STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 7

 

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 7

 

 

Section 305
Table 305-2
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Mix Design
Full depth
Measured and
All
-
Subsection
1 per
Existing
Yes
Minimum
-
reclamation
tested for
305.03
submitted
roadway
30 days
(FDR) with
conformance
mix design
before
cement
(106.04)
production
mixture
Production Start-up (control strip)
FDR with
Measured and
Gradation
AASHTO
3
Behind
No
Upon
Minus
cement
tested for
T 27
minimum
reclaimer
Completion
2-inch
material
conformance
before
of test
(50-mm)
(106.04)
compaction
sieve
requirement
only
Moisture-
-
AASHTO
1
"
Yes
"
Minimum
density
T 134
minimum
4 points
(max density)
per proctor
Moisture
-
AASHTO
3
In-place
No
"
content
T 255
minimum
after
(in-place)
compaction
Density
AASHTO
Subsection
"
"
"
T 310
305.05(b)
or other
approved
methods
225
Section 305
Table 305-2 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production
FDR with
Measured and
Moisture-
-
AASHTO
1 per
Behind
Yes
Before
Minimum
cement
tested for
density
T 134
change
reclaimer
using in
4 points
material
conformance
(maximum
of material
before
work
per proctor
(106.04)
density)
compaction
Density
-
AASHTO
1 per
In-place
No
End of
-
T 310
2,000 yd2
after
shift
or other
(1,700 m2)
compaction
approved
procedures
Process
Gradation
-
AASHTO
Minimum
Behind
"
Upon
Monitor percent
control
T 27
1 per
reclaimer
completion
passing the
(153.03)
3500 yd2
before
of test
2-inch (50-mm)
(3000 m2)
compaction
and
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
sieves
Moisture
-
AASHTO
"
In-place
"
content
T 255 or
after
(in-place)
other approved
compaction
methods
Unconfined
-
Table
Minimum
Behind
"
7
7-day
compression
305-1
1 per
reclaimer
days
cure
strength
day
before
(7-day)
compaction
Finished Product
FDR with
Measured and
Surface
-
Subsection
Determined
Completed
No
Before
cement
tested for
tolerance
301.06
by the CO
FDR surface
placement
material
conformance
& grade
of next
(106.04)
layer or as
requested
226
Section 306
Section 306. — FULL DEPTH RECLAMATION WITH ASPHALT
Description
306.01 This work consists of pulverizing an existing pavement and base in-place, adding crushed
aggregate if required, mixing this material with emulsified asphalt or foamed asphalt and shaping and
compacting the mix to produce a stabilized base. The mixture may also include cement or fly ash.
Emulsified asphalt grade is designated according to AASHTO M 140, AASHTO M 208, or Subsection
702.02.
Asphalt binder grade is designated according to AASHTO M 226 or AASHTO M 320.
Material
306.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsections:
Asphalt binder
702.01
Crushed aggregate
703.06
Emulsified asphalt
702.02
Fly ash, Class C
725.04(a)
Fog seal
406
Portland cement
701.01(a)
Water
725.01
(c)
Construction Requirements
306.03 Proportioning. Collect representative samples of the pavement and aggregate base from the
project. Replace removed pavement with asphalt concrete conforming to Subsection 403.02(b) or
approved cold patch material.
Design a mix according to FLH T 522 conforming to the requirements of Table 306-1. When using
foamed asphalt, supply a binder conforming to the requirements of Table 306-2. Submit the mix design
and the following for approval 30 days before production:
(a) Optimum emulsified or foamed asphalt binder content based on total mass of mixture;
(b) Source and grade of emulsified or foamed asphalt binder;
(c) Optimum moisture content for compaction based on total mass of mixture;
(d) Recommended cement or fly ash content;
(e) Maximum wet and dry density for the mixture at the recommended proportions of binder, water,
and cement or fly ash according to AASHTO T 180, Method D;
(f) Gradation and proportion of imported crushed aggregate;
(g) Results of tests and applicable graphs;
227
Section 306
(h) A representative 350-pound (160-kilogram) sample of pavement, base, and imported crushed
aggregate, if requested;
(i) Three 1-gallon (4 liter) samples of emulsified or asphalt binder, if requested;
(j) 15-pound (7-kilogram) sample of Portland cement or fly ash, if requested; and
(k) Optimum percent of injection water for foaming based on total mass of asphalt binder (when using
foamed asphalt for the binder).
Begin production only after the mix design is approved. Submit a new mix design if there is a change in a
material source.
Table 306-1
Asphalt Stabilized Base Course Mix Design Requirements
Binder type
Material or Property
Requirement
Emulsified asphalt
Indirect tensile strength, AASHTO T 283 (1)
and foamed asphalt
Tensile strength wet
25 psi (170 kPa) minimum
Tensile strength ratio (TSR)
60% minimum
(1) Follow the modified AASHTO T 283 procedures as indicated in FLH T 522.
Table 306-2
Foamed Asphalt Binder Property Requirements
Property
Requirement
Foamed asphalt expansion characteristics at 320, 338, & 356 °F (160, 170, & 180 °C)(1)
Asphalt expansion ratio
10 minimum
Half-life of foamed expansion
6 seconds minimum
(1) See FLH T 522 for test procedures.
306.04 General. See Subsection 304.03.
306.05 Production Start-Up Procedures.
(a) Preparatory phase meeting. Conduct a pre-stabilization preparatory phase meeting at least
7 days before the start of stabilizing operations according to Subsection 153.04(a).
(b) Control strip. Provide 7 days notice before beginning production.
On the first day of production, stabilize a 1000-foot (300-meter) long control strip, one-lane wide,
and at the designated lift thickness. Construct the control strip on the project at an approved location.
Construct the control strip using the construction procedures intended for the entire project. Cease
production after construction of the control strip until the stabilized base layer and the control strip
are evaluated and verified for approval.
228
Section 306
After the reclaimer has pulverized and mixed one reclaimer width for 100 feet (30-meter) of the
control strip and before compaction, dig a test pit to evaluate the mixing and distribution of the
asphalt. If homogeneous mixing is not occurring, modify the process and pulverize, mix, and verify
another 100 feet (30-meter). Continue until acceptable mixing and distribution of asphalt is obtained.
Take three random loose mix samples within the control strip and verify that 100 percent passes the
2-inch (50-millimeter) sieve.
Take nuclear gauge density readings behind each roller pass according to AASHTO T 310 to
determine the roller pattern necessary to achieve at least 97 percent of the maximum wet density.
Determine the maximum wet density by sampling processed material from behind the reclaimer
(before compaction) and testing the material according to AASHTO T 180, Method D.
Repeat the control strip process until an acceptable control strip is produced. See Subsection 106.01
for the disposition of material in unacceptable control strips. Accepted control strips may remain in
place and will be accepted and measured as a part of the completed base.
