for approval at least 10 days before installing the paving
geotextile:
(a) A production certification for the geotextile according to Subsection 106.03(a). Include the
name of the manufacturer, product name, and style number;
(b) A 18- by 18-inch (460- by 460-millimeter) sample from beyond the first outer wrap of the
roll. Label the sample with the lot and batch number, date of sampling, project number, item
number, manufacturer, and product name;
(c) The manufacturer’s recommended asphalt binder application rate based on field conditions
and geotextile asphalt retention properties; and
(d) A plan of operations for installing the geotextile.
415.04 General. Identify, store, and handle geotextile according to ASTM D4873 and the
manufacturer’s recommendations. Limit exposure to ultraviolet radiation to less than 2 days.
415.05 Surface Preparation. Seal cracks according to Section 414. Clean the existing surface of loose
material, dirt, or other deleterious material by approved methods.
415.06 Weather Limitations. Apply asphalt binder and paving geotextile only when the following apply:
(a) Surface is dry and unfrozen; and
(b) Surface temperature is at least 55 °F (13 °C) and rising.
415.07 Asphalt Binder Application. Apply asphalt binder to the pavement surface according to
Subsection 407.09 at 290 to 325 °F (140 to 165 °C).
Spray the asphalt binder 6 inches (150 millimeters) wider than the paving geotextile. Do not apply the
asphalt binder further than the temporary traffic control zone for this work.
353
Section 415
Use the same asphalt binder grade as required in the approved job-mix formula.
415.08 Paving Geotextile Placement. Before the asphalt binder cools and loses tackiness, place the
paving geotextile smoothly and with minimal wrinkling onto the binder. Use equipment especially
designed to hold the roll and lay down the paving geotextile. Provide uniform tension and broom the
geotextile smooth during placement. Slit, lay flat, and tack wrinkles or folds higher than 1 inch
(25 millimeters). Cut to remove folds that result in three or more layers of geotextile. Broom and roll the
paving geotextile to maximize fabric contact with the pavement surface.
Overlap the geotextile 6 inches (150 millimeters) at longitudinal joints to ensure full closure. Do not
overlap transverse joints. Butt adjacent geotextile ends together at transverse joints. Apply additional
asphalt binder to paving geotextile overlaps to ensure proper bonding of the double fabric layer.
If asphalt binder bleeds through the fabric, treat the affected areas with blotter.
Broom the excess blotter from the geotextile surface before placing the overlay. Do not turn equipment
on the geotextile. Repair damaged fabric before placing overlay.
Limit the lay-down temperature of the asphalt concrete overlay to a maximum of 300 °F (150 °C).
415.09 Acceptance. Asphalt binder will be evaluated under Subsections 106.03 and 106.04.
Material for paving geotextiles will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03. Furnish a
production certification with each shipment of geotextile.
Installation of the paving geotextile will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Blotter will be evaluated under Section 411.
Sealing cracks will be evaluated under Section 414.
Measurement
415.10 Measure the Section 415 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Measure blotter under Section 411.
Payment
415.11 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
415 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
354
Section 416. — RESERVED
Section 417. — RESERVED
355
Section 418
Section 418. — ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVEMENT PATCHING
Description
418.01 This work consists of repairing distressed areas of asphalt concrete pavement by removing and
patching the pavement and underlying material as required.
Separation and stabilization geotextile is designated according to Table 714-1.
Material
418.02 Conform to the following Sections and Subsections:
Asphalt concrete
403
Asphalt tack coat
412
Crushed aggregate
703.06
Separation and stabilization geotextile and geotextile filter
714.01(a)
Stabilization geogrid
714.03
Construction Requirements
418.03 Asphalt Pavement, Base, and Subgrade Full Depth Patch, Type 1 (FDP-1).
(a) Patch areas. Extend the repair area 12 inches (300 millimeters) beyond the distressed area. If
patch limits are within 24 inches (600 millimeters) of the pavement edge, extend the patch limit to
the pavement edge. Make the minimum transverse dimension of the patch half of the travel lane
width and the minimum longitudinal dimension of the patch 36 inches (900 millimeters).
(b) Pavement removal. Mill completely through the pavement or saw cut and remove the pavement.
When saw cutting, cut through the existing pavement and around the perimeter of the patch area.
Make saw cuts perpendicular to the roadway surface and at right angles to each other. Remove the
pavement, base and subgrade to the depth shown in the plans.
(c) Patching. When required, place geogrid or geotextile according to Section 207. Place and
compact crushed aggregate base according to Subsections 302.04 and 302.05. Asphalt millings may
be used for crushed aggregate base material. Apply a tack coat to the edges of the patch area
according to Section 412. Place and compact asphalt concrete pavement to ensure the patched
surface matches the same grade as the adjacent surface.
418.04 Asphalt Pavement Full Depth Patch, Type 2 (FDP-2).
(a) Patch areas. Extend the repair area 12 inches (300 millimeters) beyond the distressed area. If
patch limits are within 24 inches (600 millimeters) of the pavement edge, extend the patch limit to
the pavement edge. Make the minimum length and width of the patch 36 inches (900 millimeters).
(b) Pavement removal. See Subsection 418.03(b), except remove the pavement to expose subbase
or subgrade as shown in the plans.
356
Section 418
(c) Patching. Apply a tack coat to the edges of the patch area according to Section 412. Place and
compact asphalt concrete pavement so the patched surface matches the same grade as the adjacent
surface.
418.05 Asphalt Pavement Partial Depth Patch, Type 3.
(a) Patch areas. Patch areas will be designated by the CO.
(b) Pavement removal. Clean the patch area by sweeping or other acceptable methods.
(c) Patching. Apply a tack coat to asphalt concrete surfaces within the patch area according to
Section 412. Place the asphalt material either by hand, with a blade, or other approved method.
Compact the asphalt concrete pavement patch to match the grade of the adjacent surface.
418.06 Disposing of Waste. Dispose of debris and unsuitable and excess material according to
Subsection 203.05(a) and (d).
418.07 Acceptance. Construction of asphalt concrete pavement patching will be evaluated under
Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Separation and stabilization geotextiles and geogrid will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.03.
Asphalt concrete will be evaluated under Section 403.
Crushed aggregate will be evaluated under Section 302.
Asphalt tack coat will be evaluated under Section 412.
