STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 9

 

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 9

 

 

Section 402
Table 402-3 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production
Asphalt
Statistical
Gradation
AASHTO
1 per
Behind the
Yes
6
concrete
(106.05)
T 30
700 tons
paver
hours
pavement
(650 metric tons)
before
compaction
½ in (12.5 mm)
I
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
I
No. 30 (600 μm)
I
No. 200 (75μm)
I
Other specified
II
sieves
Asphalt content (1)
I
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
T 308
Density (2)
I
AASHTO
"
In-place
"
24
T 166
after
hours
compacting
305
Section 402
Table 402-3 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production (continued)
Asphalt
Measured and
Maximum
AASHTO
Minimum
Behind
Yes
24
concrete
tested for
specific
T 209
1 per day
the paver
hours
pavement
conformance
gravity (3)(4)
before
(106.04)
compaction
Placement
First load
Hauling
No
Upon
temperature
and as
vehicle
completion
determined
before
of
by CO
dumping,
measurement
thereafter
or windrow
before
pickup
Asphalt
Measured and
Quality
See Table
AASHTO
1 per
In line
Yes,
Tested by
binder
tested for
401-7
M 320
2000 tons
between
2 1-quart
Government
(702.01)
conformance
(1800 metric
tank &
(1-liter)
(106.04)
tons) of mix
mixing plan
samples
Asphalt
Process
Gradation
AASHTO
Contractor
Cold feed
No
24
concrete
control
at plant
T 27 & T 11
determined
or hot bins
hours
pavement
(153.03)
as applicable
Moisture
AASHTO
Contractor
Stockpile
"
"
content of
T 255
determined
aggregates
Density
ASTM
1 per
In-place
"
"
D2950
500 feet
after
(150 meters)
compacting
306
Section 402
Table 402-3 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Finished Product
Asphalt
Measured and
Type I
AASHTO
See
Left
No
Within 14
Original
concrete
tested for
pavement
R 56 & R 57
Subsection
and right
days of
surface
pavement
conformance
roughness,
402.16
wheel
Notice to
before
(106.04)
before
paths
Proceed
construction
construction
(Initial MRI)
Type I
"
"
"
Within 21
pavement
days after
roughness,
completing
after
paving
construction
(Final MRI)
Type II
"
"
"
Within 14
Original
pavement
days of
surface
roughness,
Notice to
before
before
Proceed
construction
construction
(Initial MRI)
Type II
"
"
"
Within 21
pavement
days after
roughness,
completing
after
paving
construction
(Final MRI)
307
Section 402
Table 402-3 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Finished Product (continued)
Asphalt
Measured and
Type III
AASHTO
See
Left
No
Within 21
concrete
tested for
pavement
R 56 & R 57
Subsection
and right
days after
pavement
conformance
roughness
402.16
wheel
completing
(106.04)
(Final MRI)
paths
paving
"
Process
Surface
Straightedge
Contractor
See
"
24
control
tolerance
measurements
determined
Subsection
hours
(153.03)
Subsection
401.16(e)
401.16(e)
(1) Use AASHTO T 308, Method A. Calculate the asphalt binder content by weighing the sample before and after the burn using a calibrated external
balance.
(2) Cut two 6-inch (150-millimeter) diameter side by side cores. Remove them with a core retriever and fill and compact the core holes with asphalt
concrete mixture. Label the cores and protect them from damage due to handling and temperature. Submit one core for verification testing. Dry the
other core to constant mass at 125±5 °F (52±3 °C) or vacuum dry it according to ASTM D7227 before performing the core density and measuring the
thickness. Use 62.245 pounds per cubic foot (997.1 kilograms per cubic meter) to convert specific gravity to density.
(3) After production paving has begun, use the average maximum specific gravity value (AASHTO T 209) for each day to adjust the percent
compaction for the cores that represent that day’s paving.
(4) Do not use the supplemental procedure for mixtures containing porous aggregate (dry back method of AASHTO T 209).
308
Section 403
Section 403. — ASPHALT CONCRETE
Description
403.01 This work consists of constructing asphalt concrete pavement using a hot or warm mix asphalt
(HMA or WMA).
Asphalt concrete type is designated as Type I or Type II according to Subsection 403.02.
Construction Requirements
403.02 Composition of Mix (JMF). Conform to current state department of transportation material
specifications for asphalt concrete.
(a) Type I. Submit a state department of transportation JMF approved within the past 12 months for
approval at least
30 days before production. For each proposed JMF, submit a production
certification conforming to state department of transportation specifications and conforming to
design parameter (a), (b), or (c) for the type of mix submitted and conforming to design parameter
(d) in Table 403-1.
Table 403-1
Asphalt Concrete Mix Requirements
Design Parameters
Specification
(a) Volumetric hot asphalt concrete pavement
(AASHTO M 323, AASHTO R 35, and AASHTO T 312)
Gyratory compaction level
7, 75, 115
Volumetric properties at 0.3 to 3 million ESAL’s (AASHTO M 323)
See Table 401-1
(b) Hveem (AASHTO T 246 and AASHTO T 247)
Stabilometer, minimum
35
Percent air voids (1)
3.0
- 5.0
(c) Marshall (AASHTO T 245)
Stability, pounds (kilonewtons), minimum
2000 (8.9)
Flow, 0.01 inches (0.25 millimeters)
8 - 14
Percent air voids (1)
3.0
- 5.0
Compaction, number of blows each end of test specimen
75
(d) Moisture susceptibility (AASHTO T 283)
Tensile strength ratio, minimum
0.80
(1) The percent of air voids are based on AASHTO T 166, AASHTO T 209 and AASHTO T 269.
(b) Type II. Provide a mix composed of crushed stone or gravel and asphalt binder mixed in an
approved plant. Use an aggregate gradation and asphalt binder of a quality conforming to those
normally used locally by either Federal or state agencies for the type of work being constructed.
Submit the strength, quality, and gradation specifications for the asphalt concrete mix. Include
copies of laboratory test reports that demonstrate aggregate, asphalt binder, additive, and mix
properties meet Federal, state or local government agency specifications.
309
Section 403
For both Type I and Type II, submit the maximum specific gravity (density) of the mix as determined by
AASHTO T 209.
403.03 Production Start-Up Procedures. See Subsection 153.04(b).
403.04 Mixing Plant. See Subsection 401.04.
403.05 Surface Preparation. See Subsection 401.06.
403.06 Weather Limitations. See Subsection 401.07.
403.07 Hauling. See Subsection 401.11.
403.08 Placing and Finishing. Do not use mixes produced from different plants unless the mixes are
produced according to the same JMF, use material from the same sources, and are approved.