(c) Control strip verification. The control strip is verified when the specified density, gradation,
and moisture content is obtained. Full production may begin once control strip is verified. Provide
the CO with the reclaimer speed, emulsified or foamed asphalt application temperature, and asphalt
and water line pressures used on the verified control strip.
Use these start-up procedures when changing construction procedures, when resuming production after a
termination of production due to unsatisfactory quality according to Subsection 106.04, or the beginning
of a new construction season.
306.06 Adding Crushed Aggregate. See Subsection 304.04.
306.07 Pulverizing and Mixing.
(a) When using emulsified or foamed asphalt furnish a road reclaimer that is:
(1) Self-propelled;
(2) Specifically manufactured for in-place reclamation;
(3) Capable of reducing the existing material to the required size;
(4) Equipped with at least an 8-foot (2.4-meter) cutting width;
(5) Equipped with standard automatic depth controls adjustable in increments of
½ inch
(13 millimeters);
(6) Equipped with independent asphalt application nozzles capable of being turned off
individually and verified open and working from within the operator cabin; and
(7) Equipped with an asphalt and water application control system including full width spray
bars and positive displacement pumps automatically interlocked to the machine speed.
(b) In addition to the above, when using foamed asphalt furnish a road reclaimer that is:
(1) Equipped with an exterior test nozzle to verify proper foaming action;
229
Section 306
(2) Equipped with individual expansion chambers for each nozzle where asphalt binder and
water is injected under pressure through individual orifices for atomization and foam expansion;
(3) Equipped with an internal electric heat cleaning system to self-clean foaming nozzles;
(4) Equipped with maximum nozzle spacing of 6 inches (150 millimeters); and
(5) Equipped with a compressor capable of providing at least 45 pounds per square inch
(310 kilopascals) of pressure.
Use the reclaimer to pulverize the existing roadway material in-place until 100 percent passes the 2-inch
(50-millimeter) sieve. Reprocess or remove larger particles and dispose of them according to Subsection
203.05.
306.08 Applying Cement or Fly Ash. Do not apply cement or fly ash when conditions allow for
excessive loss to blowing. Use a metered mechanical spreader to uniformly apply cement or fly ash on
the roadway surface. Use canvas (or similar) skirts around the spreader box to minimize dust.
306.09 Applying Asphalt.
(a) Requirements for emulsified and foamed asphalt. Apply emulsified or foamed asphalt when
the surface and air temperatures in the shade are at least 50 ºF (10 ºC). Do not begin applying
emulsified asphalt during periods of fog, rain, or when temperatures below 35 °F (1.7 °C) are
anticipated within 48 hours.
Automatically adjust the asphalt and water flow based the reclaimer speed and recycled material
mass for the approved mix design. Maintain the asphalt temperature within the range recommended
by the supplier.
Complete pulverizing and mixing operations in continuous one lane-width segments up to ½ mile
(0.8 kilometers) in length. Mix the pulverized roadway material with emulsified asphalt binder, other
additives, and the necessary mixing water for optimum dispersion. If two passes are used, shape and
compact the reclaimed material with a steel drum roller after the first pass to provide depth control
for the second pass of the reclaimer. Add the required quantity of emulsified or foamed asphalt
during the final pass of the reclaimer.
Verify that the emulsified or foamed asphalt is evenly dispersed and coating the pulverized material.
Dig test pits within the mix at least every ¼ mile (0.4 kilometers) and observe the distribution of the
emulsified or foamed asphalt in each pit.
(b) Additional requirements for foamed asphalt. Do not use foamed asphalt with an application
temperature below 320 °F (160 °C).
Do not apply foamed asphalt on previously treated foamed asphalt areas.
306.10 Compacting and Finishing. Compact and finish each segment before beginning mixing
operations on the next segment. Maintain the moisture content of the mixture within 2 percent of
optimum.
230
Section 306
Compact the processed material uniformly to at least 97 percent of the maximum wet density as
determined from the control strip. If material changes, reestablish the maximum wet density according
to Subsection 306.05(b). Determine the in-place density according to AASHTO T 310.
Use at least three rollers: primary, secondary, and finish rollers sized and configured to achieve the
required compaction and finish. Operate rollers according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.
Compact the processed material full width by rolling the material between the reclaimer wheel paths
first then from the sides to the center, parallel to the centerline of the road. Along curbs, headers, walls,
and places not accessible to the roller, compact the material with approved tampers or compactors.
Shape and grade the mixture to the correct lines, grades, and cross-section. Finish the compacted surface
according to Subsection 301.06 to produce a surface that is smooth, dense, and free of compaction
planes, ridges, or loose material. Clean the compacted surface of loose material, dirt, or other deleterious
material by approved methods. Do not leave uncompleted segments at the end of the work day.
306.11 Construction Joints.
(a) Longitudinal joints. Make longitudinal joints coincide with each change in cross-slope,
regardless of the overlap width. Provide a minimum longitudinal overlap of
6 inches
(150 millimeters).
(b) Transverse joints. After full depth reclamation operations stop, ensure continuity across
transverse joints by cutting back into the completed work for a distance recommended by the
manufacturer of the reclaimer.
306.12 Curing and Maintenance.
(a) Emulsified asphalt. Keep traffic and equipment off the stabilized base for at least 1 hour after
completing compaction. Do not allow traffic and construction equipment on the stabilized base until
it is sufficiently stable to withstand marring and permanent deformation.
(b) Foamed asphalt. Before opening the stabilized base to traffic and after completing compaction,
moisten the surface and roll with a pneumatic-tire roller to create a tight and closed surface.
Continue to keep the surface moist until placement of the next course or final surface.
If required, place a fog seal on the surface of the stabilized base after final compaction according to
Section 406.
Route hauling and other construction equipment uniformly over the full width of the recycled surface to
minimize non-uniform compaction.
Maintain the emulsified asphalt stabilized layer to the correct line, grade, and cross-section until
placement of the next course or final riding surface. If the stabilized layer loses stability, density, or finish
before placement of the next course, reprocess and recompact as necessary to restore the strength of the
damaged material.
Overlay the stabilized base material within 14 days after compacting.
231
Section 306
306.13 Acceptance. See Table 306-3 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Crushed aggregate will be evaluated under Subsection 106.03.
Cement or fly ash will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Emulsified and foamed asphalt will be evaluated under Subsections 106.03, 106.04, and Table 306-1.
Blotter material will be evaluated under Subsection 106.03.
Construction of full depth reclamation with asphalt will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.04.
Measurement
306.14 Measure the Section 306 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Measure crushed aggregate under Section 302.
Measure removal and disposal of unsuitable material under Sections 203 and 204.
Measure fog seal under Section 406.
