STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 6

 

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS AND BRIDGES ON FEDERAL HIGHWAY PROJECTS (FP-14) - page 6

 

 

Section 259
(b) Stressing. Place stressing equipment over the soil nail so that the jack, bearing plates, load cells,
and stressing assembly are axially aligned with the tendon and the tendon is centered within the
equipment. Do not apply loads greater than 80 percent of the minimum guaranteed ultimate tensile
strength of the tendon for Grade 150 (1035) bars or 90 percent of the minimum guaranteed ultimate
tensile strength of the tendon for Grade 60 (420) or 75 bars. Do not test soil nails until the soil nail
grout and shotcrete facing have cured for at least
72 hours and attained the specified
3-day
compressive strength.
Place the reference pressure gauge in series with the pressure gauge and jack so they need not be
unloaded and repositioned during a test. Raise the load from one increment to another. Hold the load
for the required time beginning immediately after the load is applied and record the soil nail head
movement to the nearest 0.001 inch (0.025 millimeters) with respect to an independent fixed reference
point. Repump the jack as necessary to maintain a constant load. Monitor the load with a pressure
gauge. If the load measured by the pressure gauge and the load measured by the reference pressure
gauge differ by more than 10 percent, recalibrate the jack, pressure gauge, and reference pressure
gauge.
(1) Verification test. The CO will designate locations for sacrificial soil nails for verification tests.
Provide verification test soil nails with a minimum unbonded length of 3 feet (0.9 meters) and a
minimum bonded length of 10 feet (3 meters).
Use the following formula to determine the maximum bonded length:
Cf
A
y
s
L
BV
max =
2Q
d
where:
LBVmax = Maximum verification test soil nail bonded length (feet (meters))
C
=
0.9 for grades 60 (420) and 75 (520) bars and 0.8 for grade
150 (1035) bars
fy
= Bar yield or ultimate stress (pounds per square inch
(kilonewtons per square meter))
As
= Bar steel area (square inches (square meters))
Qd
= Allowable pullout resistance (pounds per foot
(kilonewtons per meter))
Determine the design test load by the following equation:
DTL =
L
×
Q
BV
d
where:
DTL = Design test load (pounds (kilonewtons))
LBV
= Bonded test length (feet (meters)) as determined from test residual elongation
Qd
= Allowable pullout resistance (pounds per foot (kilonewtons per meter))
185
Section 259
Provide a larger bar size if necessary for safety and test according to Tables 259-1 and 259-7.
Table 259-1
Verification Test Load Schedule
Hold Time
Test Load Increment
(minutes)
AL
1
0.25DTL
10
0.50DTL
10
0.75DTL
10
1.00DTL
10
1.25DTL
10
1.50DTL (Load-hold test)
60*
1.75DTL
10
2.00DTL (Maximum acceptance load)
10
2.50DTL or failure
10
3.0 DTL or failure
10
AL
1
AL = Alignment load (no greater than 5 percent of DTL (0.05DTL) applied to the
soil nail before setting the movement recording devices. Zero dial gauges after the
first setting of AL).
DTL = Design test load.
* Hold the load to within 2 percent and measure and record soil nail movement at
1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 60 minutes.
A verification test is acceptable based on the criteria in Table 259-2.
Table 259-2
Verification Test Soil Nail Acceptance Criteria
Total Load-Test
Total Movement
Pullout
Hold Movement
at
Failure(1)
Maximum Load
< 0.080 inches
A-line criteria: Greater than
80% of the
No pull-out
(< 2 millimeters)
apparent elastic elongation of the test soil
at
between
nail unbonded length.
2.00 DTL
6 and 60 minutes
B-line criteria: Less than the apparent elastic
elongation of the test soil nail unbonded
length and half of the bond length.
(1) Pullout failure is the inability to further increase the test load while there is continued pullout
movement of the test soil nail. Record the pullout failure load as part of the test data.
Provide the CO a written report confirming soil nail geometry, construction, testing details, and
verification test results. The test results must be reviewed and approved by the CO before installing
production soil nails.