Place HMA at a temperature conforming to Table 401-2. Place WMA at temperatures conforming to
Subsection 401.03. Measure temperature of the asphalt concrete mix in the hauling vehicle just before
dumping into the spreader or measure it in the windrow immediately before pickup.
(a) Asphalt concrete for roadway construction. Place the mix with a paver conforming to
Subsection 401.05. Control horizontal alignment using a reference line. Automatically control the
grade and slope from reference lines, a ski and slope control device, or dual skis. Use skis having a
minimum length of 20 feet (6 meters).
In areas where mechanical spreading and finishing is impractical; place and finish the asphalt
concrete mix according to Subsection 403.08(b).
Offset the longitudinal joint according to Subsection 401.13.
(b) Asphalt concrete for non-roadway uses. Spread and finish each course by hand raking,
screeding, or by other approved methods.
403.09 Compacting. Thoroughly and uniformly compact the asphalt surface by rolling. In places
inaccessible to rollers, use alternate equipment approved by the CO. Do not cause cracking, shoving or
undue displacement.
Monitor the compaction process with nuclear density gauges calibrate according to the ASTM D2950
calibration section within 6 months before use. Check the standard and reference on each day of use
according to the ASTM D2950 standardization and reference check sections. Compact to at least
91.0 percent of the maximum specific gravity (density) determined in Subsection 403.02.
Continue compaction until surface marks are eliminated and cracks are sealed.
403.10 Joints, Trimming Edges, and Cleanup. See Subsection 401.15.
403.11 Pavement Straightedge Measurement. Measure the pavement surface using a 10-foot (3-meter)
metal straightedge at right angles and parallel to the centerline. Defective areas are deviations between the
surface and the bottom of the straightedge in excess of ¼ inches (6 millimeters) measured between two
contacts of the straightedge or deviations in excess of ¼ inches (6 millimeters) measured at the end of the
straightedge.
310
Section 403
Correct defective areas according to Subsection 401.16(g)(1) through (4). Obtain approval for the method
of correction.
403.12 Acceptance. See Table 403-2 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Asphalt concrete mix properties will be evaluated under Subsection 106.04.
Asphalt binder will be evaluated under Subsection 106.03.
Construction of asphalt concrete work will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Pavement straightedge measurement will be evaluated under Subsection 106.04
Measurement
403.13 Measure the Section 403 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
403.14 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
403 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
311
Section 403
Table 403-2
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production
Asphalt
Measured and
Density (1)
AASHTO
1 per
In-place after
Yes
24
Deliver
concrete,
tested for
T 166
700 tons
compacting
hours
cores to CO
Type I
conformance
(650 metric tons)
after testing
(403.02(a))
(106.04)
is completed
Surface
Straightedge
Continuously,
Finished
No
"
tolerance
measurement,
after
pavement
Subsection
compaction
surface
403.11
Placement
First load
Hauling vehicle
"
Upon
temperature
and as
before dumping,
completion
determined by
or windrow
of
CO thereafter
before pickup
measurement
Process control
Gradation
AASHTO
Contractor
Cold feed or
"
24
(153.03)
at the plant
T 27 & T 11
determined
hot bins
hours
as applicable
Moisture
AASHTO
"
Stockpile
"
"
content of
T 255
aggregates
Density
ASTM
1 per
In-place after
"
"
D2950
500 feet
compacting
(150 meters)
Asphalt
Measured and
"
"
3 per
In-place after
"
"
concrete,
tested for
700 tons
compacting
Type II
conformance
(650 metric tons)
(403.02(b))
(106.04)
(1) Dry cores to constant mass at 125±5°F (52±3 °C) or vacuum dry, ASTM D7227 before testing. For asphalt concrete Type I, cut two 6-inch
(150-millimeter) diameter side by side cores. Remove them with a core retriever and fill and compact the core holes with asphalt concrete mixture. Label the
cores and protect them from damage due to handling and temperature. Submit one core for verification testing. Dry the other core to constant mass at 125±5 °F
(52±3 °C) or vacuum dry it according to ASTM D7227 before performing the core density and measuring the thickness. Use 62.245 pounds per cubic foot
(997.1 kilograms per cubic meter) to convert specific gravity to density.
312
Section 404. — RESERVED
313
Section 405
Section 405. — OPEN-GRADED ASPHALT FRICTION COURSE
Description
405.01 This work consists of constructing an open-graded asphalt friction course (OGFC).
Grading is designated according to Table 703-6.
Asphalt binder is designated according to AASHTO M 320.
Antistrip additive type is designated according to Subsection 702.05. Where no type is designated use
Type 3 (lime).
Material
405.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Antistrip additive
702.05
Asphalt binder
702.01
Mineral filler
725.05
Open-graded asphalt friction course aggregate
703.08
Construction Requirements
405.03 Composition of Mix (JMF). Provide OGFC mixes of aggregate and asphalt binder designed
according to ASTM D7064 or other approved methods that meet the applicable requirements in Table
405-1. Fabricate gyratory compacted specimens 6 inches (150 millimeter) in diameter and 4 inches
(100 millimeters) nominal height. The Cantabro abrasion test is not required. Provide an application
temperature range.
Table 405-1
OGFC Mix Requirements
Design Parameter
Requirement
Air voids,
18% minimum
ASTM D3203 or D6752
Draindown,
0.3% maximum,
ASTM D6390
by mixture mass
Moisture susceptibility,
AASHTO T 283, except as
80% minimum
modified by ASTM D7064
(a) Submission. Submit a written JMF, mix design reports, applicable charts, and design data for
verification at least 30 days before production. Include a signed statement prepared by the testing
laboratory that certifies the proposed JMF meets requirements. For the proposed JMF, submit the
following:
314
Section 405
(1) Aggregate and mineral filler.
(a) Target values:
(1) Target value for percent passing each specified sieve size for the aggregate blend; and
(2) Set target values within the gradation ranges shown in Table 703-6 for the required
grading.
(b) Source and percentage of each stockpile to be used;
(c) Average gradation of each stockpile;
(d) Representative samples from each stockpile. Use split samples of material taken at the
same time samples are taken for testing by the Contractor’s laboratory.
(1) 200 pounds (90 kilograms) of aggregates proportioned by each stockpile according to
the JMF; and
(2) 5 pounds (2 kilograms) of mineral filler, if proposed for the JMF.
(e) Results of aggregate quality tests performed within 1 year of use. For aggregate quality
tests, see Subsection 703.08.
(2) Asphalt binder. See Subsection 401.03(c)(2).
(3) Antistrip additives. See Subsection 401.03(c)(3).