Payment
306.15 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
306 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in
this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
232
Section 306
Table 306-3
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source
Emulsified
Measured and
Quality
Subsection
1 per
Asphalt
Yes
Minimum
asphalt
tested for
702.02
type &
supplier
30 days
conformance
source
before
(106.04)
of material
production
Asphalt
"
"
Subsection
"
"
"
"
binder
702.01
(foamed)
&
Table
306-2
Mix Design
Full depth
Measured and
All
Subsection
1 per
Existing
Yes
Minimum
reclamation
tested for
306.03
submitted
roadway
30 days
(FDR) with
conformance
&
mix design
before
asphalt
(106.04)
FLH T 522
production
mixture
233
Section 306
Table 306-3 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production Start-up (control strip)
Asphalt
Measured and
Binder
Subsection
1
Temperature
No
Upon
binder
tested for
temperature
306.09
minimum
gauge(3)
completing
(foamed)
conformance
test
(106.04)
Half-life &
Table 306-2
"
Test nozzle
"
"
expansion ratio
&
on reclaimer
FLH T 522
FDR with
Measured and
Gradation
AASHTO
3
Behind
No
"
Minus 2-inch
asphalt
tested for
T 27
minimum
reclaimer
(50-mm)
material
conformance
before
sieve
(106.04)
compaction
requirement
only
Moisture-density
AASHTO
1
"
"
"
(wet density)(1)
T 180,
minimum
Method D
Moisture
-
AASHTO
3
In-place
"
content
T 255
minimum
after
(in-place)
compaction
Density
AASHTO
"
In-place
"
"
Report
T 310
after
wet density
compaction
Visual
Homogeneous
Subsection
Subsection
Behind
"
"
inspection
mixing
306.05(b)
306.05(b)
reclaimer
(106.02)
before
compaction
234
Section 306
Table 306-3 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production
FDR
Measured and
Moisture-
AASHTO
1 per
Behind
No
Before
asphalt
tested for
density
T 180,
change in
reclaimer
using in
material
conformance
(wet density)(1)
Method D
material
before
work
(106.04)
compaction
Density
AASHTO
1 per
In-place
"
End of
Report
T 310
2000 yd2
after
shift
wet
(1700 m2)
compaction
density
Process
Gradation
AASHTO
Minimum
Behind
No
Upon
control
T 27
1 per
reclaimer
completion
(153.03)
3500 yd2
before
of test
(3000 m2)
compaction
Moisture
AASHTO
1 per
"
"
"
content
T 255
lane mile
(lane
kilometer)
Homogeneous
Subsection
Minimum
"
"
"
mixing
306.05(b)
1 per
3500 yd2
(3000 m2)
Binder
Calculation
Minimum
"
"
content
(yield rate)
1 per
of mix
tank load
Indirect
AASHTO
1 per
"
"
4
tensile
T 283
15000 yd2
days
strength(2)
(as modified
(12,540 m2)
by FLH T 522)
235
Section 306
Table 306-3 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production (continued)
Asphalt
Process
Binder
Subsection
1 per
Temperature
No
Upon
binder
control
temperature
306.09
tank load
gauge(3)
completing
(foamed)
(153.03)
test
Half-life &
Table 306-2
"
Test nozzle
"
"
expansion
&
on reclaimer
ratio
FLH T 522
Finished Product
FDR with
Measured and
Surface
-
Subsection
Determined
Completed
No
Before
asphalt
tested for
tolerance
301.06
by the CO
FDR surface
placement
material
conformance
& grade
of next
(106.04)
layer or as
requested
(1) At least 5 points per proctor.
(2) Immediately after collecting sample, transport to a field material laboratory and compact for indirect tensile strength testing.
(3) Measure asphalt binder temperature with a calibrated thermometer.
236
Section 307. — RESERVED
Section 308. — RESERVED
237
Section 309
Section 309. — EMULSIFIED ASPHALT-TREATED BASE COURSE
Description
309.01 This work consists of constructing an emulsified asphalt-treated base course on a prepared surface.
Base aggregate grading is designated according to Table 703-2.
Material
309.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Base course aggregate
703.05
Emulsified asphalt
702.02
Water
725.01(c)
Construction Requirements
309.03 General. Prepare the surface on which the emulsified asphalt-treated aggregate base course is
placed according to Section 204 or 303 as applicable.
Submit at least 14 days before incorporating the aggregate into the work:
(a) A proposed target values within the gradation ranges shown in Table 703-2 for the required
grading; and
(b) A representative 300-pound (150-kilogram) aggregate sample.
End placement and resubmit new target values if the calculated mean value for a tested sieve differs from
the target value by more than the allowable deviation for that sieve.
309.04 Mixing and Spreading. Use a stationary pugmill with weighing, volumetric, or other gauging
equipment capable of controlling the material entering the mixer. Interlock the controls for the aggregate
feed with the emulsified asphalt and water controls to ensure uniform introduction of material into the
mixer.
Determine the optimum moisture content of the mixture according to AASHTO T 180, Method D. Add
aggregate and water to the mixer; then add 2 percent emulsified asphalt by mass of aggregate. Adjust the
total liquid content (emulsified asphalt and water) to within 1 percent of the optimum moisture content at
the time of compaction. Mix until particles are uniformly coated.
Place the treated aggregate after mixing. Spread the mixture on the prepared surface in a uniform layer.
Shape the mixture to the required line, grade, and cross-section. Route hauling equipment uniformly over
the full width of the surface to minimize rutting or uneven compaction.
309.05 Compacting. Compact the mixture according to Subsection 301.05.
309.06 Surface Tolerance. Finish the surface according to Subsection 301.06.
238
Section 309
309.07 Maintenance. Maintain the emulsified asphalt-treated aggregate base course according to
Subsection 301.07.
309.08 Acceptance. See Table 309-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements; including the
category for quality characteristics.
Emulsified asphalt will be evaluated under Subsection 106.03.
Aggregate gradation, SE/P200
(SE/P75) Index
(SEP), and fractured faces will be evaluated under
Subsection 106.05.
(a) Aggregate gradation. The upper and lower specification limits are equal to the calculated mean
of all test results plus or minus the allowable deviations shown in Table 703-2, except as follows:
(1) If the calculated mean value for a tested sieve exceeds the maximum gradation value shown
in Table 703-2, the upper specification is equal to the maximum gradation value plus the
allowable deviation, and the lower specification is equal to the maximum gradation value minus
the allowable deviation.
(2) If the calculated mean value for a tested sieve is less than the minimum gradation value
shown in Table 703-2, the upper specification is equal to the minimum gradation value plus the
allowable deviation and the lower specification is equal to the minimum gradation value minus
the allowable deviation.
(b) SEP. See Table 309-1, Note (2). The lower specification limit is 1.000.
(c) Fractured faces. The lower specification limit is 50 percent.