Measurement
418.08 Measure the Section 418 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Do not measure asphalt tack coat.
Payment
418.09 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract unit price per unit of measurement for the
Section 418 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work
prescribed in this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
357
Section 418
358
DIVISION 500
RIGID PAVEMENTS
359
Section 501
Section 501. — MINOR CONCRETE PAVEMENT
Description
501.01 This work consists of constructing minor concrete pavement on a prepared surface.
Material
501.02 Conform to the following Section:
Minor concrete
601
Construction Requirements
501.03 Composition (Concrete Mix Design). See Subsection 601.03, except conform to Table 501-1.
Table 501-1
Composition of Concrete
Maximum
Slump
Air Content
Coarse
28-Day
Water/
(maximum),
(minimum)
Aggregate
Compressive
Cementitious
AASHTO
Size Number
Strength
Material
T 119
AASHTO
(minimum),
Ratio
M 43(1)
AASHTO
T 22
0.45
4 inches
5.0%
57 & 67
4000 psi
(100 millimeters)
(28 MPa)
(fixed form)
(1) Meet the processing requirements of AASHTO M 43, Table 1 - Standard Sizes of Processed
Aggregate.
501.04 Equipment. Conform to the following:
(a) Forms. Furnish straight, steel forms. For curved edges with radii less than 150 feet (45 meters),
furnish flexible or curved forms. Provide forms conforming to the following:
(1) Height equal to the pavement thickness at the edge;
(2) 10-foot (3-meter) minimum length;
(3) Stabilizing devices to secure form to the prepared surface and to withstand paving operations
and pressure of concrete with no visible movement or settlement;
(4) Joint locks to join form lengths tightly together; and
(5) Clean and free of hardened concrete, dirt, distortion, and rust.
360
Section 501
(b) Paving and finishing.
(1) Fixed form construction. Furnish equipment conforming to either of the following:
(a) Mechanical, self-propelled, finishing machines capable of consolidating and finishing the
concrete with minimal hand finishing. Coordinate the number of driving wheels, power of
the motor, and the machine's mass to prevent slippage. Do not use machines that displace the
fixed forms; or
(b) Manual finishing machines or roller screeds capable of consolidating and finishing the
concrete.
(2) Vibrators. Furnish internal immersed tube or multiple spud type vibrators for paving more
than 8 inches (200 millimeters) thick. Surface pan type vibrators are acceptable for full-width
concrete consolidation of slabs 8 inches (200 millimeters) or less in thickness. Operate the
vibrators at frequencies within 5,000 to 8,000 vibrations per minute. Attach vibrators to the
spreader or finishing machine or mount on a separate carriage that precedes the finishing
machine. For construction of irregular areas, use hand-held vibrators operated at a frequency
recommended by the manufacturer.
(c) Concrete saws. Furnish concrete saws that are capable of sawing new concrete for crack control to
the required depth and alignment. Equip saws with blade guards and devices to control alignment and
depth.
(d) Joint sealing. Furnish sealing equipment according to the sealant manufacturer’s
recommendations.
501.05 Production Start-Up Procedures. Conduct a pre-minor concrete pavement preparatory phase
meeting according to Subsection 153.04(a).
501.06 Surface Preparation and Setting Forms. Prepare the roadbed surface according to Section 301.
Maintain the surface to avoid the development of loose and uncompacted material.
Set and align forms to the plan dimensions and elevations. Securely brace forms so they will not bulge or
warp during concrete placement. Apply form release agent or form oil to the inside form faces. Align
forms to the dimensions and elevations in the plans and assure there is no bulging or warping.
Check and correct roadbed surface deformations and rutting exceeding ½ inch (13 millimeters) and
uniformly dampen the surface before placing concrete.
501.07 Placing Concrete. At least 14 days before the start of concrete placement operations, arrange a
pre-paving conference. Coordinate attendance with the CO and applicable subcontractors. Submit and be
prepared to discuss the following:
(a) Proposed pour sequence and placement schedule;
(b) Approved concrete mix design;
(c) Contractor quality control plan;
(d) Equipment, batching, mixing, placing, and curing requirements;
361
Section 501
(e) Subsections 106.03 and 106.04;
(f) Jointing plan, joint forming or sawing operations, rain protection plan, hot and cold weather paving
plan, and opening to traffic requirements; and
(g) Traffic control plan.
Conform to Subsections 552.04 through 552.08 and 552.10 for weather limitations, handling, storing,
batching, and mixing material and delivering concrete.
Deposit concrete between the forms to a uniform height. Consolidate concrete to remove voids and air
pockets. Do not move concrete horizontally with vibrators.
Strike off and place concrete with a form-riding paving machine or manual fixed form paving equipment.
In irregular areas where a paving machine is impractical, place concrete using templates, screeds, or other
methods approved by the CO.
Carry a slight excess of concrete in front of the leading edge of the template or screed. After strikeoff and
before bleed water appears on the surface, float to the required grade and cross-section. Finish the concrete
pavement to minus ¼ inch (6 millimeters) or plus ⅜ inch (10 millimeters) of the thickness required.
When concrete is placed adjoining a previously-constructed lane of pavement, do not operate mechanical
equipment on the existing lane until the lane has attained:
A minimum flexural strength of 450 pounds per square inch (3.1 megapascals) according to
AASHTO T 23 and AASHTO T 97; or
A compressive strength of 3,000 pounds per square inch (21 megapascals) according to AASHTO
T 22 and AASHTO T 23.
When required, place reinforcing steel according to Section 554. If placing rebar before placing concrete,
position the rebar on acceptable supports. If placing rebar after placing concrete, mechanically insert the
rebar to the required depth. Reinforcing bars and steel supports are to be epoxy-coated. Keep epoxy-coated
reinforcing steel free of damage and distortion. Steel wire fabric and mats are not required to be
epoxy-coated.
When rain is threatening during paving operations, stop paving operations and protect the concrete
pavement from rain with plastic sheeting or other methods approved by the CO. Remove, replace, or repair
pavement damaged by rain or hail as directed by the CO at no cost to the Government.
501.08 Joints. Construct joints at locations and dimensions indicated in the plans. If jointing locations are
not indicated in the plans, submit a jointing plan according to Subsection 104.03. Indicate locations of
contraction, construction, and isolation joints.
Do not vary longitudinal joints more than ½ inch (13 millimeters) and transverse joints more than ¼ inch
(6 millimeters) from true alignment. When curbs or medians are constructed integral with the pavement,
construct transverse joints continuous through the curb or median. Clean joints of deleterious material,
including concrete slurry, and protect the joints until sealed.
(a) Longitudinal joints. Construct longitudinal construction joints by using steel fixed forms and a
keyway along the joint.
362
Section 501
Where required, place deformed steel tie bars perpendicular to the longitudinal joints with mechanical
equipment or rigidly secured chairs without damaging or disrupting the concrete. Along longitudinal
construction joints, tie bars may be bent at right angles against the form of the first lane constructed
and straightened into final position before placing concrete in the adjacent lane. Repair or replace
broken or damaged tie bars.
