STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 8

 

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 8

 

 

DIVISION 400
ASPHALT PAVEMENTS AND
SURFACE TREATMENTS
265
Section 401
Section 401. — ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVEMENT
BY GYRATORY MIX DESIGN METHOD
Description
401.01 This work consists of constructing one or more courses of asphalt concrete pavement using hot or
warm mix asphalt (HMA or WMA).
Asphalt concrete pavement nominal maximum size aggregate size is designated according to Tables
401-1 and 703-5. Equivalent single axle loads (ESAL) or number of gyrations at design (NDesign) is
designated according to Tables 401-1.
Pavement roughness type is designated according to Subsection 401.16. When no roughness type is
designated use Type IV.
Asphalt binder is designated according to AASHTO M 320.
Antistrip additive type is designated according to Subsection 702.05. When no type is designated use
Type 3 (lime).
Material
401.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Antistrip additive
702.05
Asphalt binder
702.01
Asphalt concrete aggregate
703.07
Mineral filler
725.05
Construction Requirements
401.03 Composition of Mix (JMF). Provide asphalt concrete mixes of aggregate, asphalt binder, recycled
asphalt pavement (RAP), and additives that meet the applicable material requirements and the appropriate
design parameters in Table 401-1 and are capable of being placed and compacted as specified. Volumetric
mix properties will be determined at Ndesign according to AASHTO T 312 and AASHTO R 35.
Apply asphalt concrete mix design requirements for HMA to the development of the WMA mix design.
Provide modifications to the process required for WMA technology. Submit modifications to the asphalt
concrete mix design process according to Appendix X.2 of AASHTO R 35, Special Mix Design
Considerations and Practices for Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) for approval by the CO.
(a) RAP. Limit the quantity of RAP by mass in the JMF to 20 percent.
(b) Baghouse fines. If used, document how baghouse fines are reintroduced and measured. Submit
target values for the percent of baghouse fines reintroduced to the JMF if they are a separate
stockpile.
266
Section 401
Table 401-1
Gyratory Asphalt Concrete Mix Design Requirements, AASHTO R 35
Design
Gyratory Compaction Level
Minimum Voids-in-the Mineral Aggregate
Voids Filled
Dust-to-Binder
Minimum
ESAL
(% Theoretical Maximum
(VMA), % (1)
with
Ratio (3)
Tensile
(Million)
Specific Gravity, Gmm)
Asphalt
Strength
Nominal Maximum Size Aggregate (2)
AASHTO T 312
(VFA), %
Ratio,
1 inch
¾ inch
½ inch
⅜ inch
#4 sieve
AASHTO
Ninitial
Ndesign
Nmax
(25 mm)
(19 mm)
(12.5 mm)
(9.5 mm)
(4.75 mm)
T 283
6
50
75
< 0.3
70.0
- 80.0
(≤91.5%)
(96.0%)
(≤98.0%)
7
75
115
0.3 to < 3
12.0-15.0
13.0-16.0
14.0-17.0
15.0-18.0
65.0
- 78.0
0.8
-1.6
(≤90.5%)
(96.0%)
(≤98.0%)
0.80
8
100
160
3 to 30
65.0
- 78.0
(≤89.0%)
(96.0%)
(≤98.0%)
6
50
75
16.0
- 19.0
76.0
- 80.0
0.6
- 2.0
(≤91.5%)
(96.0%)
(≤98.0%)
(1) When mineral filler or hydrated lime is used, include in the calculation for compliance with the VMA.
(2) The nominal maximum size aggregate is one size greater than the first sieve to retain more than 10 percent of the combined aggregate.
(3) Dust to binder ratio is the effective asphalt content divided by the total percent of material passing the No. 200 (75-µm) sieve. Dust includes lime, bag house fines,
and other mineral matter.
267
Section 401
(c) Submission. Submit written JMFs and associated material with FHWA Form 1641, Worksheet
for Superpave Asphalt Concrete Mix Design for verification at least 30 days before the control strip.
Include a signed statement prepared by the testing laboratory that certifies the proposed JMF meets
requirements and can be compacted in the field during production. For each proposed JMF, submit
the following:
(1) Aggregate and mineral filler.
(a) Target values:
(1) Target value for percent passing each specified sieve size for the aggregate blend; and
(2) Designate target values within the gradation band specified for the nominal maximum
size aggregate grading shown in Table 703-5;
(b) Source and percentage of each stockpile to be used;
(c) Average gradation of each stockpile;
(d) Representative samples from each stockpile. Use split samples of material taken at the
same time samples are taken for testing by the Contractor’s laboratory.
(1) 600 pounds (270 kilograms) of aggregates proportioned by each stockpile according
to the JMF; and
(2) 10 pounds (4.5 kilograms) of mineral filler, if proposed for the JMF; and
(e) Results of aggregate quality tests performed within 1 year of use. For aggregate quality
tests, see Subsection 703.07.
(2) Asphalt binder.
(a) Target asphalt binder content;
(b) Five 1-gallon (4-liter) samples of the asphalt binder;
(c) Test results from the manufacturer according to AASHTO M 320 for the asphalt binder
including a temperature-viscosity curve; and
(d) Mixing temperature range and minimum compaction temperature for the asphalt binder.
(3) Antistrip additives. If part of the JMF:
(a) 1 pint (0.5 liter) of liquid antistrip additive or 2 pounds (0.9 kilograms) of cement or lime
antistrip additive;
(b) Name of product;
(c) Manufacturer; and
(d) Manufacturer’s MSDS and product data sheets.
(4) RAP. If part of the JMF:
(a) Source and percentage of RAP;
(b) Gradation of the RAP;
268
Section 401
(c) Effective specific gravities of each stockpile;
(d) Percent asphalt binder in RAP by total mass according to AASHTO T 308; and
(e) 100-pound (45-kilogram) representative sample of each RAP stockpile.
(5) WMA technology and additive information.
(a) 1-gallon (4-liter) WMA additive sample with method for incorporating it in the asphalt
concrete mix design process;
(b) WMA manufacturer’s usage recommendations including additive target rates;
(c) Documentation of past WMA technology field applications including project type, project
owner, tonnage placed, asphalt concrete mix design, mixture volumetrics, and performance;
(d) Laboratory mixing and compacting temperature;
(e) Asphalt binder performance grade test data over the range of WMA additive percentages
proposed for use if applicable;
(f) Compatibility of WMA additive with asphalt binder and antistrip additive; and
(g) Temperature range for field asphalt concrete mix production, delivery, lay-down and
compaction.
(d) Verification. The verification process starts when required documentation and material are
received. When the JMF is verified, begin asphalt concrete mix production for the control strip.
(1) Aggregate gradations. The Contractor’s aggregate gradation is verified if the CO’s
gradation on a combined asphalt concrete mix using the Contractor’s aggregate and RAP
stockpile percentage recommendations is within the Contractor’s target value gradation plus or
minus the following tolerance for each sieve:
Sieve Size
Tolerance, %
1 inch (25 mm)
±3.0
¾ inch (19 mm)
±3.0
½ inch (12.5 mm)
±3.0
⅜ inch (9.5 mm)
±3.0
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
±3.0
No. 8 (2.36 mm)
±3.0
No. 30 (600 µm)
±2.0
No. 50 (300 µm)
±2.0
No. 200 (75 µm)
±1.0
(2) RAP asphalt binder content and gradation. The Contractor’s RAP asphalt binder content
results are verified if the CO’s result for each stockpile is within ±0.75 percent by total mass
using AASHTO T 308. Submit the RAP dry gradation, burned gradation, asphalt content, and
specific gravity information as shown on the RAP data sheet of FHWA Form 1641.
(3) Bulk specific gravity of aggregate (Gsb). The Contractor’s coarse and fine Gsb is verified if
the CO’s results are within 0.013 for AASHTO T 85 and 0.030 for AASHTO T 84.
269
Section 401
(4) Voids in the mineral aggregate (VMA). The Contractor’s VMA result is verified if the
CO’s result is above the minimum specification limit in Table 401-1.
(5) Voids filled with asphalt (VFA). The Contractor’s VFA result is verified if the CO’s result
is within the specification limit in Table 401-1.
(6) Air voids (Va). The Contractor’s Va result is verified if the CO’s result at the same design
asphalt binder content is between 3.0 and 5.0 percent.