If the soil nail verification is unacceptable, establish the cause and make design or construction
modifications. Submit modifications requiring changes to the structure and retest the new system
as directed by the CO.
186
Section 259
(2) Proof tests. The CO will designate production soil nails for proof testing.
Provide production proof test soil nails with a minimum temporary unbonded length of 3 feet
(0.9 meters) and a minimum bonded length of 10 feet (3 meters).
Use the following formula to determine the maximum bonded length:
Cf
A
y
s
L
BP
max =
Q
d
where:
LBPmax= Maximum proof test soil nail bonded length (feet (meters))
C
= 0.9 for Grade 60 (420) and 75 (520) bars and 0.8 for
Grade 150 (1035) bars
fy
= Bar yield or ultimate stress (pounds per square inch
(kilonewton per square meter))
As
= Bar steel area (square inches (square meters))
Qd
= Allowable pullout resistance (pounds per foot (kilonewtons per meter))
Determine the design test load by the following equation:
DTL =
L
×
Q
BP
d
where:
DTL = Design test load (pounds (kilonewtons))
LBP = Bonded test length (feet (meters)) as determined by
test residual elongation
Qd
= Allowable pullout resistance (pounds per foot (kilonewtons per meter))
187
Section 259
Test according to Tables 259-3 and 259-7.
Table 259-3
Proof Test Load Schedule
Hold Time
Test Load Increment
(minutes)
AL
Until stable
0.25DTL
"
0.50DTL
"
0.75DTL
"
1.00DTL
"
1.25DTL
"
1.50DTL (Maximum acceptance load)
60*
AL
1
AL = See alignment load note in Table 259-1.
DTL = Design test load. For load and resistance factor design, DTL = Nominal load × φ
(resistance factor) / γ (load factor).
* Hold the load to within 2 percent and measure and record soil nail movement at 1, 2, 3, 5,
6, and 10 minutes. If the soil nail movement between 1 and 10 minutes exceeds 0.04 inches
(1 millimeter), continue measuring and recording soil nail movement at 20, 30, 50, and
60 minutes.
(c) Test results and reporting. Provide preliminary results to the CO for each soil nail tested before
testing personnel leave the site. Submit detailed verification and proof test load and deflection data in a
tabular format. Submit a graph that plots total soil nail movement versus load, the A-line, and the
B-line. The A-line is defined as 0.8 multiplied by the theoretical free test length elastic elongation. The
B-line is defined as the theoretical free test length elastic elongation plus 0.50 multiplied by the
theoretical bond length elastic elongation. Allow 5 days for the CO to conduct a review of the data and
approve ground anchor installation.
259.10 Wall Drainage Network. Install required elements of the wall drainage network, (such as
geocomposite sheet drain, PVC connector pipes, and weep holes) before shotcreting each lift.
Center geocomposite sheet drains between soil nail columns with the geotextile filter side against the
ground. Add additional sheet drain at wet locations and as requested by the CO. Secure sheet drains to the
excavated face to prevent shotcrete from contaminating the ground side of the geotextile. Construct sheet
drain splices according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.
Install foot drains at the bottom of the wall according to Section 605.
259.11 Wall Construction. Place welded wire steel mesh and reinforcing steel according to Section 554.
Construct a shotcrete construction facing according to Section 566. Completely fill ungrouted zones of soil
nail drill holes or other voids with shotcrete.
Attach a bearing plate and nut to each soil nail head. Uniformly seat the plate by tightening the nut with a
hand wrench while the shotcrete is still plastic. Where uniform contact between the plate and the shotcrete
cannot be provided, set the plate in a bed of grout and tighten the nut with a hand wrench after the grout
has set for 24 hours.
188
Section 259
Construct wall elements to tolerances shown in Table 259-4.
Table 259-4
Wall Element Construction Tolerances
Wall Element
Tolerance
Horizontal location of headed studs, from plan location
⅜ inch
(10 millimeters)
Location of headed studs on bearing plate, from plan location
¼ inch
(6 millimeters)
Soil nail head bearing plate, deviation from parallel to wall
10 degrees
face
259.12 Permanent Wall Facing. Construct the permanent wall facing according to the applicable Section
below.