Threaded hook bolts may be used instead of tie bars. Fasten hook bolts to the form of the longitudinal
construction joint.
Construct joints as follows:
(1) Formed joints. Form joints with an approved nonmetallic or removable device while the
concrete is plastic, but set sufficiently to maintain the formed joint. When adjacent lanes are
constructed separately, form the sealant reservoir in the lane placed last.
(2) Sawed joints. After placing concrete, saw joints approximately ⅛ inch (3 millimeters) wide
as soon as equipment can be supported and before uncontrolled cracking occurs. Do not ravel the
joints while sawing. Saw longitudinal joints immediately after sawing transverse joints. Protect
the sawed concrete faces from drying during the curing period. Saw sealant reservoirs no sooner
than 72 hours after placing the concrete.
If necessary, continue sawing day and night, regardless of weather conditions.
Do not saw a joint if a crack occurs at or near the joint location before sawing. Discontinue
sawing when a crack develops ahead of the saw.
Remove and replace newly-placed concrete pavement where uncontrolled cracking occurs. Dowel and
tie replacement pavement to adjacent pavement as specified.
(b) Transverse contraction joints. When required, construct contraction joints according to
Subsection 501.08(a)(1) or (a)(2).
Where required, place dowel bars through and centered on traverse joints and in the middle of the slab
depth. Align and hold dowels parallel to the surface and centerline of the slab by a metal assembly that
remains in the pavement and is rigidly secured to the base or subgrade using stakes or nails. Limit
deviations from parallel to ¼ inch (6 millimeters) in the length of the dowel bar. Assure proper
alignment of joint and dowel bar assemblies.
Coat each dowel bar with an approved bond breaker. Limit bond breaker coating thickness to 15 mils
(380 micrometers).
Concrete edges adjacent to the joint may be rounded or beveled to a radius no greater than ¼ inch
(6 millimeters) or as approved. Resaw or grind joints having an insufficient opening. Where a joint is
larger than required, furnish a larger size joint seal as approved.
(c) Transverse construction joints. Construct transverse construction joints only at locations
specified, at the end of each work shift, or when concrete placement is interrupted for more than
30 minutes. If necessary, remove and dispose of the excess concrete to the last preceding joint.
When required, install dowel bars in transverse construction joints according to Subsection 501.08(b).
363
Section 501
Use a metal or wooden bulkhead to form the joint, shaped to the pavement cross-section and designed
to permit the installation of dowel bars.
(d) Isolation joints. Form isolation joints around manholes, utility boxes, foundations, other fixed
objects, or as indicated in the plans. Place a ½-inch (13-millimeter) pre-formed joint filler continuously
around or along each structure that extends into or through the pavement before concrete is placed.
After the concrete hardens, recess the joint filler about ¾ inch (19 millimeters) to allow a reservoir for
sealant.
When required, place steel wire fabric at the location and orientation specified. Use metal or plastic chairs
or other methods approved by the CO to support the steel wire fabric.
501.09 Surface Finishing. Protect the surface from rain damage.
After floating, check the surface of the fresh concrete with a 10-foot (3-meter) straightedge. Remove high
areas indicated by the straightedge. Lap each successive check with the straightedge 5 feet (1.5 meters)
over the previous check path.
Before the concrete has initially set, work the pavement edges on each side of isolation joints, formed
joints, transverse and longitudinal construction joints, and emergency construction joints to produce a
¼ inch (6 millimeters) or less continuous radius and a smooth, dense mortar finish. Do not use mortar
buildup to round edges.
As soon as excess moisture has disappeared and while the concrete is still plastic enough to make a
granular surface possible, texture the surface to produce a skid resistant surface. Use the method specified
and conform to the following:
(a) Transverse tine finish. Drag two layers of moistened burlap along the pavement in the direction of
paving without tearing or marring the surface. Following the burlap drag, use a tining comb to form
grooves in the pavement surface. Space tines randomly ½ to ¾ inches (13 to 19 millimeters) apart.
Produce grooves that are 1/16 to 3/16 inches (1.6 to 5 millimeters) wide and ⅛ to 3/16 (3 to 5 millimeters)
inches deep. Tine perpendicular to the centerline without tearing the concrete surface or loosening
surface aggregate.
(b) Broom finish. Broom the surface with a steel or stiff-bristled fiber broom to produce corrugations
between 1/16 and ⅛ inch (1.6 to 3 millimeters) deep. Broom perpendicular to the centerline from edge
to edge with adjacent strokes slightly overlapped. Use the same type and manufacture of broom for all
paved surfaces to provide a consistent appearance.
(c) Exposed aggregate finish. Broom the surface. Use stiff brushes approved by the CO. Exercise care
to prevent marring of the surface and cracking or chipping of slab edges or joints. If approved by the
CO, apply a light spray of retardant to the unfinished surface to facilitate this work.
Broom transversely across the pavement. Pull the loosened semi-stiff mortar off the pavement.
Remove the mortar from adjacent pavement. Broom parallel to the centerline. Continue this operation
until a sufficient quantity of coarse aggregate is exposed. Other methods of aggregate exposure will be
permitted if satisfactory results are demonstrated.
After curing, wash the surface with water and brush to remove laitance and cement from the exposed
coarse aggregate.
364
Section 501
501.10 Curing. Immediately after finishing and when marring will not occur; cure the surface and
exposed sides of concrete for at least 72 hours. Do not leave the concrete exposed for more than
30 minutes during the curing period. Cure using one of the following methods:
(a) Water method. Cure according to Subsection 552.15(b). Cover the entire surface of the pavement
and edges of the slab with water saturated mats. Extend the mats at least twice the thickness of the
pavement beyond the edges of the slab. Place the mats in complete contact with the surface. Use
weights or other approved methods to maintain contact; or
(b) Liquid membrane curing compound method. Cure according to Subsection 552.15(c).
Remove forms when the concrete has hardened sufficiently to resist damage, but no earlier than 12 hours
after placing concrete. Protect the sides of the exposed slabs with a curing method equal to that provided
for the surface. Prevent erosion of the base course beneath the exposed pavement edges until shoulders are
constructed.
501.11 Sealing Joints. Saw cut and seal joints before the pavement is opened to construction or public
traffic.
Where sealant reservoirs are required, clean each sealant reservoir of foreign material including membrane
curing compound and concrete slurry. Blow dry joints with moisture free compressed air. Do not apply
sealing material unless the joint faces are clean and surface dry, and the joint is free of incompressibles.
Use preformed joint seals, silicone sealant, or hot-poured sealant for isolation joints. Use silicone or
hot-poured sealants for longitudinal and transverse contraction joints.