(b) Verification. The verification process starts when required documentation and material are
received. Do not begin OGFC production until the JMF is verified.
(1) Aggregate gradations. The Contractor’s aggregate gradation is verified if the CO’s
gradation on a combined OGFC mix using the Contractor’s aggregate stockpile percentage
recommendations is within the Contractor’s target value gradation plus or minus the following
tolerance for each sieve:
Sieve Size
Tolerance, % (±)
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
3.0
No. 8 (2.36 mm)
3.0
No. 200 (75 µm)
1.0
(2) Moisture susceptibility. The Contractor’s retained tensile strength result determined by
AASHTO T 283, except as modified by ASTM D7064; is verified if the CO’s result is
80 percent minimum.
(c) Changes and resubmissions. If a JMF is rejected or the source of material is changed, submit a
new JMF for verification. Up to 14 days may be required to evaluate a change after receipt of required
documentation and material. Approved changes in target values will not be applied retroactively for
payment.
The CO will deduct JMF evaluation costs resulting from the following:
(1) Contractor-requested changes to the approved JMF and
(2) Additional testing necessary due to the failure of a submitted JMF.
315
Section 405
405.04 Mixing Plant. See Subsection 401.04.
405.05 Pavers. See Subsection 401.05(a).
405.06 Surface Preparation. See Subsection 401.06.
405.07 Weather Limitations. Place the OGFC mix on a dry asphalt surface when the air temperature in
the shade is above 55 °F (13 °C) and the road surface temperature is above 60 °F (16 °C). Stop placement
if either temperature falls below these minimums.
405.08 Preparing and Mixing Material. Prepare, mix, and control material according to Subsections
401.08 through 401.10, except do not heat the aggregate introduced into the mixer above the optimum
mixing temperature established in the JMF.
405.09 Hauling, Placing, and Finishing. Haul, place, and finish the mix according to Subsections 401.11
and 401.13. Place the mix within the approved temperature range. Minimize asphalt binder drainage by
discharging the mix into the paver within 1½ hours of loading the truck. When surge bins are used, begin
this 1½-hour limit at the time the mix is deposited into the surge bin.
405.10 Compacting. Roll the OGFC mix before the mix temperature drops below 200 °F (93 °C) or the
temperature recommended by the asphalt binder manufacturer. Use a steel-wheeled roller for compacting
the mix. Do not shove, distort, or strip the mix beneath the roller. Roll the mix parallel to the centerline,
commencing at the outside edge and progressing towards the center. On superelevated curves, begin the
rolling on the low side and progress to the high side. Limit rolling to that necessary to consolidate the
OGFC and bond it to the underlying surface.
405.11 Joints and Cleanup. Use butt joints for longitudinal and transverse joints. Protect the completed
OGFC from traffic until it has sufficiently hardened to resist abrasion, pickup, and raveling.
Dispose of material trimmed from the edges and other discarded asphalt concrete mix according to
Subsection 211.02(a)(2).
405.12 Straightedge Measurement. See Subsection 403.11.
405.13 Acceptance. See Table 405-2 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Aggregate quality properties will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Mineral filler and antistrip additive will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Asphalt binder will be evaluated under Subsections 106.03 and 106.04.
Asphalt content and aggregate gradation will be evaluated under Subsection 106.05. Evaluations will
consider the following:
(a) Asphalt content. The upper and lower specification limits are the approved JMF target value plus
or minus 0.4 percent.
(b) Aggregate gradation. The upper and lower specification limits are the approved JMF target values
plus or minus the allowable deviations shown in Table 703-5.
316
Section 405
Construction of open-graded asphalt friction course will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.04.
Measurement
405.14 Measure the Section 405 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
405.15 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
405 pay items listed in the bid schedule, except the OGFC contract price will be adjusted according to
Subsection 106.05. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this Section. See
Subsection 109.05.
Payment for OGFC will be made at a price determined by multiplying the contract price by the material
pay factor. The material pay factor is the lowest single pay factor determined for asphalt content or any
individual sieve of the aggregate gradation.
317
Section 405
Table 405-2
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source
OGFC aggregate
Measured and
Quality
Subsection
1 per
Source of
Yes
Before
Not required
(703.08)
tested for
703.08
type and
material
production
when using
conformance
source of
Government-
(106.04 & 105)
material
provided source
Asphalt binder
"
Quality
AASHTO
"
Asphalt supplier
"
"
(702.01)
M 320
or
mixing plant
Mix Design
OGFC asphalt
Measured and
Gradation
AASHTO
1 per
Stockpiles
Yes
30 days
concrete mixture
tested for
T 27 & T 11
submitted
before
conformance
mix design
producing
(106.04)
Air voids
ASTM
"
"
"
D3203
or
D6752
Draindown
ASTM
"
"
"
D6390
Tensile
AASHTO
"
"
"
Complete
strength
T 283
AASHTO T 283,
ratio
except as
modified by
ASTM D7064
318
Section 405
Table 405-2 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production
OGFC
Statistical
Asphalt
I
AASHTO
1 per
Point of
Yes
24
(106.05)
content
T 308
300 tons
discharge
hours
(300 metric ton)
of the
mixing unit
Gradation
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
(at paver)
T 30
No. 4
I
(4.75 µm)
No. 200
I
(75 µm)
Other specified
II
sieves
Measured and
Placement
First load
Hauling
No
Upon
tested for
and
and as
vehicle
completion
conformance
compaction
determined
before
of
(106.04)
temperature
by CO
dumping, or
measurement
thereafter
windrow
before
pickup and
pavement
surface
during rolling
Asphalt
"
Quality
Subsection
1 per
In line
Yes,
Test by
binder
702.01
1000 tons
between
2 1-quart
Government
(702.01)
(900 metric tons)
tank
(1-liter)
of mix
&
samples
mixing plant
319
Section 405
Table 405-2 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production (continued)
OGFC
Process control
Gradation
AASHTO
Contractor
Cold feed or
No
24
(153.03)
at plant
T 27 & T 11
determined
hot bins
hours
as applicable
Moisture
AASHTO
"
Stockpile
"
"
content of
T 255
aggregates
Finished Product
OGFC
Measured and
Surface
Straightedge
Continuously,
Finished
No
24
tested for
tolerance
measurements,
after
pavement
hours
conformance
Subsection
compaction
surface
(106.04)
403.11
320
Section 406
Section 406. — FOG SEAL
Description
406.01 This work consists of applying an emulsified asphalt fog seal.
Emulsified asphalt is designated according to AASHTO M 140 or AASHTO M 208.