(7) Tensile strength ratio (TSR). The Contractor’s TSR result is verified if the CO’s result is
above the minimum specification limit in Table 401-1.
(e) Changes and resubmissions. If a JMF is rejected or the source of material is changed, submit a
new JMF for verification. Up to 30 days may be required to evaluate a change after receipt of required
documentation and material. Approved changes in target values will not be applied retroactively for
payment.
The CO will deduct JMF evaluation costs resulting from the following:
(1) Contractor-requested changes to the approved JMF;
(2) Contractor requests for more than one JMF evaluation; and
(3) Additional testing necessary due to the failure of a submitted JMF.
401.04 Mixing Plant. Use mixing plants conforming to AASHTO M 156.
(a) Drum dryer-mixer plants.
(1) Bins. Provide a separate bin in the cold aggregate feeder for each individual aggregate
stockpile in the asphalt concrete mix. Use bins of sufficient size to keep the plant in continuous
operation and of proper design to prevent overflow of material from one bin to another.
(2) Stockpiling procedures. Separate aggregate into at least three stockpiles with different
gradations.
(b) Batch plants.
(1) Hot aggregate bin. Provide a bin with three or more separate compartments for storage of
the screened aggregate fractions to be combined for the asphalt concrete mix. Make the partitions
between the compartments tight and of sufficient height to prevent spillage of aggregate from
one compartment into another.
(2) Load cells. Calibrated load cells may be used in batch plants instead of scales.
(3) RAP. Modify batch plants so RAP is introduced into the asphalt concrete mix after bypassing
the dryer. Design the cold feed bin, conveyor system, and special bin adjacent to the weigh
hopper, if used, to avoid segregation and sticking of the recycled asphalt pavement material.
Heat aggregate to a temperature that will transfer sufficient heat to the recycled asphalt pavement
material to produce an asphalt concrete mix of uniform temperature within the range specified in
the approved JMF.
270
Section 401
(c) WMA plant modifications.
(1) Modify the mixing plant as required by the manufacturer to introduce the WMA technology.
Interlock the WMA additive delivery system with the automated proportioning system;
(2) Comply with manufacturer’s recommendations for incorporating additives and WMA
technologies into the asphalt concrete mix. Comply with manufacturer’s recommendations
regarding delivery and storage of additives; and
(3) Modify the plant burner and drum flights to operate at lower production temperatures.
401.05 Equipment.
(a) Pavers. Furnish pavers that are:
(1) Self-contained, power-propelled units with adjustable vibratory screeds with full-width screw
augers;
(2) Heated for the full width of the screed;
(3) Capable of spreading and finishing courses of asphalt concrete mix in widths at least 12 inches
(300 millimeters) more than the width of one lane;
(4) Equipped with a receiving hopper having sufficient capacity to ensure a uniform spreading
operation;
(5) Equipped with automatic feed controls, which are properly adjusted to maintain a uniform
depth of material ahead of the screed;
(6) Operable at forward speeds consistent with satisfactory asphalt concrete mix lay down;
(7) Capable of producing a smooth-finished surface without segregating, tearing, shoving, or
gouging;
(8) Equipped with automatic screed controls with sensors capable of sensing grade from an outside
reference line, sensing the transverse slope of the screed, and providing the automatic signals that
operate the screed to maintain grade and transverse slope; and
(9) Equipped with a screed mounted safety edge device capable of:
(a) Maintaining contact with the road shoulder surface;
(b) Allowing automatic transition to cross roads, driveways, and obstructions; and
(c) Constraining and reducing the volume of the asphalt concrete material head to increase
the density of the extruded profile.
Do not use conventional single plate strike off.
(b) Material transfer vehicle (MTV). When required, furnish an MTV with the following:
(1) A loading system with the ability to receive mixtures from the hauling equipment;
(2) A minimum storage capacity of 13 tons (11.8 metric tons) with a remixing system in the
MTV storage bin;
(3) A discharge conveyor to deliver the mixture to the paver hopper; and
271
Section 401
(4) A mass not exceeding the maximum legal loadings on structures.
Pick-up machines, hopper inserts, and material transfer devices are not considered MTVs.
401.06 Surface Preparation. Clean the existing surface of loose material, dirt, or other deleterious
material by approved methods. Apply an asphalt tack coat to contact surfaces of pavements, curbs, gutters,
manholes, and other structures according to Section 412.
401.07 Weather Limitations. Place asphalt concrete mix on a dry, unfrozen surface when
the
air
temperature in the shade is above 35 °F (1.7 °C) and rising. For HMA, conform to Table 401-2.
Table 401-2
Asphalt Concrete Mix Placement Temperature
Compacted Lift
< 2 Inches
2 - 3 Inches
> 3 Inches
Thickness
(< 50 mm)
(50 - 75 mm)
(> 75 mm)
Road Surface
Minimum Lay-Down Temperature(1)
Temperature
°F (°C)
°F (°C)
(2)
(2)
(2)
< 35 (1.7)
(2)
(2)
35 - 39.9 (1.7 - 4.3)
280 (138)
(2)
40 - 49.9 (4.4 - 9.9)
285 (141)
275 (135)
50 - 59.9 (10.0 - 15.5)
295 (146)
280 (138)
270 (132)
60 - 69.9 (15.6 - 21.1)
285 (141)
275 (135)
265 (129)
70 - 79.9 (21.2 - 26.6)
280 (138)
270 (132)
265 (129)
80 - 89.9 (26.7 - 32.2)
270 (132)
265 (129)
260 (127)
90 (32.2)
265 (129)
260 (127)
255 (124)
(1) Do not heat the asphalt concrete mix above the temperature specified in the approved
asphalt concrete mix design.
(2) Do not pave.
401.08 Asphalt Preparation. Uniformly heat the asphalt binder to provide a continuous supply of heated
asphalt binder from storage to the mixer. Do not heat asphalt binder above 365 °F (185 °C).
If a liquid heat stable antistrip additive is used, meter it into the asphalt binder transfer lines at a bulk
terminal or mixing plant. Inject the additive for at least 80 percent of the transfer or mixing time to obtain
uniformity.
401.09 Aggregate Preparation. When lime is used as an antistrip, adjust the aggregate moisture to at
least 4 percent by mass of aggregate. Mix the lime uniformly with the aggregate before introducing the
aggregate into the dryer or dryer drum. Use calibrated weighing or metering devices to measure the
quantity of lime added to the aggregate.
For batch plants, heat, dry, and deliver aggregate for pugmill mixing at a temperature sufficient to
produce an asphalt concrete mix temperature within the approved range. Adjust flames used for drying
and heating to prevent damage to and contamination of the aggregate. Additional plant adjustments may
be required to provide dry aggregate at the reduced mixing temperatures of WMA.
272
Section 401
Control plant operations so the moisture content of the asphalt concrete mix behind the paver is
0.5 percent or less according to AASHTO T 329.
Before starting asphalt concrete mix production, obtain approval of synchronized metering and weighing
devices used to introduce a constant rate of lime and water.
Add lime to the aggregate by one of the following methods:
(a) Method A. Add lime to the combined cold feed aggregate using an enclosed in-line cold feed
mechanical pugmill mixer. Use a twin-shaft, continuous mixing pugmill with adjustable mixing
paddles. Adjust the retention time of the mixture in the pugmill so no unmixed lime is visible after
the lime and aggregate exit the pugmill.
(b) Method B. Add lime to the produced aggregates during stockpiling using a pugmill. Distribute
the lime per the stockpile ratios stated in the asphalt concrete mix design.
A minimum moisture content of 2 percent by dry weight for coarse aggregate and 4 percent by dry
weight for fine aggregate is required at the time the aggregates and lime are mixed. Marinate treated
aggregate in stockpiles from 24 hours to 60 days before using in asphalt concrete mix. Do not use
aggregate marinated longer than 60 days.
(c) Method C. Add lime to the combined cold feed aggregate by introducing the lime between
aggregate layers as the aggregate flows from the cold feed bins. Mix the lime and aggregate on the
conveyor belt by placing at least of six paddles over the conveyor belt. Make the paddles protrude into
the aggregate flow and direct the aggregate to fold over itself causing the material to migrate from one
side of the conveyor belt to the other. Space the paddles to provide complete mixing. Provide a water
spray over the conveyor belt as necessary to control dust and to maintain minimum moisture content.