Other aggregate quality properties will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Construction of emulsified asphalt-treated base course will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.04.
Measurement
309.09 Measure the Section 309 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring emulsified asphalt-treated aggregate base by the cubic yard (cubic meter), measure in the
hauling vehicle.
When measuring emulsified asphalt-treated aggregate base by the square yard (square meter), measure the
length horizontally along the centerline of the roadway. Measure the width horizontally to include the top
of emulsified asphalt-treated aggregate base width and allowable widening.
Payment
309.10 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement adjusted
according to Subsection 106.05 for the Section 309 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be
full compensation for the work prescribed in this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
239
Section 309
Table 309-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source
Aggregate
Measured and
LA abrasion
AASHTO
1 per
Source of
Yes
Before
Not required
quality
tested for
(coarse)
T 96
rock type
material
using
when using
(703.05)
conformance
& not less
in work
Government-
(106.04 & 105)
than 5 per
provided
material source(1)
sources
Soundness
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
"
using
T 104
sodium sulfate
Aggregate base,
Process
Gradation
AASHTO
Minimum
Crusher
No
24
"
Grading
control
T 11 & T27
2 per
belt
hours
C, D, & E
(153.03)
day per stockpile
(703.05)
Fractured faces
ASTM
"
"
"
"
"
D5821
240
Section 309
Table 309-1 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production
Aggregate base,
Measured and
Moisture-
AASHTO
1 per
Stockpile or
Yes
Before
Grading C, D, & E
tested for
density
T 180,
type &
Production
using in
conformance
(max density)
Method D (3)
source
output
work
(106.04)
of material
Emulsified
Statistical
Gradation
AASHTO
1 per
In-place,
Yes
4
asphalt-treated
(106.05)
T 30
1000 tons
after
hours
⅜ inch
I
aggregate base,
(900 metric tons)
compaction
(9.5 mm)
Grading
No. 4
I
C, D, & E
(4.75 mm)
(703.05)
No. 40
II
(425 µm)
No. 200
(75 µm)
Fractured
I
ASTM
"
"
"
faces
D5821
Sand
AASHTO T 176,
"
Belt feed
"
"
equivalent
Alternate
before
Method No. 2,
adding
Reference
emulsified
Method
asphalt
SEP
I
See Note (2)
No
Emulsified
Measured and
Density
AASHTO
1 per
In-place,
No
Before
asphalt-treated
tested for
T 310 or
500 tons
after
placing next
aggregate base,
conformance
other approved
(450 metric tons),
compaction
layer
Grading C, D, & E
(106.04)
procedures
but not less than
1 per layer
241
Section 309
Table 309-1 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Finished Product
Emulsified
Measured and
Surface
-
Subsection
Determined
Completed
No
Before
asphalt-treated
tested for
tolerance
301.06
by the CO
base surface
placement of
aggregate base
conformance
& grade
next layer or
(106.04)
as requested
(1) Submit at least five reports, but not less than one report per rock type for each source. Submit reports dated within 1 year of intended use and include
rock type and sample location. Obtain samples representative of aggregates being furnished.
(2) SEP (SE/P200 (SE/P75) Index) is a measure of a material’s ability to perform based on the quality and quantity of fines present. Quality is represented by
the sand equivalent (SE) and quantity is represented by the percent passing the No. 200 (75-µm) sieve (P200 (75)). SEP is computed as follows:
For SE 29, SEP = SE/(P200 (75) + 25) and for SE < 29, SEP = (SE + 4)/(SE + P200 (75)).
Where: SE = Plastic fines in graded aggregates and soils by using the sand equivalent test. See AASHTO T 176, Alternate Method No.2, Reference
Method.
P200 (75) = Material finer than the No. 200 (75 µm) sieve in mineral aggregates by washing. See AASHTO T 11.
(3) At least 5 points per proctor.
242
Section 310
Section 310. — COLD IN-PLACE RECYCLED ASPHALT BASE COURSE
Description
310.01 This work consists of milling an existing asphalt pavement, mixing the milled material with
emulsified asphalt and lime, relaying the material in a one-pass operation, and compacting the material to
produce a recycled asphalt base.
Cold in-place recycled asphalt base course compaction is designated Type A or B according to
Subsection 310.09(b).
Emulsified asphalt grade is designated according to AASHTO M 140 or AASHTO M 208.
Material
310.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsections:
Emulsified asphalt
702.02
Fog seal
406
Lime
725.03(c)
Water
725.01(c)
Construction Requirements
310.03 Composition of Mix (JMF). Collect representative samples of the existing pavement to be milled.
Replace removed pavement with asphalt concrete conforming to Subsection 403.02(b) or approved cold
patch material.
Design a mix according to FLH T 524 and Table 310-1 mix design parameters. Submit the JMF and the
following for approval 30 days before production:
(a) Optimum emulsified asphalt binder content based on total mass of mixture;
(b) Source and grade of emulsified asphalt binder;
(c) Optimum moisture content for dispersion and compaction based on total mass of mixture;
(d) Lime content;
(e) Maximum density for the mixture;
(f) Bulk specific gravity for the mixture;
(g) Results of tests and applicable charts and graphs;
(h) A representative 300-pound (135-kilogram) sample of pavement, if requested;
(i) Three, 1-gallon (4 liter) samples of emulsified asphalt binder, if requested; and
243
Section 310
(j) 15-pound (7 kilogram) sample of lime, if requested.
Begin production only after the mix design is approved. Submit a new mix design if there is a change in a
material source.
Table 310-1
Cold In-Place Recycled Asphalt Base Course Mix Design Parameter
Material or Property
Requirement
Indirect tensile strength, AASHTO T 283 (1)
Tensile strength dry
70 psi (480 kPa) minimum
Tensile strength ratio (TSR)
70% minimum
Raveling test, ASTM D7196, 4 hour cure at 50 °F (10 °C),
50% humidity(2)
Average mass loss
5% maximum
(1) Follow the modified AASHTO T 283 procedures as indicated in FLH T 524.
(2) Use the listed testing conditions for the raveling test, unless otherwise directed by the CO.
310.04 General. See Subsection 304.03.
Clear, grub, and remove vegetation and debris within 24 inches (600 millimeters) of the pavement to be
recycled according to Section 201. Clean the pavement and edge of pavement of loose material, dirt,
vegetation, and other deleterious material.
310.05 Equipment. Furnish a self-propelled recycling train with the following major units:
(a) Pavement milling machine. Provide the following:
(1) Automatic depth controls to maintain the cutting depth to within plus or minus ¼ inch
(6 millimeters);
(2) Positive means cross slope elevation control;
(3) Capability of milling the existing asphalt pavement material to the required depth in a single
path; and
(4) 12.5 feet (3.8 meters) minimum cutter width.
(b) Crushing unit. Capable of screening and crushing material to the required size before mixing with
emulsified asphalt.