Material
406.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Blotter
703.12
Emulsified asphalt
702.02
Water
725.01(c)
Construction Requirements
406.03 Equipment. Furnish an asphalt distributor with the following:
(a) Heater for uniformly heating the asphalt;
(b) Full circulation spray bar adjustable to 15-foot (4.5-meter) width;
(c) Positive controls including tachometer, pressure gauge, volume measuring device, or calibrated
tank to uniformly deposit asphalt over the full width within 0.02 gallons per square yard (0.09 liters
per square meter) of the required rate; and
(d) Thermometer for measuring asphalt temperature in the tank.
406.04 Surface Preparation.
(a) Clean the existing surface of loose material, dirt, and other deleterious material before placing
the fog seal. Remove or protect raised pavement markers, pavement markings, reflectorized tape,
and other material that interferes with the work. Protect service entrances (such as manholes, valve
boxes, and drop inlets). Protect concrete work, rock walls, and other objects adjacent to the work.
(b) Dry the surface before placing the fog seal.
406.05 Weather Limitations. Apply fog seals only when the following apply:
(a) Ambient air temperature is above 50 °F (10 °C);
(b) Surface temperature is above 50 °F (10 °C);
(c) Weather is not foggy or rainy;
(d) Rain or temperatures below 40 °F (4 °C) are not anticipated for at least 24 hours after
application;
321
Section 406
(e) Sustained winds are less than or equal to 10 miles (16 kilometers) per hour; and
(f) Application is completed at least 2 hours before sunset.
406.06 Asphalt Application. Dilute the emulsion one part water to one part emulsified asphalt.
Apply the emulsion according to Subsection 407.09 at a rate of 0.10 to 0.15 gallons per square yard
(0.4 to 0.7 liters per square meter) as approved by the CO.
At locations where the fog seal cannot be applied with an asphalt distributor spray bar, apply the fog seal
uniformly using a hand spray attachment or by another approved method.
Allow the fog seal to cure undisturbed for at least 2 hours or until the emulsified asphalt breaks and is
substantially tack free.
Cover unabsorbed asphalt with blotter to protect traffic or minimize rain damage. Remove excess blotter
after the asphalt is absorbed. Dispose of material according to Subsection 203.05(a) and (d).
406.07 Acceptance. See Table 406-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Emulsified asphalt will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03. Furnish a production
certification with each load of emulsified asphalt.
Blotter will be evaluated under Subsection 106.03.
Construction of fog seals will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
406.08 Measure the Section 406 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Measure fog seal including water added for dilution. Show a breakdown of total emulsion and water
added on the load invoices supplied to the CO for payment.
Payment
406.09 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
406 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in
this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
322
Section 406
Table 406-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production
Emulsified
Process
Placement
Minimum
Distributor
No
Before
asphalt
control
temperature
1 per
truck
incorporating
(702.02)
(153.03)
distributor
into work
truck
323
Section 407
Section 407. — CHIP SEAL
Description
407.01 This work consists of applying a single or double course chip seal.
Chip seal types are designated according to Tables 407-1 and 407-2.
Asphalt binder is designated according to AASHTO M 320 and emulsified asphalt is designated
according to AASHTO M 140 or AASHTO M 208.
Material
407.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsections:
Asphalt binder
702.01
Blotter
703.12
Chip seal aggregate
703.09
Emulsified asphalt
702.02
Fog seal
406
Construction Requirements
407.03 Qualifications. Provide a superintendent and foreman with experience in placing chip seals.
Submit the following for approval at least 14 days before starting chip seal work:
(a) Names of personnel; and
(b) A résumé for each individual describing their experience on at least five chip seal projects of
similar complexity.
407.04 Composition. Submit the following for approval at least 14 days before placement:
(a) Aggregate samples. 80 pounds (35 kilograms) from the material produced for the project, the
gradation range represented, and the proposed target value for each sieve size;
(b) Asphalt sample.
1-gallon
(4-liter) sample with a production certification conforming to
Subsection 106.03(a);
(c) Spread rates. The proposed spread rate for the asphalt and aggregate; and
(d) Density. The density of the aggregate according to AASHTO T 19, shoveling procedure.
407.05 Equipment.
(a) Asphalt distributor. See Subsection 406.03. Maintain two-way radio communication with the
aggregate spreader.
(b) Sweeper. Furnish two sweepers conforming to Subsection 409.05(c).
324
Section 407
(c) Pneumatic-tire rollers.
(1) Three rollers each with a minimum compacting width of 5 feet (1.5 meters), or two rollers
each with a minimum compacting width of 6.5 feet (2.0 meters); and
(2) Gross mass adjustable within the range of 200 to 360 pounds per inch (3.6 to 6.4 kilograms
per millimeter) of compaction width.
(d) Aggregate spreader. Controls to uniformly deposit aggregate over the full asphalt width.
407.06 Surface Preparation. See Subsection 406.04(a). Prepare the surface as follows:
(a) Newly asphalt patched areas. Fog seal according to Section 406.
(b) Existing asphalt surfaces including recycled asphalt pavements. Dry the surface.
(c) Aggregate base course surfaces.
(1) When using an emulsified asphalt, make the surface damp; or
(2) When using an asphalt binder, dry the surface.
407.07 Weather Limitations. Apply chip seals only when the following apply:
(a) Ambient air temperature is above 65 °F (18 °C);
(b) Surface temperature in the shade is above 60 °F (16 °C);
(c) Surface temperature in the sun is below 150 °F (66 °C);
(d) Weather is not foggy or rainy;
(e) Rain or temperatures below 40 °F (4 °C) are not anticipated for at least
24 hours
after
application;
(f) Sustained winds are less than or equal to 10 miles (16 kilometers) per hour; and
(g) Application is completed at least 2 hours before sunset.
407.08 Production Start-Up Procedures. Conduct a pre-chip seal preparatory phase meeting according
to Subsection 153.04(a).
On the first day of each chip seal layer placement, construct up to three 200- to 500-foot (60- to
150-meter) control strips that are one-lane wide according to Subsections 407.09 and 407.10. Coordinate
the control strip locations with the CO. Start the first control strip at the proposed application rates. Vary
the asphalt material or surface aggregate application rate for each control strip. Construct the control strip
using the material, lay-down procedures, and compaction procedures intended for the entire project.
Repeat the control strip process until an acceptable control strip is produced. Cease production until the
material and the control strip are evaluated and accepted. The CO will indicate which strip will serve as
the approved project control strip.
325
Section 407
Acceptable control strips may remain in place and will be accepted as a part of the completed project.
Correct unacceptable control strips.
Use these start-up procedures when changing construction procedures, when resuming production after a
termination of production due to unsatisfactory quality according to Subsection 106.04, or the beginning
of a new construction season.