401.10 Mixing. Measure the aggregate and asphalt into the mixer according to the JMF. Mix until
particles are completely and uniformly coated with asphalt according to AASHTO M 156. Maintain the
discharge temperature according to the JMF.
401.11 Hauling. Use vehicles with tight, clean, and smooth metal beds for hauling asphalt concrete mixes.
Coat the beds with an approved material to prevent the asphalt concrete mix from adhering to the beds. Do
not use petroleum derivatives or other coating material that contaminates or alters the characteristics of the
mix. Drain the bed before loading.
Equip each truck with a canvas cover or other suitable material of sufficient size to protect the asphalt
concrete mix from the weather. When necessary to maintain temperature, use insulated truck beds and
securely fastened covers. Provide access ports or holes for checking temperature of asphalt concrete mix in
the truck.
401.12 Production Start-Up Procedures.
(a) Preparatory phase meeting. Conduct a pre-paving preparatory phase meeting at least 3 days
before the start of paving operations according to Subsection 153.04(a). In addition, be prepared to
discuss the following:
(1) Calibration certification for the gyratory compactor; and
273
Section 401
(2) Asphalt and aggregate correction factors according to AASHTO T 308 and AASHTO T 30
on FHWA Form 1640, Worksheet for Ignition Furnace Binder Correction Factor AASHTO
T 308. If RAP is included as part of the JMF, provide the asphalt and aggregate correction factors
according to AASHTO T 30 and the FLH Addendum to AASHTO T 308 on FHWA Form 1648,
Worksheet For Ignition Furnace Binder Correction Factor And Aggregate Gradation Correction
Factor For Mixes Including Rap.
(b) Control strip. Provide 7 days notice before beginning production of an asphalt concrete mix.
On the first day of production, produce sufficient asphalt concrete mix to construct a 1000-foot
(300-meter) long control strip, one-lane wide, and at the designated lift thickness. Construct the control
strip on the project at an approved location.
Construct the control strip using asphalt concrete mix production, lay-down, and compaction
procedures intended for the entire mix. Cease production after construction of the control strip until the
asphalt concrete mix and the control strip are evaluated for acceptance.
(1) Mixture. Take and test at least three control strip asphalt concrete mix samples and evaluate
according to Subsection 401.17. The asphalt concrete mix is acceptable if all test results are
within specification limits for asphalt content and VMA; and the calculated pay factor for asphalt
content, VMA, and gradation is 0.90 or greater.
(2) Compaction. Compact according to Subsection 401.14. Take nuclear gauge density readings
behind each roller pass to determine the roller pattern necessary to achieve required density.
Take nuclear gauge density readings and cut and test core samples according to Table 401-8.
Density is acceptable if the core density pay factor is 0.90 or greater. Furnish the CO with
documented nuclear gauge readings correlated to core specific gravities.
Repeat the control strip process until an acceptable control strip is produced. See Subsection 106.01 for
the disposition of material in unacceptable control strips. Accepted control strips may remain in place
and will be accepted and measured as a part of the completed pavement. Tests used for the control strip
will not be included in the evaluation for payment according to Subsection 106.05. When a control
strip is verified and accepted, full production may begin.
Use these start-up procedures when producing material from a different plant or when resuming
production after a termination of production due to unsatisfactory quality according to Subsection 106.05.
401.13 Placing and Finishing. Do not use mixes produced from different plants unless the mixes are
produced according to the same JMF, use material from the same sources, and are approved. Construct
control strips according to Subsection 401.12 for each plant from which production is intended.
Place HMA at a temperature conforming to Table 401-2. Place WMA at temperatures conforming to
Subsection 401.03. Measure temperature of the asphalt concrete mix in the hauling vehicle just before
dumping into the spreader or measure it in the windrow immediately before pickup.
Place the asphalt concrete mix with a paver conforming to Subsection 401.05. Control horizontal
alignment using a reference line. Automatically control the grade and slope from reference lines, a ski and
slope control device, or dual skis. Use skis having a minimum length of 20 feet (6 meters).
274
Section 401
In areas where mechanical spreading and finishing is impractical, place and finish the asphalt concrete mix
with alternate equipment to produce a uniform surface closely matching the surface obtained when using a
mechanical paver.
Offset the longitudinal joint of one layer at least 6 inches (150 millimeters) from the joint in the layer
immediately below. Make the longitudinal joint in the top layer along the striped centerline of two-lane
roadways or at the lane lines of roadways with more than two lanes.
401.14 Compacting. Furnish at least three rollers, with at least one being a pneumatic-tire roller.
Furnish one roller each for breakdown, intermediate, and finish rolling. Size the rollers to achieve the
required results. Operate rollers according to the recommendation of the manufacturer. Do not use diesel
fuel as a release agent with rollers used to compact asphalt concrete mix.
Monitor the compaction process with nuclear density gauges calibrated to the control strip core density test
results and compact according to Subsection 401.17(c).
Take nuclear gauge density readings and cut and test core samples according to Table 401-8.
Compact the asphalt concrete mix with alternate equipment to obtain the required compaction along forms,
curbs, headers, walls, and other places inaccessible to rollers.
401.15 Joints, Trimming Edges, and Cleanup. Complete pavement construction of adjacent traffic lanes
to the same elevation within 24 hours. If elevation differences exceeding 3 inches (75 millimeters)
between adjacent lanes are left overnight, sign with "Uneven Lanes" warning signs and provide a 1V:3H
fillet.
Make transverse joints vertical to the depth of the new pavement at connections to existing pavements and
previously placed lifts. Form transverse joints by cutting back the previous run to expose the full-depth
course.
Apply an asphalt tack coat to the edge of both transverse and longitudinal joints according to Section 412.
Place the asphalt concrete mix as continuously as possible. Do not pass rollers over an unprotected edge of
freshly laid asphalt concrete mix.
Dispose of material trimmed from the edges and other discarded asphalt concrete mix according to
Subsection 211.02(a)(2).
401.16 Pavement Roughness. Measure the profile of the pavement surface according to the designated
pavement roughness type. In addition, construct pavement surfaces to meet the requirements of Subsection
401.16(e).
(a) Profile measurement. The CO will use profile measurements to determine the Mean Roughness
Index (MRI) values for the traveled way using the current version of Profile Viewer and Analysis
(ProVAL) software. The CO will also determine areas of localized roughness. The MRI and areas of
localized roughness will be used to determine payment for the designated pavement roughness type
and pavement areas requiring surface corrections.
275
Section 401
Conform to the following:
(1) Equipment. Provide an ASTM E950, Class 1 inertial profiling system conforming to
AASHTO M 328 and certified according to AASHTO R 56. Provide copies of the system
certifications at least 21 days before profiling begins. Display a current decal on the equipment
indicating the expiration date of the certifications.
The CO may perform verification testing, equipment validation, or both as follows:
(a) Verification testing. Verification testing will consist of the CO profiling a section of
pavement and comparing the results against the Contractor’s results for the same section of
pavement. Comparison runs will be made within 21 days of each other. The Contractor’s
results will be considered verified if the CO’s International Ride Index (IRI) for each wheel
path differs from the Contractor’s IRI for the same wheel path by no more than 10 percent of
their mean. Do not use equipment that fails verification.
(b) Equipment validation. Equipment validation will consist of determining a cross
correlation value on at least one section of pavement having a minimum length of 528 feet
(161 meters). The Contractor’s profiler and the CO’s profiler will be cross correlated on the
same day. Coordinate and schedule the equipment validation date at least 14 days before the
validation date. The CO will determine the location of the cross correlation segments. The
Contractor’s equipment will be considered validated if the cross correlation value is greater
than or equal to 0.90. Do not use equipment that fails validation.
(2) Personnel. Provide the following:
(a) A profile system operator certified according to AASHTO R 56. Submit copies of the
operator’s certifications at least 21 days before profiling begins.
(b) Flaggers, pilot car operations, or other temporary traffic control according to Section 635
as required.
(3) Measuring. The CO will identify the beginning and ending points of the profile
measurements. Measure the pavement profile in both wheel paths using a sensor path spacing of
65 - 71 inches (1650 - 1800 millimeters) and centered in the traveled way of the lane. Operate
the inertial profiler according to AASHTO R 57 and the manufacturer’s recommendations. Do
not apply filters when collecting profile data. Filtering will be applied during profile analysis in
ProVAL. Collect profile data (elevation and distance) at a maximum interval of 2 inches (50
millimeters). Provide a lead-in distance of at least 150 feet (45 meters) after reaching the testing
speed. Use the profiler’s automatic start/stop activation when collecting data.