(a) Shotcrete-faced walls. Construct according to Section 566 and the construction tolerances shown
in Table 259-5.
(b) Concrete-faced walls. Construct according to Section 258.
(c) Simulated stone masonry. Construct according to Section 613.
(d) Stone masonry. Construct according to Section 620.
Table 259-5
Permanent Shotcrete Facing Construction Tolerances
Tolerance
Facing Finish
inch
(millimeter)
Complete thickness of shotcrete, from plan dimension:
Troweled or screeded finish
⅝ (15)
Shot finish
1⅛ (30)
Planeness of finish face, surface gap under a 10-foot
(3-meter) straightedge:
Troweled or screeded finish
⅝ (15)
Shot finish
1⅛ (30)
259.13 Backfilling Behind Wall Facing Upper Cantilever Section. Backfill behind the wall with
structural backfill according to Subsection
209.09. Use light mechanical tamper to compact within
36 inches (900 millimeters) behind the wall facing section.
259.14 Acceptance. See Table 259-7 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Material for the soil nails will be evaluated under Subsections 106.03 and 106.04. Submit a production
certification with each shipment of soil nails.
Construction of soil nails will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Installed soil nails will be evaluated based on the criteria in Table 259-6.
189
Section 259
Table 259-6
Proof Soil Nail Acceptance Criteria
Total Load-Hold
Total Movement
Pullout
Movement
at
Failure(2)
Maximum Load
< 0.040 inches
A-line criteria: Greater than 80% of the apparent
No pull-out
(< 1 millimeter)
elastic elongation of the test soil nail unbonded
at
between
length.
1.50 DTL
1 and 10 minutes
B-line criteria: Less than the apparent elastic
or
elongation of the test soil nail unbonded length and
< 0.080 inches
half of the bond length.
(< 2 millimeters)
between
6 and 60 minutes(1)
(1) And the rate of movement is linear or decreasing throughout the load-hold period.
(2) Pullout failure is the inability to further increase the test load while there is continued pullout movement
of the test soil nail. Record the pullout failure load as part of the test data.
If a proof-tested soil nail is unacceptable, replace some or all of the installed production soil nails
between the unacceptable proof test soil nail and the next proof test soil nail in the row, as directed by
the CO. Alternatively, install additional proof test soil nails within this area to ensure that the acceptance
criteria is met within this area. Propose alternative installation and testing methods before installing
additional soil nails. When ground conditions, soil nail installation methods, or testing procedures
change, conduct additional verification testing before proceeding with production soil nail installation.
Measurement
259.15 Measure the Section 259 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring soil nail retaining walls by the square foot (square meter), measure the front wall face.
When verification test soil nails are measured by the each; do not measure failed verification test soil nails
or additional verification test soil nails installed to verify alternative soil nail installation methods proposed
by the Contractor.
When production soil nails are measured by the linear foot (meter); measure along bar centerline from the
line of the wall excavation face to the tip of the soil nail.
Payment
259.16 The accepted quantities will be paid for at the contract price per unit of measurement for the
Section 259 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work
prescribed in this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
190
Section 259
Table 259-7
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Mix Design
Neat
Measured and
Compressive
AASHTO
1 per
Source of
Yes
30
hydraulic
tested for
strength(1)
T 106
mix design
material
days
cement
conformance
before
grout
(106.04)
production
(725.13(a)(1))
Production
Verification
Measured and
Performance
Subsection
Each
Installed
No
7
test soil nail
tested for
259.09(b)(1)
soil nail
days
conformance
(106.04)
Proof test
"
"
Subsection
"
"
"
5
soil nail
259.09(b)(2)
days
(1) At 3-day and 28-day.
191
Section 260
Section 260. — ROCK BOLTS AND DOWELS
Description
260.01 This work consists of furnishing and installing rock bolts and dowels.
Rock bolts are pre- or post-tensioned, fully grouted, deformed steel bars that actively reinforce a rock
mass.
Rock dowels are untensioned, fully grouted deformed steel bars that passively reinforce a rock mass.