407.09 Asphalt Application. Calibrate asphalt distributors before the start of project and when directed
by the CO. Calibrate the spray bar height, check nozzle angle, and verify longitudinal and transverse
application rates according to ASTM D2995.
Spread building paper on the pavement surface at the beginning and end of each asphalt application so
distributor flow is started and stopped on the paper.
Apply asphalt uniformly at the optimum application rate determined from the control strip. Do not apply
more asphalt than can immediately be covered with aggregate. Correct skipped areas or deficiencies.
At the end of each day’s production, provide the CO with documentation of calibrations and application
rates.
Remove and dispose of material spills and associated debris at the end of each shift according to
Subsection 203.05(a) and (d).
407.10 Aggregate Application. When emulsified asphalt is used, verify the aggregate stockpile
moisture daily and use moist surfaced aggregate.
When asphalt binder is used, dry the aggregate. Precoat the aggregate uniformly with 2 to 3 percent of
residual asphalt by mass of aggregate. Maintain the flow qualities of the precoated aggregate to allow
uniform spreading with the aggregate spreader.
Calibrate aggregate spreaders before the start of project and as directed by the CO. Calibrate the
longitudinal and transverse spread rates.
Apply aggregate uniformly at the optimum application rate determined from the approved control strip.
Apply the aggregate immediately after the asphalt material is applied. Operate the aggregate spreader so
asphalt is covered with the aggregate before wheels pass over it. For part-width construction, leave an
uncovered 6-inch (150-millimeter) wide asphalt strip to permit an overlap of asphalt material.
Cover excess asphalt with blotter to protect traffic.
Correct excesses and deficiencies by adding or removing aggregate to achieve a uniform texture before
the asphalt cures.
Operate rollers at a maximum speed of 5 miles (8 kilometers) per hour. Do not allow the aggregate to be
displaced by pickup or sticking of material to the tire surface. Roll the surface to uniformly and
thoroughly bond the aggregate over the full width. Complete rolling within 1 hour after asphalt is
applied to the surface. Perform three passes with the rollers. Do not allow traffic to travel over aggregate
until rolling is completed.
326
Section 407
At the end of each day’s production, provide the CO with documentation for calibrations and application
rates.
Use a pilot car according to Section 635 to limit traffic speeds to 10 miles (15 kilometers) per hour
during the first 45 minutes after rolling and to 20 miles (30 kilometers) per hour for the next 24 hours.
Sweep the surface when the air temperature is below 90 °F (32 °C). Do not displace embedded material.
Complete vacuum sweeping by the morning after construction. Dispose of material according to
Subsection 203.05(a) and (d).
407.11 Placing and Finishing. Apply the asphalt and aggregate according to Subsections 407.09 and
407.10 and Table 407-1. The application rates in these tables are for estimating purposes only.
Determine the exact rates based on approved control strips.
Table 407-1
Approximate Quantities of Material for Single Course Chip Seal
Type
Aggregate
Estimated
Estimated
Estimated
Nominal
Gradation(1)
Quantity of
Quantity
Quantity of
Maximum
Aggregate (2)
of
Emulsified
Size of
pounds/yd2
Asphalt
Asphalt
Aggregate
(kilograms/m2)
Binder
gallons/yd2
gallons/yd2
(liters/m2)
(liters/m2)
¾ inch
44 - 53
0.31
- 0.42
0.48
- 0.65
1A
A
(19 mm)
(24 - 29)
(1.41
- 1.91)
(2.17
- 2.94)
½ inch
29 - 33
0.25
- 0.34
0.39
- 0.53
1B
B
(12.5 mm)
(16 - 18)
(1.15
- 1.56)
(1.77
- 2.40)
⅜ inch
24 - 28
0.18
- 0.28
0.27
- 0.43
1C
C
(9.5 mm)
(13 - 15)
(0.79
- 1.27)
(1.22
- 1.95)
No. 4
18 - 24
0.14
- 0.19
0.27
- 0.43
1D
D
(4.75 mm)
(10 - 13)
(0.65
- 0.85)
(1.22
- 1.95)
(1) See Table 703-7 for aggregate gradations.
(2) Aggregate masses are for aggregates having a bulk specific gravity of 2.65, as determined by AASHTO T 84
and AASHTO T 85. Make proportionate corrections when the aggregate furnished has a bulk specific gravity
above 2.75 or below 2.55.
407.12 Double Course Chip Seal. Apply each asphalt and aggregate layer according to Subsections
407.09 and 407.10 and Table 407-2. Table 407-2 application rates are for estimating purposes only.
Determine the exact rates based on approved control strips.
When using emulsified asphalt, wait at least 24 hours between applications. When using asphalt binder,
no wait is required between applications. Lightly vacuum sweep the first layer to remove loose material.
327
Section 407
Table 407-2
Approximate Quantities of Material for Double Course Chip Seal
Type
Nominal
Aggregate
Estimated
Estimated
Estimated
(Thickness)
Maximum
Gradation(1)
Quantity of
Quantity of
Quantity of
Size of
Aggregate (2)
Asphalt
Emulsified
Aggregate
pounds/yd2
Binder
Asphalt
(kilograms/m2)
gallons/yd2
gallons/yd2
(liters/m2)
(liters/m2)
2A (⅞ inch (22 mm))
¾ inch
44 - 53
0.29
- 0.41
0.43
- 0.60
1st Application
A
(19 mm)
(24 - 29)
(1.31
- 1.86)
(1.95
- 2.72)
⅜ inch
24 - 29
0.41
- 0.46
0.60
- 0.70
2nd Application
C
(9.5 mm)
(13 - 16)
(1.86
- 2.08)
(2.72
- 3.17)
2B (¾ inch (19 mm))
½ inch
33 - 44
0.27
- 0.31
0.39
- 0.48
1st Application
B
(12.5 mm)
(18 - 24)
(1.22
- 1.40)
(1.77
- 2.17)
⅜ inch
22 - 26
0.29
- 0.38
0.45
- 0.58
2nd Application
C
(9.5 mm)
(12 - 14)
(1.31
- 1.72)
(2.04
- 2.63)
2C (½ inch (12.5 mm))
⅜ inch
29 - 39
0.17
- 0.27
0.27
- 0.39
1st Application
C
(9.5 mm)
(16 - 21)
(0.77
- 1.22)
(1.22
- 1.77)
No. 4
13 - 18
0.27
- 0.31
0.39
- 0.48
2nd Application
D
(4.75 mm)
(7 - 10)
(1.22
- 1.40)
(1.77
- 2.17)
(1) See Table 703-7 for aggregate gradations.