The CO will identify excluded areas. Cattle guards, bridges not being overlaid, and turning lanes,
passing lanes, side roads, and ramps less than 1,000 feet (300 meters) in length will be excluded
from profile measurement, the calculation of MRI, and the determination of localized roughness.
Use event markers to mark the beginning and ending location of areas to be excluded from
profile measurement. Measure excluded areas with a straightedge according to Subsection
401.16(e).
Coordinate profiling operations with the CO. Export each profile (elevation, distance data,
header, and marker information) in pavement profile format (ppf) to a CD or DVD and submit
after profiling. Do not submit non-continuous data files.
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Section 401
Use the following naming convention for electronic file submissions:
(a) For Type I and Type II pavement roughness:
[Project Name (or abbreviation)] _ [beginning station_to_ending station] _ [Initial or
Final],
Beaver_Cr_Rd_25+50_to_387+35_Initial.ppf.
(b) For Type III pavement roughness:
[Project Name (or abbreviation)] _ [beginning station_to_ending station],
Beaver_Cr_Rd_25+50_to_387+35.ppf.
(4) Evaluation. The CO will review and analyze profile measurements. The MRI will be
calculated from profile measurements using ProVAL.
Using ProVAL, a high pass filter length of 300 feet (90 meters) and a low pass filter of 10 inches
(250 millimeters) will be applied to the profiles. Individual MRI values are determined by
averaging the IRI value from each wheel path. Fixed interval MRI values are reported as an
average of the individual MRI values over the fixed interval length. An overall MRI value will
be determined by averaging the individual MRI values, excluding segments less than 25 feet
(7.62 meters) for Type I and Type II pavement roughness or 528 feet (161 meters) for Type III
pavement roughness.
Areas of localized roughness will be identified by using ProVAL’s continuous MRI function
with a segment length of 25 feet (7.62 meters). This will yield an average MRI value and a
length for each area of localized roughness which exceeds the localized roughness threshold
value of every possible 25-foot (7.62-meter) segment. Areas for which the continuous report
exceeds the threshold MRI value for the specified roughness type will be considered a defective
area requiring correction. When corrections are not allowed, a reduction in payment will be
applied according to Subsection 401.16(f). No deduction will be made for areas of localized
roughness identified within 12.5 feet (3.81 meters) of the beginning or end of a profile section or
within 12.5 feet (3.81 meters) of excluded areas. Measure these areas with a straightedge
according to Subsection 401.16(e).
Correct areas of localized roughness according to Subsection 401.16(g).
(b) Type I pavement roughness. Measure the profile of the initial pavement surface before
construction activities disturb the existing pavement surface. The initial pavement surface is defined
as the existing pavement surface before construction actives begin. The localized roughness
threshold computed to the nearest whole number for Type I pavement roughness is equal to the
following:
Localized Roughness Threshold = Initial Overall MRI + 1.881(S25)
where:
Initial Overall MRI = MRI obtained before construction activities begin.
S25 = sample standard deviation of the 25 foot (7.62 meters) fixed interval MRI values.
Do not proceed with work that will disturb the initial pavement surface until the CO’s analysis is
complete.
277
Section 401
Measure the profile of the final pavement surface before placing a surface treatment and within
21 days of completing roadway paving. The original overall surface MRI will be used in conjunction
with the final overall MRI to determine an overall percent improvement for the entire traveled way.
The overall percent improvement in MRI will be determined to one decimal place for the traveled
way according to the following formula:
% Improvement = [(Initial Overall MRI - Final Overall MRI) / Initial Overall MRI] × 100
Table 401-3 will be used to determine the final pay factor (PFrough) for the traveled way to two
decimal places. When the percent improvement is less than 25.0 percent and the final overall MRI
value is less than or equal to 70.0 inches per mile (1.105 meters per kilometer), Type III-A from
Table 401-5 will be used to determine the final PFrough.
Correct areas of localized roughness according to Subsection 401.16(g). If a pavement has an overall
negative percent improvement, place a minimum 1-inch (25-millimeter) overlay over
the entire
paved surface.
Table 401-3
Type I Pavement Roughness Pay Factors
Type I-A
Type I-B
Percent Improvement
Percent Improvement
Pay Factor
(%)
(%)
(PFrough)
Greater than 50.0
Greater than 45.0
PF = 1.05
47.6
- 50.0
44.0
- 45.0
PF = 1.04
45.1
- 47.5
43.0
- 43.9
PF = 1.03
43.6
- 45.0
41.6
- 42.9
PF = 1.02
42.1
- 43.5
40.1
- 41.5
PF = 1.01
25.0
- 42.0
20.0
- 40.0
PF = 1.00
24.0
- 24.9
19.0
- 19.9
PF = 0.99
23.0
- 23.9
18.0
- 18.9
PF = 0.98
22.0
- 22.9
17.0
- 17.9
PF = 0.97
21.0
- 21.9
16.0
- 16.9
PF = 0.96
20.0
- 20.9
15.0
- 15.9
PF = 0.95
19.0
- 19.9
14.0
- 14.9
PF = 0.94
18.0
- 18.9
13.0
- 13.9
PF = 0.93
17.0
- 17.9
12.0
- 12.9
PF = 0.92
16.0
- 16.9
11.0
- 11.9
PF = 0.91
15.0
- 15.9
10.0
- 10.9
PF = 0.90
14.0
- 14.9
9.0
- 9.9
PF = 0.89
13.0
- 13.9
8.0
- 8.9
PF = 0.88
12.0
- 12.9
7.0
- 7.9
PF = 0.87
11.0
- 11.9
6.0
- 6.9
PF = 0.86
10.0
- 10.9
5.0
- 5.9
PF = 0.85
5.0
- 9.9
4.0
- 4.9
PF = 0.80
0.0
- 4.9
0.0
- 3.9
PF = 0.70
Negative % Improvement
Negative % Improvement
Correct & overlay
278
Section 401
(c) Type II pavement roughness. Measure the profile of the initial pavement surface before
construction activities disturb the pavement surface. The initial pavement surface is defined as the
original existing pavement surface before construction actives begin. The localized roughness
threshold computed to the nearest whole number for Type II pavement roughness is equal to the
following:
Localized Roughness Threshold = Initial Overall MRI + 1.282(S25)
where:
Initial Overall MRI = MRI obtained before construction activities begin.
(S25) = sample standard deviation of the 25-foot (7.62-meter) fixed interval MRI values.
Do not proceed with work that will disturb the initial pavement surface until the CO’s analysis is
complete.
Measure the profile of the final pavement surface before placing a surface treatment and within
21 days of completing roadway paving. The original overall surface MRI will be used in conjunction
with the final overall MRI to determine an overall percent improvement for the entire traveled way.
The overall percent improvement in MRI will be determined to one decimal place for the traveled
way according to the following formula:
% Improvement = [(Initial Overall MRI - Final Overall MRI) / Initial Overall MRI] × 100
Table 401-4 will be used to determine the final PFrough for the traveled way to two decimal places.
When the percent improvement is less than 49.0 percent and the final overall MRI value is less than
or equal to 70.0 inches per mile (1.105 meters per kilometer), Type III-A from Table 401-5 will be
used to determine the final PFrough.
Correct areas of localized roughness according to Subsection 401.16(g). If a pavement has less than
a 10.0 percent improvement, place a minimum 1-inch (25-millimeter) overlay over the entire paved
surface.