Material
260.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsections:
Minor concrete
601
Nonshrink grout
725.13(b)
Polyester resin grout
725.13(d)
Reinforcing bars (dowels)
709.01(b)
Rock bolts
722.03
Construction Requirements
260.03 Qualifications. Provide a professional engineer, on-site supervisors, and installation personnel
with experience installing and testing rock bolts or dowels. Submit the following for approval at least
30 days before starting work:
(a) Names of personnel; and
(b) A résumé for each individual describing their experience on at least five rock bolt or dowel projects
of similar complexity over the past 5 years. Include project names, locations, and contact information
for project owners.
260.04 Submittals. At least 30 days before starting bolt or dowel installation work, submit the following
according to Subsection 104.03:
(a) Start date;
(b) Method of access, excavation, scaling and drilling;
(c) Rock bolt or dowel construction sequence;
(d) Rock bolt or dowel type, length, and diameter. If threads are cut into deformed bars, size the bar
based on the loads specified;
(e) Couplers, bearing plates, washers, and stressing anchorages with manufacturer’s product data
sheets, specifications, catalog cuts, and mill certificates;
(f) Manufacturer recommendations for tendon and hardware handling, storing, and working
temperature ranges;
192
Section 260
(g) Grout type, mix design, placement procedures, and manufacturer’s product data sheets;
(1) Polyester resin grout.
(a) Manufacturer certification for gel time, shelf life, compressive strength, and storage and
working temperature ranges; and
(b) Number, diameter, and length of resin cartridges with bar spin speed, travel speed, and spin
time for each tendon and hole size combination.
(2) Cement grout. Mixing equipment and 3-day grout compressive strength test results.
(a) Two-stage cement grouting. Means for determining the level of primary grout in the hole;
and
(b) Single-stage cement grouting. Fabrication details for proposed bond-breaker in the free
stressing zone, when applicable.
(h) Manufacturer certification for corrosion-resistant bar coating and procedures and material for
repairing corrosion protection coatings in the field;
(i) Details for placing, stressing and testing tendons. Schedule of a test installation to demonstrate rock
bolt or dowel installation, testing equipment and procedures, and countersink finishing if applicable;
(j) For rock bolts, a detailed procedure for placing the anchor head assembly (bearing plate and nut)
below the exposed rock surface or for removing the anchor head assembly following final lock-off
without impacting the tendon design load. Include details for a countersink and colored grout, or epoxy
patch when applicable;
(k) Methods for verifying hole diameters;
(l) Special installation methods (such as upwardly inclined reinforcements, grouting across open joints,
or debris-filled discontinuities used to ensure a fully-grouted, well-protected installation) when
applicable;
(m) Report documentation examples including installation and testing report formats; and
(n) Identification number and calibration test certification for each jack, pressure gauge, and
electronic load cell. Clearly indicate the serial number of each component of the testing assembly on
calibration graphs. Submit results from calibration tests conducted by an independent testing
laboratory within the previous 60 days.
260.05 Rock Bolt Fabrication.
(a) General. Fabricate rock bolts according to PTI, Recommendations for Prestressed Rock and Soil
Anchors. Size tendons to ensure:
(1) The design load does not exceed 60 percent of minimum ultimate tensile strength of the tendon;
and
(2) The maximum test load does not exceed 80 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of
the tendon.
193
Section 260
(b) Couplers. Couple only fully-grouted anchors. Couple sections together only when the design
length exceeds the standard commercially available bar lengths. Use couplers with a center stop to
ensure equal length of thread connects each section. Do not use couplings that interfere with the flow
of grout.
(c) Anchorage. For the stressing anchorage, use a steel bearing plate, washers (flat hardened,
beveled or spherical, as required), and a nut capable of developing 95 percent of the minimum
ultimate tensile strength of the tendon.
(d) Centralizers. For cement grouted rock bolts, place centralizers along the tendon at 8-foot
(2.5-meter) centers, with at least one centralizer per rock bolt. Locate the lowermost centralizer
within 12 inches (300 millimeters) of the end. Use centralizers of sufficient strength to support the
anchor bar in the drilled hole.