(2) Aggregate masses are for aggregates having a bulk specific gravity of 2.65, as determined by AASHTO T 84
and AASHTO T 85. Make proportionate corrections when the aggregate furnished has a bulk specific gravity
above 2.75 or below 2.55.
407.13 Acceptance. See Table 407-3 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Emulsified asphalt and asphalt binder will be evaluated under Subsections 106.03 and 106.04. Furnish a
production certification with each load of emulsified asphalt or asphalt binder.
Chip seal aggregate gradation will be evaluated under Subsection 106.05.
The upper and lower specification limits are equal to the calculated mean of all test results plus or minus
the allowable deviations shown in Table 703-7, except as follows:
(a) If the calculated mean value for a tested sieve exceeds the maximum gradation value shown in
Table 703-7, the upper specification is equal to the maximum gradation value plus the allowable
deviation, and the lower specification is equal to the maximum gradation value minus the allowable
deviation.
328
Section 407
(b) If the calculated mean value for a tested sieve is less than the minimum gradation value shown in
Table 703-7, the upper specification is equal to the minimum gradation value plus the allowable
deviation, and the lower specification is equal to the minimum gradation value minus the allowable
deviation.
Construction of asphalt chip seals will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
407.14 Measure the Section 407 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
407.15 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
407 pay items listed in the bid schedule, except the chip seal contract price will be adjusted according to
Subsection 106.05. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this Section. See
Subsection 109.05.
Payment for the chip seal will be made at a price determined by multiplying the contract price by the
material pay factor. The material pay factor is the lowest single pay factor determined for each specified
sieve of the aggregate gradation for each aggregate gradation furnished.
When two gradations are furnished for a double chip seal the material pay factor is weighted for the
quantity of each aggregate gradation spread as a percent of the total. The material pay factor is
calculated as follows:
PFMaterial = PF1st[SR1st/(SR1st + SR2nd)] + PF2nd[SR2nd/(SR1st + SR2nd)]
where:
PFMaterial = Material pay factor.
PF1st =
Pay factor for first aggregate gradation. PF1st is the lowest single pay factor
determined for each specified sieve.
PF2nd =
Pay factor for second aggregate gradation. PF2nd is the lowest single pay factor
determined for each specified sieve.
SR1st =
Spread rate for the first aggregate per square yard (square meter).
SR2nd =
Spread rate for the second aggregate per square yard (square meter).
329
Section 407
Table 407-3
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)(3)
Source
Chip seal
Measured and
Quality
Subsection
1 per
Source of
Yes
Before
aggregate (1)
tested for
703.09
material type
material
producing
conformance
(106.04 & 105)
Process
Gradation
AASHTO
2 per
Crusher belt
No
24
Not required
control
T 27 & T 11
day per
(during
hours
when using
(153.03)
stockpile
production)
a pre-crushed
commercial
source
Blotter
"
"
Subsection
"
"
"
"
703.12
Asphalt binder (2)
Measured and
Quality
Section
1 per
Point of
Yes (5)
Before
or
tested for
702
material type
shipment
incorporating
emulsified
conformance
or
into work
asphalt (2)
(106.04)
delivery
330
Section 407
Table 407-3 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection) (3)
Production
Chip seal
Statistical(3)
Gradation
I
AASHTO
See Note (3)
Production
Yes
24
aggregate (1)
(106.05)
(See Table
T 27 & T 11
belt or
hours
703-7 for
spreader
applicable
discharge(4)
sieves
Process control
Moisture on
Visual
Contractor
Stockpile
No
Before
(153.03)
surface of
inspection
determine
or spreader
incorporating
aggregates
(409.10)
discharge
into work
Asphalt
Measured and
Quality
Section
1 per
Tanker
Yes (5)
Tested by
binder (2)
tested for
702
tanker truck
or
Government
or
conformance
including
Distributor
emulsified
(106.04)
trailer
asphalt (2)
Process control
Placement
Minimum
Distributor
No
Before
(153.03)
temperature
1 per
truck
incorporating
distributor
into work
truck
(1) Applies to each aggregate grade furnished.
(2) Applies to each asphalt material furnished.
(3) For plan quantities less than 40,000 square yards (33,000 square meters), material will be accepted according to Subsection 106.03. For plan quantities greater
than 40,000 square yards (33,000 square meters), material will be accepted according to Subsection 106.05.For plan quantities between 40,000 and 240,000 square
yards (33,000 and 200,000 square meters), the sampling frequency will be determined by dividing the plan quantity by eight. If plan quantity exceeds
240,000 square yards (200,000 square meters), the sampling frequency will be one every 30,000 square yards (25,000 square meters).
(4) Select one point of sampling that must remain throughout project or lot.
(5) Two 1-quart (1-liter) samples for asphalt binder. One 1-gallon (4-liter) sample for emulsified asphalt.
331
Section 408. — RESERVED
332
Section 409
Section 409. — MICRO SURFACING
Description
409.01 This work consists of applying a polymer-modified micro surfacing mix on an existing pavement
surface.
Material
409.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Micro surfacing aggregate
703.10(b)
Mineral filler
725.05
Polymer-modified emulsified asphalt for micro-surfacing
702.02(b)
Water
725.01(c)
Construction Requirements
409.03 Qualifications. See Subsection 407.03.
409.04 Composition of Mix (JMF). Submit a written JMF for micro surfacing which conforms to ISSA
A143, Recommended Performance Guideline for Micro Surfacing for approval at least 14 days before
production. Include the following:
(a) Aggregate gradation values. Percent passing for each sieve size for the aggregate blend;
(b) Emulsified asphalt content. Residual asphalt content, as a percent by mass of dry aggregate;
(c) Polymer-modifier. Type and quantity of polymer-modifier solids based on the residual asphalt
content;
(d) Aggregate samples. 80-pound (35-kilogram) sample of each aggregate;
(e) Polymer-modified emulsified asphalt sample. 1-gallon (4-liter) sample with a production
certification conforming to Subsection 106.03(a); and
(f) Mineral filler samples. 10-pound (5 kilogram) sample of each proposed mineral filler.
409.05 Equipment.
(a) Mixing equipment. Conform to ISSA A143.
(b) Spreading equipment. Conform to ISSA A143 with the exception that augers within the
spreader box are not required.
333
Section 409
(c) Sweeper.
(1) Self-propelled;
(2) Vertical broom pressure control; and
(3) Vacuum capability.
(d) Pneumatic-tire rollers.
(1) Self-propelled;
(2)
10-ton
(9-metric ton) gross mass with a tire pressure of
50 pounds per square inch
(350 kilopascals); and
(3) Water-spray system.
(e) Auxiliary equipment. Furnish hand squeegees, shovels, and other equipment necessary to
perform the work. Provide power brooms, air compressors, water flushing equipment, and hand
brooms to clean the pavement surface.