279
Section 401
Table 401-4
Type II Pavement Roughness Pay Factors
Type II-A
Type II-B
Percent Improvement
Percent Improvement
Pay Factor
(%)
(%)
(PFrough)
Greater than 60.0
Greater than 50.0
PF = 1.05
58.6
- 60.0
49.0
- 50.0
PF = 1.04
57.6
- 58.5
48.0
- 48.9
PF = 1.03
56.6
- 57.5
47.0
- 47.9
PF = 1.02
55.1
- 56.5
45.0
- 46.9
PF = 1.01
49.0
- 55.0
35.0
- 44.9
PF = 1.00
48.0
- 48.9
34.0
- 34.9
PF = 0.99
47.0
- 47.9
33.0
- 33.9
PF = 0.98
46.0
- 46.9
32.0
- 32.9
PF = 0.97
45.0
- 45.9
31.0
- 31.9
PF = 0.96
44.0
- 44.9
30.0
- 30.9
PF = 0.95
43.0
- 43.9
29.0
- 29.9
PF = 0.94
42.0
- 42.9
28.0
- 28.9
PF = 0.93
41.0
- 41.9
27.0
- 27.9
PF = 0.92
40.0
- 40.9
26.0
- 26.9
PF = 0.91
38.0
- 39.9
25.0
- 25.9
PF = 0.90
36.0
- 37.9
24.0
- 24.9
PF = 0.89
35.0
- 35.9
23.0
- 23.9
PF = 0.88
34.0
- 34.9
22.0
- 22.9
PF = 0.87
33.0
- 33.9
21.0
- 21.9
PF = 0.86
31.0
- 32.9
20.0
- 20.9
PF = 0.85
25.0
- 30.9
16.0
- 19.9
PF = 0.80
10.0
- 24.9
7.5
- 15.9
PF = 0.70
Less than 10.0
Less than 7.5
Correct & overlay
(d) Type III pavement roughness. Measure the profile of the final pavement surface before placing
a surface treatment and within 21 days of completing roadway paving. Pay factors from Table 401-5
will be used in conjunction with the long continuous histogram printout from ProVAL’s Smoothness
Assurance Analysis function and by utilizing a long continuous 528-foot (161-meter) segment length
for analysis. The final PFrough is equal to the sum of the products of the individual pay factors
indicated in Table 401-5 multiplied by the ratio of individual lane miles (lane kilometers)to the
overall project lane miles (lane kilometers)and by ProVAL’s corresponding histogram percentages,
divided by 100. The final PFrough will be determined to three decimal places.
If the final overall MRI for the entire traveled way is greater than the values shown in Table 401-5,
correct the traveled way according to Subsection 401.16(g).
280
Section 401
Table 401-5
Type III Pavement Roughness Pay Factors
Mean Roughness Index
Mean Roughness Index
(MRI)
(MRI)
Pay Factor
Type III-A
Type III-B
(PFrough)
in/mi (m/km)
in/mi (m/km)
Localized roughness threshold
Localized roughness threshold
140 in/mi (2.210 m/km)
140 in/mi (2.210 m/km)
If MRI of entire roadway
If MRI of entire roadway
is greater than
is greater than
REJECT
125 in/mi (1.973 m/km)
135 in/mi (2.131 m/km)
Greater than 95.0 (1.50)
Greater than 110.0 (1.74)
0.700
95.0 - 90.0 (1.50 - 1.42)
110.0 - 105.0 (1.74 - 1.66)
0.800
90.0 - 85.0 (1.42 - 1.34)
105.0 - 100.0 (1.66 - 1.58)
0.850
85.0 - 80.0 (1.34 - 1.26)
100.0 - 95.0 (1.58 - 1.50)
0.900
80.0 - 75.0 (1.26 - 1.18)
95.0 - 90.0 (1.50 - 1.42)
0.960
75.0 - 70.0 (1.18 - 1.10)
90.0 - 85.0 (1.42 - 1.34)
0.980
70.0 - 65.0 (1.10 - 1.02)
85.0 - 80.0 (1.34 - 1.26)
1.000
65.0 - 60.0 (1.02 - 0.94)
80.0 - 75.0 (1.26 - 1.18)
1.010
60.0 - 55.0 (0.94 - 0.86)
75.0 - 70.0 (1.18 - 1.10)
1.020
55.0 - 50.0 (0.86 - 0.78)
70.0 - 65.0 (1.10 - 1.02)
1.025
50.0 - 45.0 (0.78 - 0.70)
65.0 - 60.0 (1.02 - 0.94)
1.030
45.0 - 40.0 (0.70 - 0.62)
60.0 - 55.0 (0.94 - 0.86)
1.035
40.0 - 35.0 (0.62 - 0.54)
55.0 - 50.0 (0.86 - 0.78)
1.040
35.0 - 30.0 (0.54 - 0.46)
50.0 - 45.0 (0.78 - 0.70)
1.045
Less than 30.0 (0.46)
Less than 45.0 (0.70)
1.050
(e) Type IV straightedge measurement. Use a 10 foot (3.0 meters) metal straightedge to measure
at right angles and parallel to the centerline. Defective areas are deviations between the surface and
the bottom of the straightedge in excess of ¼ inches (6 millimeters) measured between two contacts
of the straightedge or deviations in excess of ¼ inches (6 millimeters) measured at the end of the
straightedge. Correct defective areas according to Subsection 401.16(g).
(f) Localized roughness and straightedge measurement pay reduction. Each area of localized
roughness exceeding the threshold MRI specified for the designated pavement roughness type will
receive a reduction in payment according to Table 401-6.
Each defective area as determined by a 10-foot (3.0-meter) metal straightedge will receive a
reduction in payment according to Table 401-6.
281
Section 401
Table 401-6
Localized Roughness and Straightedge Measurement Pay Reductions
Type I
Type II & IV
Type III
Localized
Localized
Deduction
Deduction
Roughness
Deduction
Roughness Limit
per
per
Limit
per
MRI
Occurrence
Occurrence
MRI, in/mi
Occurrence
(m/km)
$200
$300
Computed MRI value
140.0
- 169.9
$300
per Subsection
(2.208
- 2.680)
170.0
- 179.9
$450
401.16(b) for Type I
(2.681
- 2.838)
180.0
- 189.9
$600
401.16(c) for Type II
(2.839
- 2.995)
190.0
- 199.9
$750
401.16(d) for Type III
(2.996
- 3.154)
200.0
- 209.9
$900
(3.155
- 3.311)
210.0
- 219.9
$1,200
(3.312
- 3.469)
220.0
- 229.9
$1,500
(3.470
- 3.626)
230.0
- 239.9
$2,000
(3.627
- 3.784)
> 240.0 (3.785)
$4,000
(g) Defective area correction. Obtain approval before starting corrective work. Allow 7 days for
review and approval of correction method proposal.
Correct defective areas by one of the following methods:
(1) Milling. Replace the defective area by milling at least one-half the pavement depth and
repaving with the approved asphalt concrete mix. Mill the defective area according to Section
413.
(2) Saw cutting. Replace the defective area by saw cutting and removing the defective area and
repaving with the approved asphalt concrete mix. Saw cut and remove the defective area
according to Section 203.
(3) Grinding. Use a diamond blade machine to grind off the defective surface area. Provide the
manufacturer and model of the equipment to be used. Identify the beginning and ending station
of each grind location, the grinding depth, and lateral extent of grinding. Optimize the endpoints
of the areas where a grinder is to be applied using ProVAL’s Smoothness Assurance function in
conjunction with the grinding simulation function. Submit the type of seal to be placed after
grinding is completed for approval. Place seals according to Section 409 or 410. Limit the
grinding depth to 12.5 percent of the design pavement thickness. If grinding in excess of this
depth, provide a minimum 1-inch (25-millimeter) overlay.
(4) Other. Submit a proposal for approval for other correction methods not listed above.
282
Section 401
After corrections are made, re-measure the pavement profile according to Subsection 401.16(a).
Data from the re-measurement will be analyzed to determine the MRI or percent improvement, areas
of localized roughness, and the final PFrough. If correction and re-measurement of the surface is
required, the maximum allowable pay factor under Subsection 401.19 is 1.00.
If corrections are not allowed, no adjustment will be made to the final PFrough or localized roughness
pay deductions.
401.17 Acceptance. See Table 401-8 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Aggregate quality properties will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Mineral filler, antistrip additives, and WMA additives will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.03.
Asphalt content, VMA, and core density will be evaluated under Subsection 106.05. Pavement roughness
will be evaluated under Subsection 106.04. Asphalt binder will be evaluated under Subsections 106.03 and
106.04. Evaluations will consider the following:
(a) Asphalt content. The upper and lower specification limits are the approved JMF target value plus
or minus 0.4 percent;
(b) VMA. The lower specification limit is the value shown in Table 401-1. After the JMF has been
verified according to Subsections 401.03 and 401.12, use the Contractor’s combined coarse and fine
bulk specific gravity of aggregate Gsb values to calculate VMA on field produced asphalt concrete
mix samples;
(c) Density (core). The lower specification limit is 91.0 percent of the maximum specific gravity
(density) determined according to AASHTO T 166 and AASHTO T 209.