260.06 Handling and Storing Material. Handle and store tendons according to ASTM D3963, the
manufacturer’s recommendations, and Subsection 256.06.
Store polyester resin grout cartridges according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Do not use
polyester resin grout cartridges that are expired, damaged, frozen, hardened, or otherwise defective.
260.07 Installation.
(a) Drilling. Provide equipment capable of drilling straight and uniform-diameter holes. Do not use
water or drilling slurry. Drill rock bolt and dowel hole collars and hole depths within 6 inches
(150 millimeters) of the required location and depth. Size drill holes to provide at least 0.5 inches
(13 millimeters) of grout cover over the bond zone portion of the tendon. Clean drill holes of cuttings,
sludge, and debris.
(b) Grouting. Install the rock anchor within
24 hours of completing the drill hole. Orient
reinforcement within 5 degrees of the specified angle.
(1) Cement grout installations. Use a positive displacement grout pump according to
Subsection 256.07(b)(1).
Install the tendon and batch and inject grout according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.
For single-stage cement-grouted tendons, do not grout beyond the top of the bond-breaker
assemblage along the free-stressing length before tensioning the tendon. Place the grout in one
continuous operation. Control grout pressures to avoid ground heaving or fracturing. Fill the
grout tube with grout if it will remain in the hole.
Record the quantity of injected grout and the grout pressure for each installation. Notify the CO
of grout quantity overruns including the reason for the overrun and proposed actions to minimize
future overruns. Obtain approval for alternative grouting methods.
(2) Resin grout installations. Insert the approved number and size of resin cartridges to fully
cover the bond zone and fill the drill hole to the collar. Follow the approved procedures for tendon
spin speed, travel speed, and spin time for resin used. Use spin adapters during tendon installation
to avoid damaging the finished end tendon threads.
(a) Rock bolts. Fully grout the bond zone with fast-set resin and the remainder of the hole with
slow-set resin or cement grout for combination grout installations.
194
Section 260
(b) Rock dowels. Use a single resin grout with set time sufficient for complete installation.
(c) Bearing plate installation. Place the bearing plate so at least three quarters of the plate’s surface is
in contact with a rock face. Construct a bearing pad approved by the CO if the rock face is irregular or
unsound or the axis of the tendon is greater than 20 degrees from perpendicular to the bearing plate
when the axis of the tendon passes through the center of the bearing plate without bending the tendon.
Use beveled washers if the axis of the tendon is greater than 5 degrees from perpendicular to the
bearing plate. Allow at least 4 inches (100 millimeters) of tendon length beyond the nut.
For dowels, when the grout has reached final set per the manufacturer’s recommendations or a
minimum compressive strength of 60 percent of the 7-day compressive strength; install the bearing
plate, washers and nut, and apply a torque of 100 foot-pounds (135 newton-meters) to ensure proper
seating against the rock face.
After load-testing, tension and lock-off of rock bolts, place non-structural filler (cement grout or
polyester resin grout) for the entire free stressing length. Remove excess grout from the rock face
and anchor assembly.
Paint exposed parts of the rock bolt, bearing plate, and nut with an approved corrosion-protection paint
or epoxy patching compound. When covers are required, rock bolt the anchorage cover to the bearing
plate and completely fill cover with grout after the rock anchor has been tested and finally locked-off.
After the grout has achieved initial set, demonstrate to the CO that the anchorage cover is completely
filled with grout.
For rock bolt and dowel installations, ensure the tendon is fully grouted to the collar of the hole.
260.08 Rock Bolt Testing, Stressing, and Finishing. Conduct testing of tensioned and untensioned rock
bolts according to PTI, Recommendations for Prestressed Rock and Soil Anchors.
Trim the corrosion protection surrounding the free stressing length of the tendon so it does not contact the
bearing plate during testing and stressing. For single-stage cement-grouted tendons, tension the tendon
after the bond zone grout is set and reaches sufficient pull-out strength. For two-stage cement-grouted
tendons, tension the tendon after the bond zone grout is set and reaches sufficient pull-out strength and
before the free stressing length is grouted. For resin-grouted tendons, tension the tendon after the fast-set
resin fully sets in the bond zone and before the slow-set resin begins to set in the free stressing length.