Other equipment of proven performance may be used in addition to or instead of this equipment when
approved by the CO.
409.06 Surface Preparation. See Subsection 406.04(a).
409.07 Weather Limitations. Apply only when the following apply:
(a) Ambient air temperature is above 45 °F (7 °C);
(b) Surface temperature in the shade is above 45 °F (7 °C);
(c) Weather is not foggy, rainy, or overcast;
(d) Rain or temperatures below 32 °F (0 °C) are not anticipated for at least 24 hours after
application.
409.08 Calibration. Calibrate mixing equipment according to ISSA A143.
409.09 Production Start-Up Procedures. Conduct a pre-surfacing preparatory phase meeting
according to Subsection 153.04(a).
On the first day of placement, construct one 300-foot (100-meter) long control strip, one lane wide.
Coordinate location of the control strip with the CO. Construct the control strip using material, lay-down,
and rolling procedures intended for the entire project.
Cease production after construction of the control strip until the material and the control strip are
evaluated and accepted by the CO. Repeat the control strip process until an acceptable control strip is
produced.
Acceptable control strips may remain in place and will be accepted as a part of the completed surface
treatment. Correct unacceptable control strips.
334
Section 409
Use these start-up procedures when changing construction procedures, when resuming production after a
termination of production due to unsatisfactory quality according to Subsection 106.04, or the beginning
of a new construction season.
409.10 Application. Fog the surface with water in front of the spreader.
Blend the additives with the aggregate. Pre-wet the aggregate in the pugmill before mixing with the
polymer-modified emulsified asphalt.
Mix the surfacing material a maximum of 4 minutes. Ensure the mix is of uniform consistency as it
leaves the mixer and conforms to the approved JMF. Adjust mineral filler and polymer-modified
emulsified asphalt content during construction when approved by the CO to adjust for variations in field
conditions.
Clean the spreader box before the start of each work shift.
Carry sufficient mix in the spreader to completely cover the surface. Spread the mix with a spreader box.
In areas not accessible to the spreader use hand squeegees to work the mix.
Remove streaks and transverse ripples as defined by ISSA A143 from the finished surface.
Provide straight lines along curbs and shoulders and do not allow runoff onto these areas. Provide straight
and neat starting and ending joints by masking surfaces at the start, end, and other locations as directed by
the CO.
For transverse joints, use a butt joint. Use building paper placed over previously placed micro surfacing or
other suitable method to avoid double placement of micro surfacing. Remove ridges or bumps in the
finished surface.
For longitudinal joints, place joints on lane lines. Use half passes and odd-width passes only in turnouts
and parking areas. Do not use half passes for the last pass in paved areas. Overlap longitudinal joints no
more than 3 inches (75 millimeters). Limit the elevation difference at joints to less than
¼ inch
(6 millimeters).
Begin rolling after the mixture has cured to the point where it will not pick up on the roller tires. Roll
parking areas and turnouts with at least two full-coverage passes with the roller. Rolling the mainline
roadway is not required.
Allow treated areas to cure completely before opening to traffic. Cure is complete when clear water can
be pressed out of the placed mix with a piece of paper without discoloring the paper.
Remove and dispose of material spills and associated debris at the end of each shift according to
Subsection 203.05(a) and (d).
Two weeks to one month after completion of micro surfacing application, sweep the entire treated surface.
Dispose of swept material according to Subsection 203.05(a).
409.11 Acceptance. See Table 409-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Polymer-modified emulsified asphalt will be evaluated under Subsections 106.03 and 106.04. Furnish a
production certification with each load of polymer-modified emulsified asphalt.
335
Section 409
Micro surfacing aggregate will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Mineral filler will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 an 106.03.
Construction of the micro surfacing will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
409.12 Measure the Section 409 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 for
each day’s production.
Payment
409.13 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
409 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in
this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
336
Section 409
Table 409-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source
Micro
Measured and
Quality
Subsection
1 per
Source of
Yes
Before
surfacing
tested for
703.10
material
material
producing
aggregate for
conformance
type
surface
(106.04 & 105)
mixture(1)
Process
Gradation
AASHTO
2 per
Crusher
No
24
Not required
control
T 27 & T 11
day per
belt
hours
when using
(153.03)
stockpile
(during
a pre-crushed
production)
commercial
source
Polymer-
Measured and
Quality
Subsection
1 per
Point of
Yes,
Before
modified
tested for
702.02
material
shipment
2 1-quart
incorporating
emulsified
conformance
type
or
(1-liter)
into work
asphalt(2)
(106.04)
delivery
samples
337
Section 409
Table 409-1 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production
Micro
Measured and
Gradation
AASHTO
1 per
Stockpile
Yes
24
surfacing
tested for
(See
T 27 & T 11
50,000 yd2
hours
aggregate for
conformance
Table 703-8
(40,000 m2)
surface
(106.04)
for applicable
mixture (1)
sieves)
Polymer-
Measured and
Quality
Subsection
1 per
Point of
Yes,
Tested
modified
tested for
702.02(b)
day
shipment
2 1-quart
by
emulsified
conformance
or
(1-liter)
Government
asphalt (2)
(106.04)
delivery
samples
Process
Placement
Minimum
Distributor
No
Before
control
temperature
1 per
truck
incorporating
(153.03)
distributor
into work
truck
(1) Applies to each aggregate grade furnished.
(2) Applies to each asphalt material furnished.
338
Section 410
Section 410. — SLURRY SEAL
Description
410.01 This work consists of applying an emulsified asphalt slurry seal mix on a pavement surface.
Material
410.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Emulsified asphalt
702.02
Mineral filler
725.05
Slurry seal aggregate
703.10(a)
Water
725.01(c)
Construction Requirements
410.03 Qualifications. See Subsection 407.03.
410.04 Composition of Mix (JMF). Submit a written JMF for asphalt slurry seal which conforms to
ISSA A105, Recommended Performance Guideline for Emulsified Asphalt Slurry Seal for approval at
least 30 days before production. Include the following:
(a) Aggregate gradation values. Percent passing for each sieve size for the aggregate blend;
(b) Emulsified asphalt content. Residual asphalt content, as a percent by mass of dry aggregate;
(c) Aggregate samples. 80-pound (35-kilogram) sample of each aggregate;
(d) Emulsified asphalt sample. 1-gallon (4-liter) sample with a production certification conforming
to Subsection 106.03(a); and
(e) Mineral filler samples. 10-pound (5-kilogram) sample of each proposed mineral filler.
410.05 Equipment.
(a) Mixing equipment. Conform to the requirements of ISSA A105.