(a) Silicone or hot-poured sealants. Install backer rod with a steel wheel to the depth required. Do not
stretch or twist the backer rod during installation. Limit the length of backer rod installed to that which
can be sealed during the same workday.
Place joint sealing material when the air temperature is over 40 °F (4 °C) or as specified by the
manufacturer. Remove excess or spilled material and clean the pavement surface. Do not use sand or
similar material to cover the seal. For sealants that are not self-leveling, tool the surface of the sealant
to the dimensions required in the plans.
(b) Preformed joint seals. Furnish the seal in one piece in the size specified for the joint opening.
Install seals with a lubricant adhesive covering both sides of the joint. Compress the seal to between
20 and 50 percent of its nominal width or as specified by the manufacturer. Install the top of the seal
about ¼ inch (6 millimeters) below the pavement surface.
Remove and replace seals that are damaged, twisted, improperly positioned, or stretched more than
3 percent.
501.12 Pavement Straightedge Measurement. Measure the pavement surface after the concrete has
cured. Use a 10-foot (3-meter) metal straightedge to measure at right angles and parallel to the centerline.
Defective areas are deviations between the surface and the bottom of the straightedge in excess of
¼ inches (6 millimeters), measured between two contacts of the straightedge, or deviations in excess of
¼ inches (6 millimeters) measured at the end of the straightedge.
Correct defective areas by diamond grinding, slab removal, or other methods approved by the CO.
365
Section 501
501.13 Opening to Traffic. Do not allow traffic on new concrete pavement earlier than 14 days after
concrete placement unless concrete tests indicate one of the following conditions is obtained:
(a) Flexural strength of 550 pounds per square inch (4 megapascals) according to AASHTO T 97; or
(b) Compressive strength of
4000 pounds per square inch
(28 megapascals) according to
AASHTO T 22.
Do not allow traffic on the pavement when joint sealant is tacky and traffic debris would imbed into the
sealant.
501.14 Acceptance. See Table 501-2 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Material for minor concrete pavement will be evaluated under Section 601.
The concrete mixture's slump, air content, density, temperature, and compressive strength will be
evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Construction of concrete pavement will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Pavement straight edge will be evaluated under Subsection 106.04.
Measurement
501.15 Measure the Section 501 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring concrete pavement by the square yard (square meter), measure the length horizontally
along the centerline of the roadway. Measure the width including allowable curve widening.
Payment
501.16 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
501 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
366
Section 501
Table 501-2
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source
Aggregate
Measured and
Quality
AASHTO
1 per
Source of
Yes
14 days
(703.01
tested for
M 80
material
material
before
& 703.02)
conformance
M 6
type
paving
(106.04 & 105)
M 43
Mix Design
Concrete
Measured and
All
Subsection
1 per
Source of
Yes
14 days
composition
tested for
501.03
mix
material
before
(501.03)
conformance
design
paving
(106.04 & 105)
367
Section 501
Table 501-2 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production
Concrete
Measured and
Density
AASHTO
1 per
Point of
No
Upon
tested for
T 121
load (2)
discharge (3)
completing
conformance
tests
(106.04)
Air content
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
T 152 or T 196
Slump
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
T 119
Temperature
Field measured
"
"
"
"
Compressive
AASHTO
1 set per
"
See Note
"
Deliver
strength (1)(4)
T 23 & T 22
200 yd2
(4)
verification
(170 m2),
cylinders to
but not
the CO or
less than
designated
1 set per day
location in
time for 28-
day break
Aggregate
Process
Gradation
AASHTO
1 per
Bin
No
Before
(coarse
control
T 27 & T 11
day min
discharge,
batching
& fine)
(153.03)
conveyor
belt, or
stockpile
Moisture
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
T 255
Concrete
"
Surface
Straightedge
Subsection
Concrete
"
While
tolerance
measurements
501.07
surface,
concrete
Subsection
after floating
is still
501.07
workable
368
Section 501
Table 501-2 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Finished Roadway
Concrete
Measured and
Surface
Straightedge
Successively,
Finished
No
24
pavement
tested for
tolerance
measurements
after concrete
pavement
hours
conformance
Subsection
has hardened
surface
(106.04)
501.12
Pavement
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
When
thickness
T 148
directed by
the CO
(1) A single compressive strength test result is the average result from two 6 by 12 inch (150 by 300 millimeter) or three 4 by 8 inch (100 by 200
millimeter) cylinders cast from the same load and tested at 28 days.
(2) This frequency may be reduced by the CO if produced material proves to be consistent.
(3) Sample according to AASHTO R 60, except composite samples are not required.
(4) Make at least four 6 by 12 inch (150 by 300 millimeter) or six 4 by 8 inch (100 by 200 millimeter) compressive strength test cylinders and
carefully transport the cylinders to the project curing facility. Two or three cylinders will be used for 28-day compressive strength tests. The
remaining cylinders will be used by the CO for verification testing or other designated purposes.
369
Section 502
Section 502. — CONCRETE PAVEMENT RESTORATION
Description
502.01 This work consists of concrete pavement restoration. Concrete pavement restoration includes full
depth patching, partial-depth patching, pavement jacking, subsealing, surface grinding, crack and joint
repair, and cleaning.
Material
502.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsections:
Epoxy resin adhesive
725.18
Latex modifier
711.04
Minor concrete pavement
501
Nonshrink grout
725.13(b)
Polymer concrete and mortar
725.14
Reinforcing steel
709.01
502.03 Composition of Mix (Concrete Mix Design). Design the concrete mix according to Subsection
501.03.
502.04 Equipment. Furnish equipment conforming to the following:
(a) Waterblaster. Furnish a high-pressure water jet machine with at least 2500 pounds per square
inch (17.5 megapascals) pressure and is capable of removing residual sealant, oil, or other foreign
material in joints.
(b) Air compressors. Furnish air compressors with a minimum nozzle pressure of 100 pounds per
square inch (700 kilopascals) and capable of dislodging loose debris and drying joints and cracks.
(c) Grout plant. Furnish a grout plant which consists of a positive displacement cement injection
pump and a high-speed colloidal mill. Operate colloidal mill at speeds necessary to make a
homogeneous mixture.
Furnish an injection pump having a pressure capability of
275±25 pounds per square inch
(1900±170 kilopascals) when pumping a grout slurry mixed to a 12-second flow cone time and that
continuously pumps at a minimum rate of 1.5 gallons (6.0 liters) per minute. The system may be
modified by adding a recirculating hose and valve at the discharge end of the pump.
Produce grout through a meter or scale capable of measuring the total day's consumption. Furnish
hoses and fittings to provide a positive seal during grout injection.