(c) Pugmill and proportioning equipment. Provide the following:
(1) Capable of continuously mixing the milled material with emulsified asphalt, water, lime, and
other additives to produce a uniform and homogenous mixture;
(2) Belt scale for continuous weighing of milled and sized material with an interlocked computer
controlled liquid metering device capable of automatically adjusting the flow of asphalt emulsion
to the mass of milled material coming into the mixer;
(3) Proportioning equipment capable of applying emulsified asphalt and water to within plus or
minus 0.2 percent of the required quantity by mass of milled material;
244
Section 310
(4) Proportioning equipment with a digital meter for monitoring the flow rate and total milled
material, emulsified asphalt, and water applied; and
(5) Capable of placing the mixture in a windrow without segregation.
(d) Paver. Provide a paver conforming to Subsection 401.05 that is capable of picking up the entire
windrow and feeding it into the paver hopper. Do not heat the screed.
(e) Rollers. Provide double-drum steel wheel and pneumatic-tire rollers in sufficient quantity and size
to obtain the required density. Provide pneumatic-tire rollers weighing a minimum 30 tons (27 metric
tons).
310.06 Weather Limitations. Do not begin work when fog, showers, rain, frost, temperatures below 35 ºF
(2 °C) are anticipated within 24 hours.
Place cold in-place recycled asphalt base on a dry, unfrozen surface when the air temperature in the shade
and the road surface temperature are 50 ºF (10 °C) and rising.
310.07 Production Start-Up Procedures.
(a) Preparatory phase meeting. Conduct a pre-recycling preparatory phase meeting at least 7 days
before the start of recycling operations according to Subsection 153.04(a).
(b) Control strip. Provide 7 days notice before beginning production.
Construct the control strip on the project at an approved location. Recycle a 1500-foot (450-meter)
long control strip, one-lane wide, and at the designated lift thickness. Use the construction
procedures intended for the entire project. Cease production after construction of the control strip
until the recycled base layer and the control strip are evaluated and verified for acceptance.
Acquire three random samples of milled material from the control strip after the material has passed
through the crushing unit, but before emulsified asphalt is added for Type A compaction. Verify that
100 percent passes the 1½-inch (37.5-millimeter) sieve. Take density readings behind each roller
pass to determine the roller pattern necessary to achieve the maximum in-place density (break point
of compaction curve) according to ASTM D2950. Use the bulk specific gravity value from the mix
design as a benchmark for evaluating the maximum in-place density achieved.
Repeat the control strip process until an acceptable control strip is produced. See Subsection 106.01
for the disposition of material in unacceptable control strips. Accepted control strips may remain in
place and will be measured as a part of the completed base course.
Full production may begin when a control strip is verified. Provide the CO with the maximum
in-place density achieved (Type A compaction), application rates of the emulsified asphalt, water,
and other additives used on the accepted control strip.
Use these start-up procedures when changing construction procedures, when resuming production after a
termination of production due to unsatisfactory quality according to Subsection 106.04 or the beginning
of a new construction season.
310.08 Pavement Recycling and Mixing. Mill the existing pavement to the required depth and width.
Reduce oversize particles to a maximum size of 1½ inch (37.5 millimeters).
245
Section 310
When lime is required at the milling head or in the pugmill, incorporate lime slurry to within plus or minus
10 percent of the approved application rate. Produce the lime slurry using quicklime or hydrated lime and
water in a slurry production unit equipped with scales and meters accurate to within 0.5 percent by mass.
Agitate the transport and feed tanks to provide a consistent and pumpable lime slurry.
Combine milled material with emulsified asphalt, water, and lime at the approved application rates to
produce a homogenous and uniformly-coated mixture. Maintain the emulsified asphalt temperature
within the range recommended by the supplier.
Do not disturb underlying material. Synchronize the recycling rate to allow for continuous operation of
recycling train equipment.
Continuously monitor and evaluate the milling, mixing, and placing operations to assure optimum
quality of the recycled asphalt base course. Adjust application rates in coordination with the CO based
upon material variations.
310.09 Spreading, Compacting, and Finishing.
(a) Spreading. Spread, and finish the recycled mix to the required line, grade, and elevation.
(b) Compacting. Begin compaction within 30 minutes of spreading. Use pneumatic-tire rollers until
no displacement is observed. Use steel-wheel rollers, either in static or low-amplitude vibratory mode,
to achieve final density and eliminate pneumatic-tire roller marks. Do not park or idle rollers on
uncompacted material. Compact using the designated type:
(1) Type A compaction. Use roller patterns established during the control strip. Compact the
recycled mix to obtain a minimum density of 97 percent of the control strip density. Measure
in-place density according to ASTM D2950. If an area fails to meet required density, rework and
recompact the area.
If applications rates of the emulsified asphalt from the approved mix design are changed by more
than ±0.2 percent by mass of milled material, or if other material conditions distinctly change,
reestablish roller pattern according to Subsection 310.07(b).
(2) Type B compaction. Compact the recycled mix using the following equipment, sequence,
and number of roller passes:
(a) Four to six roller passes with a double drum, vibratory roller having a minimum mass of
5.5 tons (5 metric tons) and equipped with frequency and amplitude controls.
(b) Four to six roller passes with a pneumatic-tire roller having a minimum mass of
2000 pounds (910 kilograms) per wheel and a contact pressure of 80 pounds per square inch
(550 kilopascals).
(c) Two to four roller passes with a static steel-wheel roller with a minimum pressure of
250 pounds per square inch (1730 kilopascals).
Compact the material with approved tampers or compactors along curbs, headers, walls, and
places not accessible to the roller.
246
Section 310
(c) Finishing. Produce a surface that is smooth, dense, and free of ruts, ridges, and loose material.
Measure pavement surface according to Subsection 403.11, except defective areas are deviations
between the surface and the bottom of the straightedge in excess of ⅜ inches (10 millimeters),
measured between a two contacts of the straightedge, or at the end of the straightedge.
(d) Fog seal. Place a fog seal on the surface of the recycled asphalt base. Use emulsified asphalt
diluted to 50 percent by volume with water and apply it at a rate of 0.05 to 0.15 gallons per square yard
(0.25 to 0.70 liters per square meter). When necessary, place blotter according to Section 411.
310.10 Construction Joints.
(a) Longitudinal joints. Make longitudinal joints coincide with each change in cross-slope. Provide a
minimum longitudinal overlap of 4 inches (100 millimeters).
(b) Transverse joints. At the beginning of each day’s recycling operations or after extended work
stoppages, ensure continuity across transverse joints by cutting back into the completed work for a
distance recommended by the manufacturer of the cold recycling equipment.