(b) Mechanical-type single squeegee spreader box.
(1) Attaches to the mixer;
(2) Flexible squeegee in contact with the pavement surface to prevent loss of material;
(3) Adjustable to ensure a uniform spread over varying grades and crowns;
(4) Adjustable in width with a flexible strike-off; and
(5) Augers for uniform flow to edges.
(c) Sweeper. See Subsection 409.05(c).
339
Section 410
(d) Pneumatic-tire rollers. See Subsection 409.05(d).
(e) Auxiliary equipment. See Subsection 409.05(e).
Other equipment of proven performance may be used in addition to or instead of this equipment when
approved by the CO.
410.06 Surface Preparation. See Subsection 406.04(a).
410.07 Weather Limitations. See Subsection 409.07.
410.08 Calibration. Calibrate each mixing unit according to ISSA A105 in the presence of the CO.
410.09 Production Start-Up Procedures. See Subsection 409.09.
410.10 Application. Mix the material according to ISSA A105. Fog the surface with water in front of
the spreader.
Blend the additives with the aggregate. Pre-wet the aggregate in the pugmill before mixing with the
emulsified asphalt.
Mix the surfacing material a maximum of 4 minutes. Ensure the mix is of uniform consistency as it
leaves the mixer and conforms to the approved JMF. Adjust mineral filler and emulsified asphalt content
during construction when approved by the CO to adjust for variations in field conditions.
Clean the spreader box before the start of each work shift.
Carry sufficient mix in the spreader to completely cover the surface. Spread the mix with a
mechanical-type single squeegee spreader box. In areas not accessible to the spreader box, use hand
squeegees to work the mix.
Remove streaks and transverse ripples as defined by ISSA A105 from the finished surface.
Provide straight lines along curbs and shoulders and do not allow runoff on these areas. Provide straight
and neat starting and ending joints by masking surfaces at the start, end, and other locations as directed by
the CO.
For transverse joints, use a butt joint. Use building paper placed over previously placed slurry seal or other
suitable method to avoid double placement of slurry seal. Remove ridges or bumps in the finished surface.
For longitudinal joints, place joints on lane lines. Use half passes and odd-width passes only in turnouts
and parking areas. Do not use half passes for the last pass in paved areas. Overlap longitudinal joints no
more than 3 inches (75 millimeters). Limit the elevation difference at joints to less than
¼ inch
(6 millimeters).
Begin rolling after the mixture has cured to the point where it will not pick up on the roller tires. Roll
parking areas and turnouts with at least two full-coverage passes with the roller.
Allow treated areas to cure completely before opening to traffic. Cure is complete when clear water can
be pressed out of the mix with a piece of paper without discoloring the paper.
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Section 410
Remove and dispose of material spills and associated debris at the end of each shift according to
Subsection 203.05(a) and (d).
Two weeks to one month after completion of slurry seal application. Sweep and pick up the loose material
from the entire treated surface. Dispose of swept material according to Subsection 203.05(a).
410.11 Acceptance. See Table 410-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Emulsified asphalt will be evaluated under Subsections 106.03 and 106.04. Furnish a production
certification with each load of emulsified asphalt.
Slurry seal aggregate will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Mineral filler will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 an 106.03.
Construction of the slurry seal will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
410.12 Measure the Section 410 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 for
each day’s production.
Payment
410.13 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
410 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in
this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
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Section 410
Table 410-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source
Aggregate for
Measured and
Quality
Subsection
1 per
Source
Yes
Before
surface
tested for
703.10
material
of
producing
mixture (1)
conformance
type
material
(106.04 & 105)
Process
Gradation
AASHTO
2 per
Crusher belt
No
24
Not required
control
T 27 & T 11
day per
(during
hours
when using
(153.03)
stockpile
production)
a pre-crushed
commercial
source
Emulsified
Measured and
Quality
Subsection
1 per
Point of
Yes,
Before
Asphalt (2)
tested for
702.02
material
shipment or
2 1-quart
incorporating
conformance
type
delivery
(1-liter)
into work
(106.04)
samples
342
Section 410
Table 410-1 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production
Aggregate
Measured and
Gradation.
AASHTO
1 per
Stockpile
Yes
24
for
tested for
See Table
T 27 & T 11
50,000 yd2
hours
surface
conformance
703-8
(40,000 m2)
mixture (1)
(106.04)
for applicable
sieves
Emulsified
"
Quality
Subsection
1 per day
Point of
Yes,
Tested
asphalt (2)
702.02
shipment
2 1-quart
by
or
(1-liter)
Government
delivery
samples
Process
Placement
Minimum
Distributor
No
Before
control
temperature
1 per
truck
incorporating
(153.03)
distributor
into work
truck
(1) Applies to each aggregate grade furnished.
(2) Applies to each asphalt material furnished.
343
Section 411
Section 411. — ASPHALT PRIME COAT
Description
411.01 This work consists of applying a emulsified asphalt prime coat.
Prime coat asphalt grade is designated according to AASHTO M 140 or AASHTO M 208 for emulsified
asphalts or Subsection 702.02(c) for penetrating emulsified asphalt.
Asphalt application is designated in Subsection 411.06. If no application method is designated, use
Method 1.
Material
411.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Blotter
703.12
Crushed aggregate
703.06
Emulsified Asphalt
702.02
Penetrating emulsified asphalt for prime coat
702.02(c)
Water
725.01(c)
Construction Requirements
411.03 Equipment. Use equipment conforming to Subsection 407.05.
411.04 Surface Preparation. Prepare the surface to be primed according to Subsection 301.06. When
required, use sweeping or other approved method to remove loose dust and fine material and lightly spray
the surface with water.
411.05 Weather Limitations. Apply prime coat only when the following apply:
(a) Surface is dry or slightly damp;
(b) Ambient air temperature is above 50 °F (10 °C) and rising;
(c) Surface temperature in the shade is above 50 °F (10 °C) and rising; and
(d) Weather is not foggy or rainy.
411.06 Asphalt Application. Apply emulsified asphalt according to Subsection 407.09.
(a) Method 1 (topical). Apply undiluted emulsified asphalt formulated as a penetrating prime coat at a
rate of 0.10 to 0.30 gallons per square yard (0.45 to 1.35 liters per square meter). Exact application rate
will be approved by the CO.
(b) Method 2 (inverted prime). Apply undiluted emulsified asphalt at a rate of 0.20 to 0.30 gallons
per square yard (0.90 to 1.35 liters per square meter). Immediately apply crushed aggregate at a
uniform rate of 20 to 25 pounds per square yard (10.9 to 13.6 kilograms per square meter) using an
aggregate spreader. Exact application rate will be approved by the CO.
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