370
Section 502
(d) Drills. Furnish drills that meet the following:
(1) Drills for pavement jacking. Furnish rock drills capable of drilling straight, minimum
-inch (38-millimeter) diameter holes through the concrete slab, steel reinforcement, and base
material. Furnish rock drills weighing less than 60 pounds (27 kilograms) that are capable of
drilling with a downward pressure of less than 200 pounds (90 kilograms). Furnish an auger to
open clogged holes and existing pavement jacking holes.
(2) Drills for dowels and tie bars. Furnish drills capable of drilling specified hole diameters for
dowel bars or reinforcing steel tie bars. Drills for dowel bars must be capable of drilling holes
that meet the vertical and horizontal tolerance of ±¼ inch (±6 millimeters) along the centerline of
the dowel with respect to a horizontal line that is perpendicular to the plane established by
the joint.
(e) Surface diamond grinder. Furnish power driven, self-propelled grinding equipment,
specifically designed to smooth and texture concrete pavement with diamond blades. Furnish
equipment that:
(1) Cuts or planes at least 36 inches (900 millimeters) in width;
(2) Does not encroach on traffic movement outside of the work area; and
(3) Grinds the surface without spalling.
(f) Hydroblaster. Provide hydroblasting equipment conforming to Subsection 560.05.
(g) Cold planing (milling) machine. Provide a milling machine, with a micromilling head that does
not exceed the bearing capacity of the concrete pavement and that conforms to Subsection 413.02(a).
(h) Slab stabilization testing. Furnish the following testing equipment:
(1) A 2-axle truck with dual rear wheels. Load the rear axle to 18 kips (80 kilonewtons) evenly
distributed between the 2 wheel paths;
(2) Static load measuring gauges consisting of 4 gauges on 2 gauge mounts, 2 gauges per mount,
capable of detecting slab movement under load; and
(3) A modified Benkelman beam or similar approved device.
502.05 Partial-Depth Patching (less than 4 inches (100 millimeters) in depth). This work consists of
patching spalls, potholes, corner breaks, or other surface distresses in concrete pavement.
(a) Patch material. Use a polymer concrete for patches less than or equal to
1½ inches
(38 millimeters) deep. Use hydraulic cement concrete designed and approved according to
Subsection 501.03 for patches greater than 1½ inches (38 millimeters) deep.
(b) Patch area preparation. Extend the limits of repair at least 4 inches (100 millimeters) outside
the deteriorated area. Saw vertically along the perimeter of the patch area, parallel to the existing
joint, and to a minimum depth of 1½ inches (38 millimeters). Near vertical edges from milling or
grinding machines are acceptable. Repair saw overcuts and nicks to adjacent pavement outside the
perimeter of the repair area with noncorrosive, non-shrink grout.
371
Section 502
Break out concrete within the patch area to a minimum depth of 1½ inches (38 millimeters) to
expose sound concrete. Sandblast exposed concrete faces clean of loose particles, oil, dust, traces of
asphalt concrete, and other contaminants before patching.
Remove non-concrete shoulders adjacent to the patch longitudinally to the depth of the patch and to
a maximum width of 12 inches (300 millimeters) to facilitate placing form work.
Dispose of the concrete according to Subsection 203.05.
(c) Placing concrete. Remove sandblasting residue immediately before placing the epoxy resin
adhesive. Apply an epoxy resin adhesive according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Delay
concrete placement until the epoxy becomes tacky.
Place and consolidate the concrete to eliminate voids at the interface of the patch and existing
concrete. Place and consolidate hydraulic cement concrete according to Subsection 501.07. Place
and consolidate polymer concrete according to climate conditions and methods recommended by the
manufacturer.
(d) Joints. If a repair area abuts a working joint, repair the joint similar to the existing joint to
maintain a working joint. Form a new joint to the same width as the existing joint. Use compressible
joint filler material as inserts to prevent intrusion of the repair material into the joint. Seal the joint
according to Subsection 502.08.
(e) Finishing and coloring concrete. Finish patches according to Subsection 501.09 to match the
plane and texture of the contiguous pavement. Cure hydraulic cement concrete according to
Subsection 501.10. Cure polymer concrete as recommended by the manufacturer.
When colored concrete is required, begin concrete pavement restoration work after colored test
panels submitted according to Subsection 501.03 are approved.
Restore and compact shoulders with material similar to the existing shoulder.
502.06 Full Depth Patching (welded wire reinforced, jointed, plain doweled, or plain concrete
pavement). This work consists of removing existing concrete pavement the full depth and replacing
with new concrete. Begin pavement patch work after the concrete mix design has been approved
according to Subsection 501.03.
(a) Concrete removal. Saw cut slabs full depth leaving vertical edges at the limits of the patch.
Prevent adjacent concrete slabs from being damaged.
Remove the concrete by lifting the slab in one or more pieces without disturbing the underlying
surface. Clean out the area with hand tools. Dispose of the concrete according to Subsection 203.05.
When required, excavate the underlying material to a maximum depth of 12 inches (300 millimeters)
and replace with aggregate base according to Section 302. Prevent adjacent concrete slabs from
being undermined.
Remove and replace adjacent slabs damaged by concrete removal. Repair spalls using partial-depth
patching methods according to Subsection 502.05.
372
Section 502
Repair saw overcuts of repair areas and nicks to adjacent pavement outside the perimeter of the
repair area with nonshrink grout.
(b) Joints. Construct joints according to Subsection 501.08 and the following:
Install dowels, tie bars, or both into existing concrete pavement slabs as shown in the plans. Drill
dowel or tie bar holes into the face of the existing concrete at the required diameter, length, and
spacing using a drill according to Subsection 502.04(d)(2). Clean and dry the holes before installing
the dowels or tie bars. Use an epoxy resin to permanently anchor the dowel or tie bar into the
existing concrete. Place the epoxy resin starting from the back of the hole and use a sufficient
quantity to insure the epoxy material will be forced up and around the dowel or tie bar after
insertion. Place a thin, donut-shaped grout retention disk around the dowel or tie bar and up against
the face of the existing concrete to prevent epoxy resin material from flowing out of the hole.
Seal joints according to Subsection 501.11.
(c) Welded wire reinforcement. When required, provide 4- by 4-inch (100- by 100-millimeter), W6
by W6 (M15 by M15) steel welded wire reinforcement for crack control. Support welded wire fabric
on chairs or bolsters.
(d) Concrete placement. Compact base and subgrade material within the patch area according to
Subsection 302.05. Construct side forms to overlap the ends of the existing slab. Securely fasten side
forms so they do not move when concrete is placed. To accommodate forms for the patch, excavate
the adjacent shoulders a maximum width of 12 inches (300 millimeters). Place concrete according to
Subsection 501.07.