For mechanically-anchored tendons, tension the tendon immediately following insertion in the hole and
before fully grouting.
(a) Performance tests. Use the same equipment, tendons, drill hole specifications, grout,
post-tensioning, and installation methods as used for production installations to verify required bond
strengths in the anchorage zone before final grouting of the stressing length. For two-stage grouted,
post-tensioned rock bolts and single-stage, grouted, post-tensioned rock bolts employing bond
breakers, conduct performance tests on sacrificial or production installations. For pre-tensioned
installations, conduct performance tests on sacrificial installations. When changes or modifications
in the equipment, tendons, drill hole specifications, or installation methods occur; conduct another
performance test as approved by the CO.
195
Section 260
Tension rock bolts to 120 percent of the design load with a calibrated hollow-ram hydraulic jack for
a holding time of not more than 60 minutes. Take load and extension measurements during
tensioning with a measuring device (such as a dial gauge or vernier scale) capable of measuring to
0.001 inches (0.025 millimeters). A rock bolt is acceptable if both of the following conditions are
satisfied:
(1) The total elastic movement obtained at the maximum test load exceeds 80 percent of the
theoretical elastic elongation of the free stressing length; and
(2) The rock bolt will carry the maximum test load with a creep rate that does not exceed
0.04 inches (1 millimeter) between 1 and 10 minutes or 0.08 inches (2.0 millimeters) per log
cycle between the 6 and 60 minute readings.
Perform at least two successful performance tests for each different rock unit, anchor type, and
proposed drilling-installation-grouting method before beginning production rock bolt installation.
When a performance test fails, modify the design or construction procedure as needed and conduct
another performance test on a replacement production installation. Conduct performance tests at
locations approved by the CO.
(b) Proof tests. Conduct proof testing on production pre- and post-tensioned rock bolt installations.
Proof test each production rock bolt to 120 percent of the design load. If no loss of load occurs in
10 minutes the rock bolt is approve. When a proof test fails or results vary significantly from the
performance test result, document the expected reasons for failure, modify the design or construction
procedure and conduct an additional performance test on a replacement production rock bolt
installation. Obtain approval from the CO for the location of replacement anchors.
After tensioning and achieving a successful rock bolt proof test, lock off the load at 100 percent of the
design load and grout the remaining portion of the rock bolt, as appropriate.
260.09 Rock Dowel Lift-Off Testing and Finishing. Conduct testing of rock dowels according to
PTI, Recommendations for Prestressed Rock and Soil Anchors.
Test only fully grouted dowels. Conduct at least five successful lift-off tests in succession for each
different rock unit, anchor type, and proposed drilling-installation-grouting method. Gradually load lift-
off test reinforcements to 60 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the dowel tendon and
monitor the pressure gage to verify the anchor is holding the design load for at least 10 minutes. If the
anchors do not pull out, test 5 percent of the remaining dowels. If pressure is lost on the pressure gage
due to anchorage movement, replace the dowel and conduct lift-off tests on an additional five anchors in
succession until all are satisfactory.
260.10 Test Results and Reporting. Submit test results to CO for review. Maintain daily records of
rock bolt and dowel work in a manner acceptable to the CO, including:
(a) As-built drawings depicting the location of each anchor, noting anchor designation, date drilled
and grouted, total anchor length, bonded length, free stressing length, grout mix, grout volume,
average grout pressure, hole diameter, size of tendon, tendon inclination, and installation comments.
Submit as-built drawings according to Section 104 after work completion.
196
Section 260
(b) Performance and proof test data forms, including the anchor designation, bonded length, free
stressing length, stressing length, date of stressing operation, signature of stressing operator or
inspector, required elongation and associated gage pressure, actual elongation and associated gage
pressure, identification numbers of jacking equipment, comments, and a table including incremental
jack pressure, jack load, and movement.
260.11 Acceptance. See Table 260-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Material for rock bolts and dowels will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02, 106.03, and 106.04.