The percent compaction will be determined using the average maximum specific gravity (AASHTO
T 209) from all samples tested each day;
(d) Pavement roughness. The evaluation for payment will be made after defective areas are
addressed. See Subsection 401.16(g); and
(e) Asphalt binder. The pay factor is determined from Table 401-7.
Construction of the HMA or WMA pavement course will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.04.
Measurement
401.18 Measure the Section 401 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
401.19 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
401 pay items listed in the bid schedule, except the asphalt concrete pavement contract price will be
adjusted according to Subsections 106.05, 401.16, and Table 401-7. Payment will be full compensation
for the work prescribed in this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
283
Section 401
Payment for asphalt concrete pavement will be made at a price determined by multiplying the contract
price by the material pay factor. The material pay factor is calculated as follows:
PFmaterial = 1 + [(PFVolumetric - 1) + (PFPG - 1)]
where:
PFmaterial =
Material pay factor.
PFVolumetric = Pay factor for asphalt concrete pavement. PFVolumetric is the lowest single pay
factor determined for asphalt binder content, VMA, and core density.
PFPG =
Pay factor for asphalt binder. The PFPG formula is as follows:
PFPG = (PF1 + PF2 + PF3 + ….PFn) / n
where:
PF#= For each sample, the lowest pay factor determined from any test in Table
401-7. If the lowest pay factor for a sample is in reject, the sample’s
pay factor is zero.
n
= Number of samples tested.
If either the pay factor for the asphalt binder (PFPG) or the pay factor for asphalt concrete pavement
(PFVolumetric) is below 0.75, the lot for asphalt concrete pavement is in reject.
When the contract specifies a pavement roughness Type I, Type II, or Type III, a separate pay
adjustment will be made for pavement roughness calculated as follows:
Type I, Type II, or Type III Pay Adjustment = (RF)(PFrough - 1.00)(L) - (LRPR)
where:
PFrough =
Pay factor from Tables 401-3, 401-4, or 401-5.
L =
Total project length in lane miles (lane kilometers).
LRPR =
Localized roughness pay reduction from Table 401-6.
RF =
Roughness factor: 40,000 U.S. Customary (24,800 Metric).
284
Section 401
Table 401-7
Asphalt Binder Pay Factor Table
Pay Factor =
Tests on
Specifications (1)
Original
1.01
1.00
0.95
0.90
0.75
Reject
Dynamic shear
≥ 1.00
≥ 1.17
1.16
- 1.00
0.99
- 0.89
0.88
- 0.77
0.76
- 0.50
< 0.50
rheometer, kPa
Tests after Rolling Thin Film Oven (RTFO)
Dynamic shear
≥ 2.20
≥ 2.69
2.68
- 2.20
2.19
- 1.96
1.95
- 1.43
1.42
- 1.10
< 1.10
rheometer, kPa
Tests on Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV)
Dynamic shear
< 5,000
4,711 <
4,712 - 5,000
5,001 - 5,289
5,290 - 5,578
5,579 - 5,867
> 5,867
rheometer, kPa
Bending beam
≤ 300
≤ 247
248 - 300
301 - 338
339 - 388
389 - 449
≥ 450
rheometer, s, MPa
Bending beam
rheometer,
≥ 0.300
≥ 0.320
0.319
- 0.300
0.299
-0.294
0.293
-0.278
0.277
- 0.261
< 0.261
m-value
(1) See Subsection 702.01.
285
Section 401
Table 401-8
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source
Asphalt
Measured and
Aggregate
Subsection
1 per
Source of
Yes
Before
Not required
concrete
tested for
quality
703.07
type and
material
production
when using
aggregate
conformance
source of
Government-
(703.07)
(106.04 & 105)
material
provided
source
Asphalt binder
"
Quality
AASHTO
"
Asphalt
"
"
(702.01)
M 320
supplier
or
mixing plant
Asphalt
Process
Gradation
AASHTO
2 per
Crusher belt
No
24
Not required
concrete
control
T 27 & T 11
day per
(during
hours
when using
aggregate
(153.03)
stockpile
production)
a pre-crushed
(703.07)
commercial
source
286
Section 401
Table 401-8 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Mix Design
Asphalt
Measured and
Gradation
AASHTO
1 per
Stockpiles
Yes
30 days
concrete
tested for
T 27 & T 11
submitted
before
mixture
conformance
mix design
producing
(106.04)
RAP asphalt
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
binder content
T 308
Bulk specific
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
gravity of
T 84 &
aggregate
T 85
(coarse and fine)
VMA
AASHTO
"
"
"
R 35
VFA
"
"
"
"
Air voids
"
"
"
"
Tensile strength
AASHTO
"
"
"
ratio
T 283
287
Section 401
Table 401-8 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production Start-up (control strip)
Asphalt
Statistical
Gradation
AASHTO
3
Behind the
Yes
6
concrete
(106.05)
T 30
minimum
paver before
hours
pavement
compaction
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
I
No. 30 (600 µm)
I
No. 200 (75 µm)
I
Other specified
II
sieves
Asphalt
I
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
content(1)
T 308
VMA
I
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
R 35
Density(2)
I
AASHTO
5
In-place
"
24
Deliver
T 166
minimum
after
hours
cores to
compaction
CO after
determining
specific
gravity
and
compaction
288
Section 401
Table 401-8 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Asphalt
Measured
Mix
First load
Hauling vehicle
No
Immediately
concrete
and tested
temperature
and as
before
upon
pavement
for
determined
dumping or
completion
conformance
by CO
windrow
of test
(106.04)
thereafter
before pickup
Maximum
AASHTO
3
Behind the
Yes
24
specific
T 209
minimum
paver before
hours
gravity(4)
compaction
Process control
Density
ASTM
5
At core location
No
24
See
(153.03)
D2950
minimum
before coring
hours
Subsection
401.12
Production
Asphalt
Statistical
Asphalt
I
AASHTO
1 per
Behind the
Yes
6
concrete
(106.05)
content(1)
T 308
700 tons
paver before
hours
pavement
(650
compaction
metric tons)
VMA
I
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
R 35
Density(2)
I
AASHTO
"
In-place after
"
24
Deliver cores
T 166
compacting
hours
to CO after
testing
is completed
289
Section 401
Table 401-8 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production (continued)
Asphalt
Measured
Placement
First load
Hauling
No
Immediately
concrete
and tested
temperature
and as
vehicle
upon
pavement
for
determined by
before
completion
conformance
CO thereafter
dumping,
of
(106.04)
or windrow
measurement
before pickup
Maximum
AASHTO
Minimum
Behind the
Yes
24
specific
T 209
1 per day
paver before
hours
gravity(3)(4)
compaction
Asphalt
Measured
Quality
See Table
AASHTO
1 per
In line
Yes,
Test by
binder
and tested
401-7
M 320
2000 tons
between
2 1-quart
Government
(702.01)
for
(1800
tank and
(1-liter)
conformance
metric tons)
mixing plant
samples
(106.04)
of mix
290
Section 401
Table 401-8 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production (continued)
Asphalt
Process control
Gradation
AASHTO
Contractor
Cold feed
No
24
concrete
(153.03)
at plant
T 27 & T 11
determined
or hot bins
hours
pavement
as applicable
Gradation
AASHTO
1 per
Behind
"
"
at paver
T 30
700 tons
the paver
(650
before
metric tons)
compaction
of mix
Moisture
AASHTO
Contractor
Stockpile
"
"
content of
T 255
determined
aggregates
Density
ASTM
1 per
In-place after
"
"
D2950
500 feet
compacting
(150 meters)
Air voids
AASHTO
1 per
Behind
No
24
T 312 &
700 tons
the paver
hours
T 166
(650
before
metric tons)
compaction
of mix
VFA
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
R 35
291
Section 401
Table 401-8 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Finished Product
Asphalt
Measured
Type I
AASHTO
See
Left and right
No
Within
Original
concrete
and tested
roughness,
R 56 & R 57
Subsection
wheel paths
14 days of
surface before
pavement
for
before
401.16
Notice to
construction
conformance
construction
Proceed
(106.04)
(Initial MRI)
Type I
"
"
"
"
Within
roughness,
21 days
after
after
construction
completing
(Final MRI)
paving
Type II
"
"
"
"
Within
Original
roughness,
14 days of
surface before
before
Notice to
construction
construction
Proceed
(Initial MRI)
Type II
"
"
"
"
Within
roughness,
21 days
after
after
construction
completing
(Final MRI)
paving
Type III
"
"
"
"
"
roughness
(Final MRI)
Process
Surface
Straightedge
Contractor
See
"
24
control
tolerance
measurements
determined
Subsection
hours
(153.03)
Subsection
401.16(e)
401.16(e)
292
Section 401
Table 401-8 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
(1) Use AASHTO T 308, Method A. Calculate the asphalt binder content by weighing the sample before and after the burn using a calibrated external
balance.