Cast each patch in one continuous full-depth operation. After removal of the forms, backfill,
compact, and return the excavated shoulder area to its previous condition.
(e) Finishing and coloring concrete. Finish patches according to Subsection 502.05(e).
502.07 Resealing Joints and Crack Repair. This work consists of repairing or resealing joints and
cracks in existing concrete pavement.
(a) Preparation of joints and cracks. Limit the length of joints and cracks prepared to that which
can be resealed within the same shift. Do not damage joints or previously repaired patches.
Remove existing sealant with a waterblaster, router, concrete saw, or other method approved by the
CO.
Remove old sealant from the crack faces to expose new, clean concrete. When the crack widths vary
and the crack faces are raveling and irregular, cut a crack reservoir to a depth of
¾ inch
(19 millimeters).
Thoroughly clean the joint or crack of foreign material by sandblasting, waterblasting, or with a
mechanical wire brush. Repeat the process until a new, clean concrete face is exposed. Dry the joint
with compressed air.
373
Section 502
Use sawing if other methods do not properly clean the joint. Limit sawing to exposing clean, new,
concrete faces in the joint with a maximum allowable cut of ⅛ inch (3 millimeters) on each face of
the joint.
(b) Backer rod. Install the backer rod to the required depth after the joints and cracks are clean and
dry. Do not stretch or twist the backer rod during installation. Limit the length of backer rod installed
to that which can be sealed during the same shift.
(c) Sealant application. Seal joints and cracks immediately after placing the backer rod. Apply
sealant at air and surface temperatures recommended by the sealant manufacturer. Comply with
installation recommendations provided by the sealant manufacturer. If the joint or crack becomes
contaminated or damp, remove the backer rod, clean and dry the joint or crack, and reinstall a new
backer rod before placing the sealant. For a non-self-leveling joint sealant, tool the sealant
immediately after application to provide firm contact with the joint faces and to form the required
recess below the slab surface.
502.08 Pavement Jacking. This work consists of raising and supporting the concrete pavement to the
specified grade tolerances by drilling and injecting non-shrink hydraulic cement grout.
(a) Drilling holes. Determine a pattern for grout injection holes and submit for approval. Drill
vertical holes less than 2 inches (50 millimeters) in diameter.
(b) Jacking. Establish string lines from the pavement high points to monitor slab movement. Lower
an expanding rubber packer or hose into the holes. Provide a positive seal and connected to the
discharge hose on the grout plant. Do not allow the discharge end of the packer or hose to extend
below the bottom of the concrete pavement.
Allow pumping to raise the pavement to within ⅛ inch (3 millimeters) of the string line grade when
jacking continuously-reinforced concrete pavement. Allow pumping to raise the pavement to within
¼ inch (6 millimeters) of the transverse and longitudinal grades when jacking jointed pavement and
bridge approach slabs.
Continuous jacking pressures to 200 pounds per square inch (1.4 megapascals) are permitted. Use
pressures to 300 pounds per square inch (2.1 megapascals) only for short periods of 30 seconds or
less. If the pavement is bonded to the subbase, brief pressure rises of
10 seconds or less to
600 pounds per square inch (4.1 megapascals) may be allowed. Stop pumping if grout extrudes
through cracks, joints, or shoulders. Discontinue pumping if back pressure in the hose exceeds
600 pounds per square inch (4.1 megapascals).
(c) Overjacking. Grind pavement raised above the specified tolerances to grade. Remove and
replace the pavement according to Subsection 502.06 if the overjacking is greater than 1 inch
(25 millimeters).
(d) Cracks. Radial cracks from the grout injection holes will be considered caused by improper
injection technique. Remove and replace the slab or a portion of the slab with more than 10 feet
(3 meters) of new cracks according to Subsection 502.06. For slabs with less than 10 feet (3 meters)
of new cracks, seal cracks according to Subsection 502.07.
374
Section 502
(e) Hole patching. After completing the jacking and the hole plugs are removed, fill drill holes flush
with the pavement surface with a nonshrink grout or epoxy mortar.
502.09 Undersealing and Slab Stabilization. This work consists of pumping a nonshrink grout mixture
through holes drilled in the pavement into voids underneath the slabs to stabilize and underseal concrete
pavement.
(a) Preliminary testing. Perform testing at night or when there is no evidence of slab lock-up due
to thermal expansion. Testing may be allowed to continue if the slabs are not interlocked or under
compression. Furnish testing equipment as provided in Subsection 502.04(h). Test each designated
slab using a static method as follows:
(1) Position one set of gauges with one gauge referenced to the corner of each slab on both sides
of the joint near the pavement edge;
(2) Set the gauges to zero with no load on the slab on either side of the joint;
(3) Move the test truck into position and stop with the center of the test axle 12 inches
(300 millimeters) behind the joint and the outside test wheel 12 inches (300 millimeters) from
the pavement edge. Read the back gauge;
(4) Move the test truck across the joint to a similar position 12 inches (300 millimeters) forward
from the joint and stop. Read the forward gauge; and
(5) Repeat for each joint to be tested. Underseal slabs with a deflection of more than 1/32 inch
(0.08 millimeters).
(b) Drilling holes. Drill holes using the required hole pattern. An altered hole pattern may be
approved based on field conditions. Drill vertical holes less than 2 inches (50 millimeters) in
diameter to provide a positive seal for the pumping nozzle. For the first undersealing, drill holes to a
depth that penetrates into unbound base or subgrade. Avoid penetrating the subgrade by more than
3 inches (75 millimeters).
(c) Cleaning holes. After the holes are drilled and before pumping the underseal grout, clean the
hole with compressed air to remove debris and provide a passage for the grout.
(d) Pumping underseal grout. Pump nonshrink grout in each hole. Seal the nozzle of the discharge
hose in the hole to maintain the nonshrink grout pressure underneath the slab. Do not allow the
nozzle end to extend below the bottom of the concrete. Monitor slab lift according to Subsection
502.08. Limit upward movement of the pavement to ⅛ inch (3 millimeters).
Continue pumping into a hole until grout flows out other holes, joints, or cracks, or until the slab
begins to lift. Stop grouting if there is lift in the slab or the adjacent shoulder.
During stabilization operations, limit continuous pumping pressures to 125 pounds per square inch
(0.9 megapascals). Allow a short pressure surge of up to 300 pounds per square inch (2 megapascals)
when starting to pump grout into the hole to ensure grout penetrates the void structure. Do not plug
other holes while grouting.
Grind pavement raised more than the ⅛ inch (3 millimeters).
375
Section 502
(e) Cracks. If cracks develop, complete the required repairs according to Subsection 502.07.
(f) Hole patching. See Subsection 502.08(e).