310.11 Curing and Maintenance. Keep traffic and construction equipment off of the recycled asphalt
base for at least 2 hours after completing compaction and until it is sufficiently stable to withstand
raveling, marring, and permanent deformation. Route hauling and other construction equipment uniformly
over the full width of the recycled asphalt base to minimize non-uniform compaction.
Maintain the recycled asphalt base to the correct line, grade, and cross-section. Provide additional
rolling with a steel wheel roller to recompact and maintain a dense surface. Use a power broom to
remove loose particles. If the recycled asphalt base loses stability, density, or finish, reprocess and
recompact as necessary to restore the strength of the damaged material.
Place the next course or final surface when the moisture content of the recycled asphalt base is reduced
to 2.5 percent or less according to AASHTO T 255, but within 14 days after recycling regardless of
moisture content.
310.12 Acceptance. See Table 310-2 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Emulsified asphalt binder will be evaluated under Subsections 106.03 and 106.04.
Lime will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Blotter material will be evaluated under Subsection 106.03.
Construction of the cold in-place recycled asphalt base course will be evaluated under Subsections
106.02 and 106.04. Type A compaction will be evaluated under Subsection 106.04.
Pavement smoothness will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
310.13 Measure the Section 310 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Measure fog seal under Section 406.
247
Section 310
Payment
310.14 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
310 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in
this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
248
Section 310
Table 310-2
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source
Asphalt
Measured and
Quality
-
AASHTO
1 per
Asphalt
Yes
Minimum
-
binder
tested for
M 140,
type and
supplier
30 days
conformance
AASHTO
source
before
(106.04)
M 208, &
of material
production
Subsection
702.02
Design
Emulsified
Measured and
All
-
Subsection
1 per
Existing
Yes
Minimum
For
asphalt mix
tested for
310.03 &
submitted
roadway
30 days
Type A
design
conformance
FLH T 524
mix design
before
compaction
(106.04)
production
only
Production Start-up (control strip)
Emulsified
Measured and
Gradation
-
AASHTO
3
Before
No
Upon
-
asphalt
tested for
T 27
minimum
emulsion
completing
mixture
conformance
addition
test
(106.04)
Bulk specific
-
FLH T 524
1
Loose mix
"
For
gravity
minimum
in windrow
Type A
(density)
compaction
only
Density
-
ASTM
Subsection
In-place
"
"
"
D2950 &
310.07(b)
after
Subsection
compaction
310.07(b)
Depth of cut
-
-
3
Both ends
"
"
-
minimum
of milling
drum
249
Section 310
Table 310-2 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production
Emulsified
Measured and
Bulk specific
-
FLH
1 per
Loose mix
No
Upon
For Type A
asphalt
tested for
gravity
T 524
change in
in windrow
completion
compaction only
material
conformance
(density)
material
of test
(106.04)
Density
-
ASTM
1 per
In-place after
"
End of
"
D2950 &
2000 yd2
compaction
shift
Subsection
(1700 m2)
310.07(b)
Depth of cut
-
-
1 per
Both ends of
"
"
-
500 ft
milling drum
(150 m)
Process
Gradation
-
AASHTO
Minimum
Before
No
Upon
-
control
T 27
1 per
emulsion
completion
(153.03)
3500 yd2
addition
of test
(3000 m2)
Indirect
-
AASHTO
1 per
"
"
4
"
tensile
T 283
3500 yd2
days
strength(1)
(as modified
(3000 m2)
by
FLH T 524)
Emulsified
"
Application
-
Calculation
Minimum
-
"
"
-
asphalt
rates
of yield rate,
1 per
material
Subsection
tank load
310.08
250
Section 310
Table 310-2 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Finished Product
Cold
Measured and
Surface
-
Straightedge
Continuously,
Finished
No
24
-
recycled
tested for
tolerance
measurement,
after
recycled base
hours
asphalt
conformance
Subsection
compaction
surface
base
(106.04)
310.09(c)
(1) Transport samples immediately to a field material laboratory for indirect tensile strength compaction. Compact within 1 hour of sampling.
251
Section 311
Section 311. — STABILIZED AGGREGATE SURFACE COURSE
Description
311.01 This work consists of constructing a stabilized aggregate surface course with either imported or
in-place aggregate.
Aggregate stabilization is designated as imported aggregate course or in-place aggregate course.
Aggregate grading is designated according to Table 703-3.
Material
311.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Calcium chloride flakes
725.02(b)
Surface course aggregate (imported)
703.05
Water
725.01(c)
Construction Requirements
311.03 Proportioning. Determine the proportioning quantities of aggregate, calcium chloride flakes, and
water required. Sample the imported aggregate or aggregate course before beginning stabilization
operations. Determine the maximum density and optimum moisture content according AASHTO T 180,
Method D. The CO will provide the target calcium chloride content by mass of the material at 95 percent
of the maximum density. Set target water content at the time of mixing between 2 percent below optimum
and optimum moisture content.
311.04 General. After a representative quantity of imported aggregate is produced, submit proposed
target values for the appropriate sieve sizes to the CO. Set target values for the aggregate within the
gradation ranges shown in Table 703-3. List the percent passing for sieve sizes shown in Table 703-3.
Store calcium chloride flakes in closed, weatherproof containers. Begin application or mixing operations
only when the ambient air temperature is 40 °F (4 °C) or above, and is not expected to fall below 40 °F
(4 °C) within 48 hours. Construct stabilized aggregate course when the underlying layer is dry and
unfrozen.
(a) Imported aggregate course. Prepare the underlying surface according to Subsection 303.05.
(b) In-place aggregate course. Prepare the surface according to Subsection 303.06.
311.05 Mixing and Placing.
(a) In-place mixing. When imported aggregates are used, spread aggregate on the prepared surface in
a uniform layer to the specified width.
252
Section 311
For an imported or in-place aggregate course; maintain the quantities of calcium chloride and water
content to within the following tolerances:
(1) Calcium chloride
±0.2 percent by total dry mass
(2) Water
±0.5 percent by total dry mass
Do not spread calcium chloride flakes in windy conditions that will result in loss of calcium chloride or
dusting. Do not spread more calcium chloride flakes than can be incorporated within one hour.
Spread calcium chloride flakes uniformly across the prepared aggregate surface. Use distributor or
rotary mixing equipment capable of metering and applying calcium chloride flakes and water
uniformly across the full width of the surface to be mixed. For distribution equipment, verify the
application rate by performing weight yield test panels for the first load of each distributor truck. For
rotary mixing equipment, verify the application rate by calculating yields.
Mix the calcium chloride flakes into the aggregate course with rotary mixing equipment capable of
uniformly mixing the material full depth in one pass.
Shape the aggregate course to the required cross-section after mixing is complete. Route hauling
equipment uniformly over the full width of the aggregate surface to minimize rutting or uneven
compaction.