(2) Cut two 6-inch (150-millimeter) diameter side by side cores. Remove them with a core retriever and fill and compact the core holes with asphalt
concrete mixture. Label the cores and protect them from damage due to handling and temperature. Submit one core for verification testing. Dry the
other core to constant mass at 125±5 °F (52±3 °C) or vacuum dry it according to ASTM D7227 before performing the core density and measuring the
thickness. Use 62.245 pounds per cubic foot (997.1 kilograms per cubic meter) to convert specific gravity to density.
(3) After production paving has begun, use the average maximum specific gravity value (AASHTO T 209) for each day to adjust the percent
compaction for the cores that represent that day’s paving.
(4) Do not use the supplemental procedure for mixtures containing porous aggregate (dry back method of AASHTO T 209).
293
Section 402
Section 402. — ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVEMENT BY
HVEEM OR MARSHALL MIX DESIGN METHOD
Description
402.01 This work consists of constructing one or more courses of asphalt concrete pavement using hot or
warm mix asphalt (HMA or WMA).
HMA and WMA asphalt concrete pavement class is designated according to Table 402-1.
Pavement roughness type is designated according to Subsection 402.16. If no roughness type is designated
use Type IV.
Asphalt binder is designated according to AASHTO M 320.
Antistrip additive type is designated according to Subsection 702.05. When no type is designated use
Type 3 (lime).
Material
402.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Antistrip additive
702.05
Asphalt binder
702.01
Asphalt concrete aggregate
703.07
Mineral filler
725.05
Construction Requirements
402.03 Composition of Mix (JMF). Provide asphalt concrete mixes of aggregate, asphalt binder,
recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), and additives that meet the applicable aggregate gradation in Table
703-4 and design parameters (a), (c), and (d) or (b), (c), and (d) in Table 402-1 for the class of mix listed
in the bid schedule.
Apply asphalt concrete mix design requirements for HMA to the development of the WMA mix design.
Provide modifications to the process required for WMA technology. Submit modifications to the asphalt
concrete mix design process according to Appendix X.2 of AASHTO R 35, Special Mix Design
Considerations and Practices for Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) for approval by the CO.
294
Section 402
Table 402-1
Asphalt Concrete Mix Requirements
Class of Mix
Design Parameters
A
B
C
(a) Hveem (AASHTO T 246 and AASHTO T 247)
Percent air voids(1)
3.0
- 5.0
3.0
- 5.0
3.0
- 5.0
Stabilometer, minimum
37
35
30
Voids in mineral aggregate,
See Table 402-2
minimum, %
(b) Marshall (AASHTO T 245)
Percent air voids (1)
3.0
- 5.0
3.0
- 5.0
3.0
- 5.0
Compaction, number of
75
50
50
blows each end of test specimen
Stability, pounds (kN) min.
2,000 (8.89)
1,500 (6.67)
1,000 (4.44)
8 - 14
8 - 16
8 - 20
Flow, 0.01 inches (0.25 mm)
(8 - 14)
(8 - 16)
(8 - 20)
Voids in mineral aggregate,
See Table 402-2
minimum, %
(c) Moisture Susceptibility (AASHTO T 283) (2)
Tensile strength ratio, min.
0.80
0.80
0.80
(d) Dust to binder ratio(3)
0.8
- 1.6
0.8
- 1.6
0.8
- 1.6
(1) The percent of air voids is based on AASHTO T 166, AASHTO T 209, and AASHTO T 269.
Maximum specific gravity (density) is based on AASHTO T 209.
(2) Use 4-inch (100-millimeter) diameter specimens. AASHTO T 283 requires a freeze-thaw
cycle.
(3) Dust to binder ratio is the percent of material including lime, bag-house fines, and other
mineral matter added to the mixture. Calculate the ratio using the effective asphalt content
calculated by mass of mix.
295
Section 402
Table 402-2
Voids in Mineral Aggregate (VMA)
Hveem or Marshall Mix Design
Voids in Mineral Aggregate,
Sieve Size (1)
Minimum, % (2)(3)
Hveem
Marshall
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
16.0
18.0
⅜ inch (9.5 mm)
14.0
16.0
½ inch (12.5 mm)
13.0
15.0
¾ inch (19 mm)
12.0
14.0
1 inch (25 mm)
11.0
13.0
(1) The largest sieve size listed in the applicable specification upon which material is permitted
to be retained.
(2) VMA to be determined according to AASHTO R 35.
(3) When mineral filler or hydrated lime is used, include in the calculation for compliance with
the VMA.
(a) RAP. See Subsection 401.03(a).
(b) Baghouse fines. See Subsection 401.03(b).
(c) Submission. Submit written JMFs and associated material with FHWA Form 1607, Worksheet
For A Hveem Mix Design AASHTO T 246 or FHWA Form 1622, Worksheet For A Marshall Mix
Design AASHTO T 245 for verification at least 30 days before the control strip. Include a signed
statement prepared by the testing laboratory that certifies the proposed JMF meets the requirements
and can be compacted in the field during production. For each proposed JMF, submit the following:
(1) Aggregate and mineral filler.
(a) Target values:
(1) Target value for percent passing each sieve size for the aggregate blend; and
(2) Designate target values within the gradation band specified for the nominal maximum
size aggregate grading shown in Table 703-5.
(b) Source and percentage of each stockpile to be used.
(c) Average gradation of each stockpile.
(d) Representative samples from each stockpile. Use split samples of material taken at the
same time samples are taken for testing by the Contractor’s laboratory.
(1) 600 pounds (270 kilograms) of aggregates proportioned by each stockpile according
to the JMF; and
(2) 10 pounds (4.5 kilograms) of mineral filler if proposed for the JMF.
296
Section 402
(e) Results of aggregate quality tests performed within 1 year of use. For aggregate quality
tests, see Subsection 703.07.
(2) Asphalt binder. See Subsection 401.03(c)(2).
(3) Antistrip additives. See Subsection 401.03(c)(3).
(4) RAP. See Subsection 401.03(c)(4).
(5) WMA technology and additive information. See Subsection 401.03(c)(5).
(d) Verification. The verification process starts when required documentation and material have been
received. When the JMF is verified, begin asphalt concrete mix production for the control strip.
(1) Aggregate gradations. See Subsection 401.03(d)(1).
(2) RAP asphalt binder content and gradation. See Subsection 401.03(d)(2).
(3) Bulk specific gravity of aggregate (Gsb). See Subsection 401.03(d)(3).
(4) Hveem stabilometer value. The Contractor’s Hveem stabilometer value is verified if the
CO’s result is above the minimum specification limit in Table 402-1.
(5) Marshall stability and flow value. The Contractor’s Marshall stability and flow values are
verified if the CO’s results meet the requirements in Table 402-1.
(6) Air voids (Va). See Subsection 401.03(d)(6).
(7) Tensile strength ratio (TSR). See Subsection 401.03(d)(7).
(e) Changes and resubmissions. See Subsection 401.03(e).
402.04 Mixing Plant. See Subsection 401.04.
402.05 Equipment. See Subsection 401.05.
402.06 Surface Preparation. See Subsection 401.06.
402.07 Weather Limitations. See Subsection 401.07.
402.08 Asphalt Preparation. See Subsection 401.08.
402.09 Aggregate Preparation. See Subsection 401.09.
402.10 Mixing. See Subsection 401.10.
402.11 Hauling. See Subsection 401.11.
402.12 Production Start-Up Procedures.
(a) Preparatory phase meeting. Conduct a pre-paving preparatory phase meeting at least 3 days
before the start of paving operations according to Subsection 153.04(a). In addition, be prepared to
discuss the following:
(1) Calibration certification for the Hveem or Marshall compactor; and
297
Section 402
(2) Asphalt and aggregate correction factors according to AASHTO T 308 and AASHTO T 30
on FHWA Form 1640, Worksheet for Ignition Furnace Binder Correction Factor AASHTO
T 308. If RAP is included as part of the JMF, provide the asphalt and aggregate correction
factors according to AASHTO T 30 and the FLH Addendum to AASHTO T 308 on FHWA
Form 1648, Worksheet For Ignition Furnace Binder Correction Factor And Aggregate Gradation
Correction Factor For Mixes Including Rap.