(g) Stability testing. Test for stability
24 hours after designated slabs have been undersealed
according to Subsection 502.09 (a). Complete a second underseal operation on slabs that continues
to show excess movement. Submit the number, depth and location of holes for the second
undersealing for approval. The CO may accept or direct replacement of slabs that continues to show
movement in excess of that specified after undersealing twice. Remove and replace designated slabs
according to Subsection 502.06.
502.10 Surface Diamond Grinding. This work consists of grinding existing concrete pavement to
eliminate joint or crack faults and providing positive lateral drainage. Uniformly transition auxiliary or
ramp lane grinding from the mainline edge to provide positive drainage and an acceptable riding surface.
Provide a grinding unit conforming to the requirements of Subsection 502.04(e).
Produce a pavement surface that is true to grade, smooth, and consisting of a longitudinal corduroy-type
texture. Produce grooves between 0.08 and 0.15 inches (2 to 4 millimeters) wide. Produce a surface area
between the grooves between 0.065 and 0.125 inches (1.7 to 3.5 millimeters) wide. Produce peak ridges
approximately 1/16 inch (1.6 millimeters) higher than the grooves. Adjust blade spacing to achieve the
specified texture. Establish a positive and immediate means for removal of grinding residue. Remove
and dispose of solid residue from the pavement surfaces before it is blown by traffic action or wind. Do
not allow residue to flow into gutters or drainage facilities.
Test the ground pavement surfaces for pavement roughness according to Subsection 501.12. Limit
misalignment of surface planes on adjacent sides of the joints or cracks and between each grinding pass
to less than 1/16 inch (1.6 millimeters). Produce a transverse slope of the pavement with no depressions
or slope misalignment greater than ¼ inch in 10 feet (6 millimeters in 3 meters) tested perpendicular to
the centerline. Straightedge requirements do not apply across longitudinal joints or outside of ground
areas.
502.11 Concrete Cleaning. This work consists of cleaning the existing concrete pavement surface with
a high pressure washing device approved by the CO. Remove dust, dirt, oil, and other foreign material
(including the existing crack sealant material) without causing damage to the surface or exposing coarse
aggregate.
Vacuum the concrete surface to remove and collect water and debris after the pavement cleaning.
Dispose of the water and debris at a site approved by the CO.
502.12 Opening to Traffic. Do not allow traffic on restored pavement until the concrete has a
compressive strength of 4000 pounds per square inch (28 megapascals) when tested according to
AASHTO T 22 or until the grout used for jacking or undersealing the pavement has attained 600 pounds
per square inch (4 megapascals) when tested with a 0.25 square inch (64 square millimeters) probe
according to AASHTO T 197. As an alternative method of determining the compressive strength of the
restored pavement; in situ compressive strength can be measured by developing a strength-maturity
relationship of the approved concrete mixture according to AASHTO T 325. Submit the strength-
maturity relationship for approval at least 14 days before production. Provide a concrete maturity meter
during the test placement and production that meets the following:
376
Section 502
(a) Conforms to AASHTO T 325;
(b) Rugged, waterproof, and can withstand the construction environment;
(c) Able to operate without an external power source for at least 14 days;
(d) Able to collect and store temperature and maturity data for at least 14 days; and
(e) Able to determine equivalent maturity hours according to the Arrhenius function.
Do not allow traffic on sealed joints when the sealant is tacky and traffic debris embeds into the sealant.
502.13 Acceptance. See Table 502-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Material for concrete pavement restoration will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Furnish a production certification with each shipment of hydraulic cement.
The concrete mixture's slump, air content, density, temperature, and compressive strength will be
evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Grout will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Construction (including batching, placing, finishing, and curing) of the concrete will be evaluated under
Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Concrete pavement restoration work (including partial-depth patching, pavement jacking, subsealing,
surface grinding, crack and joint repair, cleaning, and breaking and seating will be evaluated under
Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
502.14 Measure the Section 502 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring grout for pavement jacking and undersealing by the cubic foot (cubic meter), measure
by metering.
Measure aggregate base under Section 302.
Payment
502.15 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
502 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in
this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
377
Section 502
Table 502-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source
Aggregate
Measured and
Quality
AASHTO
1 per
Source of
Yes
14
(703.01
tested for
M 80, M 6,
material
material
days
& 703.02)
conformance
& M 43
type
before
(106.04 & 105)
paving
Mix Design
Concrete
Measured and
All
Subsection
1 per
Source of
Yes
14
composition
tested for
501.03
mix
material
days
(501.03)
conformance
design
before
(106.04 & 105)
paving
Production
Concrete
Measured and
Density
AASHTO
1 per
Point of
No
Upon
tested for
T 121
load (2)
discharge (3)
completing
conformance
tests
(106.04)
Air content
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
T 152
or T 196
Slump
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
T 119
Temperature
Field measured
"
"
"
"
378
Section 502
Table 502-1 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production (continued)
Concrete
Measured and
Compressive
AASHTO
1 set per
Point of
See Note
"
Deliver
tested for
strength (1)(4)
T 23 & T 22
200 yd2
discharge (3)
(4)
verification
conformance
(170 m2),
cylinders
(106.04)
but not
to the CO
less than
or
1 set per day
designated
location
with in
28 days
Aggregate
Process
Gradation
AASHTO
Minimum
Bin
No
Before
(coarse & fine)
control
T 27 & T 11
1 per
discharge,
batching
(153.03)
day
conveyor
belt, or
stockpile
Moisture
AASHTO T 255
"
"
"
"
Concrete
"
Surface
Straightedge
Subsection
Concrete
"
While
tolerance
measurements
501.08
surface,
concrete
Subsection
after floating
is still
501.12
workable
379
Section 502
Table 502-1 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Finished Product
Concrete
Measured and
Surface
Straightedge
Successively,
Finished
No
24
pavement
tested for
tolerance
measurements
after
pavement
hours
conformance
Subsection
concrete
surface
(106.04)
501.12
has
hardened
(1) A single compressive strength test result is the average result from two 6 by 12 inch (150 by 300 millimeter) or three 4 by 8 inch (100 by
200 millimeter) cylinders cast from the same load and tested at 28 days.
(2) This frequency may be reduced by the CO if produced material proves to be consistent.
(3) Sample according to AASHTO R 60.
(4) Make at least four 6 by 12 inch (150 by 300 millimeter) or six 4 by 8 inch (100 by 200 millimeter)compressive strength test cylinders and
carefully transport the cylinders to the project curing facility. Two or three cylinders will be used for 28-day compressive strength tests. The
remaining cylinders will be used by the CO for verification testing or other designated purposes.