(b) Pugmill mixing. Aggregates, calcium chloride flakes, and water may be mixed using a stationary
pugmill with weighing or metering equipment capable of controlling the material entering the mixer.
Interlock the metering controls for the aggregate feed with those of the calcium chloride flakes and
water to ensure uniform introduction of material into the mixer. Maintain the quantities of aggregate,
calcium chloride flakes, and water (based on the total dry mass) to within the following tolerances:
(1) Aggregate
±2.0 percent by total dry mass
(2) Calcium chloride
±0.2 percent by total dry mass
(3) Water
±0.5 percent by total dry mass
Haul and spread the material on the prepared surface in a uniform layer immediately after mixing.
Maintain the moisture content from optimum to 2 percent below optimum while placing and
spreading the mixture. Shape the aggregate course to the required cross-section. Route hauling
equipment uniformly over the full width of the surface to minimize rutting or uneven compaction.
311.06 Compacting and Finishing. Compact the mixture according to Subsection 301.05.
Finish the aggregate course according to Subsection 301.06 and produce a surface free of loose material.
311.07 Acceptance. See Table 311-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements; including the
acceptance quality characteristic category.
Calcium chloride flakes will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Surface course aggregate (imported) will be evaluated for gradation, fractured faces, liquid limit, and
plasticity index under Subsection 106.05. Other aggregate quality properties will be evaluated under
Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
253
Section 311
(a) Aggregate gradation. The upper and lower specification limits are equal to the calculated mean of
all test results plus or minus the allowable deviations shown in Table 703-3, except as follows:
(1) If the calculated mean value for a tested sieve exceeds the maximum gradation value shown
in Table 703-3, the upper specification is equal to the maximum gradation value plus the
allowable deviation, and the lower specification is equal to the maximum gradation value
minus the allowable deviation.
(2) If the calculated mean value for a tested sieve is less than the minimum gradation value
shown in Table 703-3, the upper specification is equal to the minimum gradation value plus the
allowable deviation and the lower specification is equal to the minimum gradation value minus
the allowable deviation.
(b) Fractured faces. When aggregate is produced from a gravel source, use the specification limit
shown in Subsection 703.05(a)(5).
(c) Liquid limit index. The specification limit is shown in Subsection 703.05(c)(2).
(d) Plasticity liquid limit. The specification limit is shown in Subsection 703.05(c)(3).
Construction of aggregate stabilization courses will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Reconditioning of the aggregate course for in-place aggregate will be evaluated under Section 303.
Preparation of the surface on which the treated imported aggregate course is placed will be evaluated
under Section 303.
Measurement
311.08 Measure the Section 311 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring surface course aggregate stabilization by the square yard (square meter), measure the
length horizontally along the centerline of the roadway. Measure width horizontally to include the top of
subgrade width and allowable widening.
Payment
311.09 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement adjusted
according to Subsection 106.05 for the Section 311 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be
full compensation for the work prescribed in this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
254
Section 311
Table 311-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source (Imported Aggregate Only)
Imported
Measured and
LA abrasion
AASHTO
1 per
Source
Yes
Before
Not required
aggregate
tested for
(coarse)
T 96
type & not
of material
using in
when using
source quality
conformance
less than
work
Government-
(703.05(a))
(106.04 & 105)
5 per source
provided
of material(2)
sources
Soundness
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
"
using
T 104
sodium sulfate
(course & fine)
Imported
Process
Gradation
AASHTO
2 per
Crusher belt
No
24
"
aggregate
control
T 27 & T 11
day per
hours
(703.05)
(153.03)
stockpile,
min
Fractured faces
ASTM
"
"
"
"
"
D5821
Liquid limit
AASHTO
"
Crusher belt
"
"
R 58 & T 89,
or after
Method A
processing
Plasticity index
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
"
R 58, T 89
& T 90
Proportioning
Proportioning
Measured and
Moisture-
AASHTO
1 per
Processed
Yes
Before
Report
(311.03)
tested for
density
T 180,
mixture or
material
using
proportion
conformance
Method D(1)
change in
before
in work
of aggregate,
(106.04)
material
incorporating
calcium
in work
chloride, &
water
255
Section 311
Table 311-1 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production
In-place
Measured and
Moisture-
AASHTO
1 per
Processed
Yes
Before using
When
aggregate
tested for
density
T 180,
2500 feet
material before
in work
incorporating
(311.03)
conformance
(proportioning)
Method D(1)
(760 meters)
incorporating
existing
(106.04)
or a minimum
in work
aggregate
of 3 samples
Imported
Statistical
Gradation
AASHTO
1 per
Processed
Yes
4
When using
aggregate
(106.05)
T 27 & T 11
1000 tons
aggregate before
hours
imported
No. 4 (4.75 mm)
I
(703.05)
(900 metric
stabilizing
aggregate
No. 40 (425 μm)
I
tons)
No. 200 (75 μm)
II
Other specified
II
sieves
Liquid limit
II
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
R 58 & T 89,
Method A
Fractured faces
II
ASTM
"
"
"
"
"
D5821
Plasticity index
II
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
"
R 58, T 89, & T 90
256
Section 311
Table 311-1 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production (continued)
Surface course
Measured and
Density
AASHTO
1 per
In-place,
No
End of
aggregate
tested for
&
T 310
500 tons
after
shift
stabilization
conformance
moisture
or
(450 metric
compaction
(106.04)
content
other approved
tons)
procedures
or 3000 yd2
(2500 m2)
Finished Product
Surface course
Measured and
Surface
Subsection
Determined
Finished
No
As
aggregate
tested for
tolerance
301.06
by the CO
surface
requested
stabilization
conformance
& grade
course
(106.04)
(1) Minimum of 5 points per proctor.
(2) Furnish at least five reports, but not less than one report per rock type for each source. Reports must be dated within 1 year of intended use. Obtain samples
representative of aggregates being furnished. Include rock type and sample location on test reports.
257
Section 312
Section 312. — DUST PALLIATIVE
Description
312.01 This work consists of furnishing and applying one or more applications of dust palliative on a
prepared surface.
The application method is designated according to Subsection 312.04.
Material
312.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, and lignosulfonate
725.02
Water
725.01(c)
Construction Requirements
312.03 General. Furnish equipment for spreading and processing dust palliative. Make the equipment
available for inspection and approval before use. Do not apply dust palliative when raining, rain is
anticipated within 24 hours of application, or when the ground is frozen. Apply when the ambient air
temperature is 40 °F (4 °C) or above.
Protect structures and trees from splatter or marring. Use multiple applications at a reduced rate if
necessary to prevent runoff. Prevent discharge of dust palliative into waters of the United States as defined
by the Clean Water Act.
312.04 Surface Preparation and Application.
(a) Method 1. Single application. Blade and shape the roadbed. Leave 1 to 2 inches (25 to
50 millimeters) of loose material on the surface. Water the loose material so it is visibly moist.