(b) Control strip. Provide 7 days notice before beginning production of an asphalt concrete mix.
On the first day of production, produce sufficient asphalt concrete mix to construct a 1000-foot
(300-meter) long control strip, one-lane wide, and at the designated lift thickness. Construct the control
strip on the project at an approved location.
Construct the control strip using asphalt concrete mix production, lay-down, and compaction
procedures intended for the entire mix. Cease production after construction of the control strip until the
asphalt concrete mix and the control strip are evaluated for acceptance.
(1) Mixture. Take and test at least three control strip asphalt concrete mix samples and evaluate
according to Subsection 402.17. The asphalt concrete mix is acceptable if all test results are
within specification limits for gradation and asphalt content and the calculated pay factor for
gradation and asphalt content is 0.90 or greater.
(2) Compaction. Take nuclear density gauge readings behind each roller pass to determine the
roller pattern necessary to achieve required density.
Take nuclear gauge density readings and cut core samples at least five locations within the
control strip. Test cores according to Subsection 401.17. Density is acceptable if all tests are
above the specification limit or the calculated pay factor is 0.90 or greater. Furnish the CO with
documented nuclear gauge readings and correlations of the readings to the core specific gravities
at completion of control strip.
Repeat the control strip process until an acceptable control strip is produced. See Subsection 106.01 for
the disposition of material in unacceptable control strips. Accepted control strips may remain in place
and will be accepted and measured as a part of the completed pavement. Tests used for the control strip
will not be included in the evaluation for payment according to Subsection 106.05. When a control
strip is verified and accepted, full production may begin.
Use these start-up procedures when producing material from a different plant or when resuming
production after a termination of production due to unsatisfactory quality according to Subsection 106.05.
402.13 Placing and Finishing. See Subsection 401.13.
402.14 Compacting. See Subsection 401.14.
402.15 Joints, Trimming Edges, and Cleanup. See Subsection 401.15.
402.16 Pavement Roughness. See Subsection 401.16.
402.17 Acceptance. See Table 402-3 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Aggregate quality properties will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
298
Section 402
Mineral filler, antistrip additives, and WMA additives will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.03.
Asphalt content, core density and aggregate gradation will be evaluated under Subsection
106.05.
Pavement roughness will be evaluated under Subsection 106.04. Asphalt binder will be evaluated under
Subsections 106.03 and 106.04. Evaluations will consider the following:
(a) Asphalt content. The upper and lower specification limits are the approved JMF target value plus
or minus 0.4 percent;
(b) Density (core). The lower specification limit is 91.0 percent of the maximum specific gravity
(density) determined according to AASHTO T 166 and AASHTO T 209. The percent compaction will
be determined using the maximum specific gravity (AASHTO T 209) from at least one production
sample per day;
(c) Aggregate gradation. The upper and lower specification limits are the approved JMF target values
plus or minus the allowable deviations shown in Table 703-5;
(d) Pavement roughness. The evaluation for payment will be made after defective areas are
addressed. See Subsection 401.16(g); and
(e) Asphalt binder. The pay factor is determined from Table 401-7.
Construction of the HMA or WMA pavement course will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.04.
Measurement
402.18 Measure the Section 402 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
402.19 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
402 pay items listed in the bid schedule, except for the asphalt concrete pavement, contract price will be
adjusted according to Subsections 106.05, 402.16, and Table 401-7. Payment will be full compensation
for the work prescribed in this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Payment for asphalt concrete pavement will be made at a price determined by multiplying the contract
price by the material pay factor. The material pay factor is calculated as follows:
PFmaterial = 1 + [(PFVolumetric - 1) + (PFPG - 1)]
where:
PFmaterial =
Material pay factor.
PFVolumetric = Pay factor for asphalt concrete pavement. PFVolumetric is the lowest single pay
factor determined for asphalt content, density, or aggregate gradation.
PFPG =
Pay factor for asphalt binder. The PFPG formula is as follows:
PFPG = (PF1 + PF2 + PF3 + ….PFn) / n
299
Section 402
where:
PF# = For each sample, the lowest pay factor determined from any test in
Table 401-7. If the lowest pay factor for a sample is in reject, the
sample’s pay factor is zero.
n = Number of samples tested.
If either the pay factor for the asphalt binder (PFPG) or the pay factor for asphalt concrete pavement
(PFVolumetric) is below 0.75, the lot for asphalt concrete pavement is in reject.
When the contract specifies a pavement roughness Type I, Type II or Type III, a separate pay
adjustment will be made for pavement roughness calculated as follows:
Type I, Type II or Type III Pay Adjustment = (RF)(PFrough - 1.00)(L) - (LRPR)
where:
PFrough =
Pay factor from Tables 401-3, 401-4, or 401-5.
L =
Total project length in lane miles (lane kilometers) of traveled way as specified in
the contract.
LRPR =
Localized roughness pay reduction from Table 401-6.
RF =
Roughness factor: 40,000 U.S. Customary (24,800 Metric).
300
Section 402
Table 402-3
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Method
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source
Asphalt
Measured and
Aggregate
Subsection
1 per
Source of
Yes
Before
Not required
concrete
tested for
quality
703.07
type &
material
producing
when using
aggregate
conformance
source
Government-
(703.07)
(106.04 & 105)
of material
provided
source
Asphalt binder
Measured and
Quality
AASHTO
"
Asphalt
"
"
(702.01)
tested for
M 320
supplier
conformance
or
(106.04)
mixing plant
Asphalt
Process
Gradation
AASHTO
2 per
Crusher belt
No
24
Not required
concrete
control
T 27& T 11
day per
(during
hours
when using
aggregate
(153.03)
stockpile
production)
a pre-crushed
(703.07)
commercial
source
301
Section 402
Table 402-3 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Mix Design
Asphalt
Measured and
Gradation
AASHTO
1 per
Stockpiles
Yes
30 days
concrete
tested for
T 27 & T 11
submitted
before
mixture
conformance
mix design
paving
(106.04)
RAP asphalt
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
binder content
T 308
RAP asphalt
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
Dry
gradation
T 30
gradation,
no binder
removed
Bulk specific
AASHTO
"
"
"
gravity of
T 84 & T 85
aggregate
(coarse & fine)
VMA
AASHTO
"
"
"
R 35
VFA
"
"
"
"
Air voids
AASHTO
T 269
Hveem
AASHTO
"
"
"
Required
S-value
T 246 & T 247
only for
Hveem mix
Marshall
AASHTO
"
"
"
Required
stability
T 245
only for
& flow
Marshall
mix
Tensile
AASHTO
"
"
"
strength ratio
T 283
302
Section 402
Table 402-3 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production Start-up (control strip)
Asphalt
Statistical
Gradation:
AASHTO
3
Behind the
Yes
6
concrete
(106.05)
T 30
minimum
paver
hours
pavement
½ in (12.5 mm)
I
before
compaction
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
I
No. 30 (600 μm)
I
No. 200 (75μm)
I
Other specified
II
sieves
Asphalt
I
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
content (1)
T 308
Density (2)
I
AASHTO
5
In-place
"
24
Deliver
T 166
minimum
after
hours
cores to
compacting
CO after
determining
specific
gravity and
compaction
303
Section 402
Table 402-3 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production Start-up (control strip)
Asphalt
Measured and
Maximum
AASHTO
3
Behind the
Yes
24
concrete
tested for
specific gravity(4)
T 209
minimum
paver
hours
pavement
conformance
before
(106.04)
compaction
Mix
First load
Hauling
No
Upon
temperature
& as
vehicle
completion
determined
before
of test
by the CO
dumping or
thereafter
windrow
before pickup
Process
Density
ASTM
5
At core
No
24
See
control
D2950
minimum
location
hours
Subsection
(153.03)
before coring
402.12
304

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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