380
DIVISION 550
BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION
381
Section 551
Section 551. — DRIVEN PILES
Description
551.01 This work consists of furnishing and driving piles. This work also includes furnishing and placing
reinforcing steel and concrete in concrete-filled steel shell and concrete-filled pipe piles.
Material
551.02 Conform to the following Sections and Subsections:
Concrete piles
715.03
Grout
725.13
Paint
719
Pile shoes
715.08
Prestressing steel
709.02
Reinforcing steel
709.01
Sheet piles
715.07
Splices
715.09
Steel H-piles
715.06
Steel pipes
715.05
Steel shells
715.04
Structural concrete
552
Treated timber piles
715.02
Untreated timber piles
715.01
Construction Requirements
551.03 Qualifications. Submit the following for approval at least 30 days before driven pile operations
begin:
(a) Professional engineer. Name of the engineer and a résumé describing at least
3 years’
experience in wave equation analyses to perform the wave equation analysis.
(b) Pile specialty consultant. When dynamic load testing is specified, provide the name of the
consultant and a résumé describing at least 3 years’ experience in:
(1) Dynamic load testing and analysis;
(2) Signal matching analysis; and
(3) Wave equation analysis including the initial wave equation analysis.
(c) Welders. Provide names and AWS certifications.
551.04 Submittal. At least 30 days before starting driven pile work, submit the following according to
Subsection 104.03:
(a) Start date and proposed driven pile construction sequence;
382
Section 551
(b) Wave equation analysis report. Include a wave equation analysis for the proposed pile driving
system, unless the use of the dynamic formula is specified to determine the nominal driven pile
capacity;
(c) Equipment and analysis. Furnish the following pile-driving equipment information:
(1) General. Project and structure identification, pile-driving Contractor or subcontractor, and
auxiliary methods of installation such as jetting or preboring and the type and use of the
equipment;
(2) Hammer. Manufacturer, model, type, serial number, rated energy ( _____ at _____ length of
stroke), ram weight, and modifications;
(3) Capblock (hammer cushion). Material, thickness, area, modulus of elasticity (E), and
coefficient of restitution (e);
(4) Pile cap. Helmet weight, bonnet mass, anvil block mass, and drivehead mass;
(5) Pile cushion. Material, thickness, area, modulus of elasticity
(E), and coefficient of
restitution (e);
(6) Pile. Pile type, length
(in leads), mass per linear foot
(meter), wall thickness, taper,
cross-sectional area, design pile capacity, description of splice, and tip treatment description;
(7)Test pile details. Location, type, estimated tip elevation, minimum allowable embedment,
length, capacity, allowable compressive and tensile stresses;
(8) Subsurface conditions. Soil description, soil damping and quake parameters used in
analysis, anticipated driving difficulties (if any); and
(9) Bearing graph analysis results. Calculated maximum compressive and tensile stresses,
penetration resistance (blow counts), hammer stroke and energy transferred to the pile for a range
of nominal soil resistance values.
(d) Splices. Details for pile field splices.
(e) Pile shoes. Details for pile shoes.
551.05 Pile Driving Equipment. Furnish equipment conforming to the following requirements:
(a) Pile hammers.
(1) Gravity hammers. Gravity hammers may only be used to drive timber piles. Furnish a
hammer with a ram weighing between 2,000 and 3,500 pounds (900 and 1600 kilograms) and
limit the drop height to 12 feet (3.7 meters). Select a ram mass greater than the combined mass of
the drive head and pile. Provide hammer guides to ensure concentric impact on the drive head.
(2) Open-end diesel hammers. Equip open-end (single acting) diesel hammers with a device,
such as rings on the ram to permit visual determination of hammer stroke. Submit a chart from
the hammer manufacturer equating stroke and blows per minute for the hammer to be used. A
speed versus stroke calibration may be used if approved.
383
Section 551
(3) Closed-end diesel hammers. Submit a chart, calibrated to actual hammer performance
within 90 days of use, equating bounce chamber pressure to either equivalent energy or stroke
for the hammer to be used. Equip hammers with a dial gauge for measuring pressure in the
bounce chamber. Make the gauge readable from ground level. Calibrate the dial gauge to allow
for losses in the gauge hose. Verify the accuracy of the calibrated dial gauge during driving
operations by ensuring that cylinder lift occurs when bounce chamber pressure is consistent with
the maximum energy given in the hammer specifications. Do not use closed-end diesel hammers
that do not attain cylinder lift at the maximum energy-bounce chamber pressure relationship
given in the hammer specification.
(4) Air or steam hammers. Furnish plant and equipment for steam and air hammers with
sufficient capacity to maintain the volume and pressure specified by the hammer manufacturer.
Equip the hammer with accurate pressure gauges that are easily accessible. Use a hammer with
the mass of the striking parts equal to or greater than one third the combined mass of the driving
head and pile. Ensure the combined mass is at least 2,750 pounds (1250 kilograms).
Measure inlet pressures for double-acting and differential-acting air or stream hammers with a
needle gauge at the head of the hammer when driving test piles. If required, also measure inlet
pressures when driving production piles. A pressure versus speed calibration may be developed
for specific driving conditions at the project as an alternative to periodic measurements with a
needle gauge.
(5) Nonimpact hammers. Use nonimpact hammers, such as vibratory hammers when specified.
Use nonimpact hammers for installing production piles only after the pile tip elevation or
embedment length for safe support of the pile load is established by static or dynamic load
testing. Control the installation of production piles when using vibratory hammers by power
consumption, rate of penetration, specified tip elevation, or other acceptable methods that ensure
the required pile load capacity is obtained. Strike piles with an impact hammer of suitable energy
to verify the required pile capacity is obtained on at least one of every ten piles.
(6) Hydraulic hammers. Provide a power plant for hydraulic hammers with sufficient capacity
to maintain the volume and pressure, specified by the manufacturer, at the hammer under
working conditions. Equip the power plant and equipment with accurate pressure gauges that are
easily accessible to the CO.
(b) Approval of pile-driving equipment. Furnish pile-driving equipment that permits permanent piles
to be driven with reasonable effort and to the required depths and resistances without damage.
Approval of pile-driving equipment will be based on a wave equation analysis unless the contract
specifies the dynamic formula to determine the nominal driven pile capacity.
Use only the approved equipment represented in the wave equation analysis during pile-driving
operations. Approval of the pile-driving system is specific to the equipment submitted. If the proposed
equipment is modified or replaced, re-evaluate and resubmit the analysis and revised data for approval
before using. Approval of a pile hammer does not relieve the Contractor of responsibility for piles
damaged due to driving stress.
(1) Wave equation. The required number of hammer blows indicated by the wave equation at
the nominal pile capacity is between 2 and 10 blows per inch (25 millimeters).
384

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Content      ..     8      9      10      11     ..