Thoroughly mix the moist loose material.
Apply water, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, or lignosulfonate liquid at a rate of 0.25 to
0.50 gallons per square yard (1.00 to 2.25 liters per square meter) as approved by the CO. Apply
calcium chloride flakes at the rate of 1.0 to 2.0 pounds per square yard (0.5 to 1.0 kilograms per square
meter) as approved by the CO. Process the dust palliative uniformly throughout the loose material.
Moisten the mixture as necessary and compact by operating rollers over the full width of each layer
until visual displacement ceases.
(b) Method 2. Two applications of calcium chloride or magnesium chloride liquid.
(1) First application. Scarify, blade, and shape the roadbed. Leave 3 inches (75 millimeters) of
loose material on the surface. Water the loose material so it is visibly moist. Thoroughly mix the
moist loose material.
258
Section 312
Apply calcium chloride or magnesium chloride liquid solutions with a distributor at a rate of
0.50 to 1.0 gallons per square yard (2.25 to 4.50 liters per square meter) as approved by the CO.
Use a tractor rotary tiller, or other approved mixing device, immediately behind the distributor to
incorporate the water solution into the full width of loose material. Shape the surface to line and
grade and compact according to Subsection 204.11(a).
Allow at least one week of curing time between the first and second applications.
(2) Second application. Apply calcium chloride or magnesium chloride liquid to the finished
surface at a maximum rate of 0.20 gallons per square yard (0.9 liters per square meter) as approved
by the CO.
312.05 Opening to Traffic. Keep traffic off the treated surface until the dust palliative has penetrated and
cured to prevent excessive pickup under traffic.
312.06 Acceptance. Dust palliative material (calcium chloride liquid, calcium chloride flake, magnesium
chloride liquid, and lignosulfonate liquid) will be evaluated under Subsection
106.03. Provide a
commercial certification that includes the date, identification number (truck or trailer), net mass, and brand
name with each shipment. For liquid dust palliatives provide the net volume and specific gravity at 60 °F
(15 °C), percent solids by mass, and pH. For solid dust palliatives provide the concentration of the product.
Application of dust palliative will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
312.07 Measure the Section 312 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
312.08 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
312 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in
this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
259
Section 313
Section 313. — AGGREGATE-TOPSOIL COURSE
Description
313.01 This work consists of furnishing and placing an aggregate, topsoil, and seed mixture on a prepared
shoulder or other surface.
Material
313.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Aggregate for aggregate-topsoil course
703.13
Seed
713.04
Topsoil
713.01
Water
725.01(c)
Construction Requirements
313.03 Preparing Surface. Complete the adjoining pavement before placing an aggregate-topsoil course
on the shoulder. Scarify the area where the mixture is to be placed to a depth of 3 inches (75 millimeters).
Reduce clods and sod to a maximum size of 4 inches (100 millimeters).
313.04 Mixing, Placing, and Compacting. Furnish a mixture of
50±10 percent aggregate and
50±10 percent topsoil by volume with sufficient water for compaction.
Mix the components into a uniform mixture. Spread the mixture on the prepared surface in a uniform
layer. Shape the mixture to the line, grade, and cross-section. Remove clods and stones greater than
2 inches (50 millimeters) in diameter. Before compaction, dry seed the mixture surface at a rate of
75 pounds per acre (85 kilograms per hectare) according to Section 625.
Uniformly compact the mixture to ensure it does not exhibit heaving, pumping, rutting, or shearing. After
compaction, dry seed the surface again at a rate of 75 pounds per acre (85 kilograms per hectare).
313.05 Acceptance. Aggregate for aggregate-topsoil will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.03.
Seed and topsoil will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Construction of aggregate-topsoil course will be evaluated under Subsection 106.02.
260
Section 313
Measurement
313.06 Measure the Section 313 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring aggregate-topsoil course by the cubic yard (cubic meter), measure in the hauling vehicle.
Payment
313.07 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
313 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
261
Section 314
Section 314. — STOCKPILED AGGREGATES
Description
314.01 This work consists of furnishing and placing material in a stockpile for future use by the
Government.
Aggregate grading is designated according to the applicable tables of Section 703.
Material
314.02 Conform to the following Section:
Aggregate
703
Construction Requirements
314.03 General. Conform to the gradation and quality requirements specified in the Section identified
for the material.
After a representative quantity of aggregate is produced, submit proposed target values for the
appropriate sieve sizes along with a representative sample size as specified in the Section identified for
the material.
Set target values within the gradation ranges shown in the applicable table for the required grading.
314.04 Stockpile Site. The Government will acquire the permits and rights to stockpile aggregate from
sources identified in the contract if the material is stockpiled for future use.
Prepare a plan of operation. Do not perform work within a Government-provided source until a plan of
operation for the development of the source is accepted.
Obtain CO approval before preparing sites. Prepare sites as necessary to accommodate the quantity of
material to be stockpiled in a manner that prevents contamination of the stockpiles.
Prepare new sites as follows:
(a) Clear and grub according to Section 201;
(b) Grade, shape, and compact the site to a uniform cross-section that drains; and
(c) Place, compact, and maintain a minimum 6-inch (150-millimeter) layer of crushed aggregate
over the stockpile site and access roads for stabilization.
Obtain CO approval before stockpiling aggregates.
262
Section 314
314.05 Stockpile. Build aggregate stockpiles in layers not to exceed 36 inches (900 millimeters) in
thickness. Make the side slopes of each layer no flatter than 1V:1.5H. Spread aggregates with trucks or
other approved pneumatic-tire equipment. Complete each layer before depositing aggregates on the next
layer. Do not allow aggregates from the layer being built to run down over lower layers. Do not drop
aggregates from a bucket or spout in one location to form a cone-shaped pile. Do not push aggregates
into piles. Make the stockpiles neat and regular in shape.
Use plank runways or other suitable methods to avoid tracking dirt or other foreign matter onto the
stockpiled material when operating trucks on stockpiles.
Space stockpiles far enough apart or install partitions to prevent the mixing of aggregate gradations.
Protect stockpiles for future use with an approved cover.
314.06 Acceptance. See the table for sampling, testing, and the acceptance requirements; including the
category for quality characteristics specified in the Section identified for the material. The point of
sampling and testing for aggregate stockpiled for future use is in the stockpile.
Subbase, base, surface course, chip seal aggregate gradations, and surface course plasticity index will be
evaluated under Subsection
106.05. Other aggregate quality properties will be evaluated under
Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Preparation of stockpile sites and construction of stockpiles will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02
and 106.04.
Clearing and grubbing will be evaluated under Section 201.
Measurement
314.07 Measure the Section 314 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
314.08 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement adjusted
according to Subsection 106.05 for the pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full
compensation for the work prescribed in this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
263
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