Construction of rock bolts and dowels will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Grouting will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Installed rock bolts and dowels will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
260.12 Measure the Section 260 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
Payment
260.13 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
260 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
197
Section 260
Table 260-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Methods
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Specifications
Source
Aggregate
Measured and
Quality
-
AASHTO
1 per
Source
Yes
Before
-
quality
tested for
M 6
material
of
producing
(fine)
conformance
type
material
(703.01)
(106.04 & 105)
Mix Design
Grout
Measured and
Flow
-
ASTM
1 per
Source
Yes,
Before
-
(725.13(b))
tested for
C939
mix
of
when
producing
conformance
design
material
requested
(106.04)
Compressive
-
ASTM
"
"
"
"
-
strength
C942
(3-day)
Production
Performance
Measured and
Deformation
-
Subsection
Subsection
Installation
No
24
-
test for
tested for
260.08(a)
260.08(a)
hours
rock bolts
conformance
(106.04)
Proof test
"
"
-
Subsection
Each
"
"
"
-
for rock
260.08(b)
bolt
bolts
198
Section 260
Table 260-1 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
or
Acceptance
Methods
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
Product
(Subsection)
Specifications
(Subsection)
Production (continued)
Lift-off test
Measured and
Deformation
-
Subsection
Subsection
"
"
"
-
for rock
tested for
260.09
260.09
dowel
conformance
(106.04)
199
Section 261
Section 261. — REINFORCED SOIL SLOPES
Description
261.01 This work consists of constructing reinforced soil slopes.
Material
261.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Backfill material
704.03
Reinforcement geotextile and geogrid
714.04
Construction Requirements
261.03 Submittals. At least 30 days before starting reinforced soil slope construction, submit the
following according to Subsection 104.03:
(a) Manufacturer’s certification. Certification and test results indicating the proposed soil
reinforcement, reinforced embankment, and facing material meets requirements;
(b) Splice details. Detail proposed splices in soil reinforcement; and
(c) Facing details. Provide installation methods and connection details for facing system.
261.04 General. See Section 257 for Contractor-designed reinforced soil slope systems.
Verify the limits of the reinforced soil slope installation.
Clear the area of vegetation and obstructions according to Sections 201 and 203.
Conserve topsoil according to Subsection 204.05.
Prepare and compact foundation soils according to Subsection 204.09. Grade the foundation soils
supporting the reinforced soil slope for a width equal to the length of the lowest soil reinforcement level.
Bench cut slope surfaces to key the reinforced soil slope into the existing embankment.
261.05 Soil Reinforcement and Facing. Lay each layer of soil reinforcement flat, pull tight, and hold in
place with pins, soil piles, or other approved methods. Construct the reinforced soil slope to achieve the
slopes specified and roadbed tolerances according to Subsection 204.13(d).
Grade and compact backfill material according to Subsections 204.09 and 204.11 before placing the next
soil reinforcement layer. Maintain a minimum cover of
6 inches
(150 millimeters) over the
reinforcement during spreading and compacting of fill material. Avoid sudden stops, starts, or turns of
the equipment. Do not use sheepsfoot-rollers. Use lightweight mechanical tampers, rollers, vibratory
systems, or other methods for compaction within 36 inches (900 millimeters) of the slope face.
Place backfill material in a manner that tensions the reinforcement working from the slope face to the
back of reinforcement.
200
Section 261
Do not leave reinforcement exposed at end of shift. At the end of each shift, shape to drain and compact
the work area to a uniform cross-section. At the end of the day’s operation, slope the last lift of backfill
away from the slope face to direct surface runoff away from the slope.
261.06 Acceptance. Material for reinforced soil slopes will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02,
106.03, and 106.04.
Construction of reinforced soil slopes will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Excavation will be evaluated under Section 204.
Measurement
261.07 Measure the Section 261 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
When measuring reinforced soil slope backfill within the stabilized volume by the cubic yard (cubic
meter), measure in place.
Payment
261.08 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
261 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in
this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
201
202
DIVISION 300
AGGREGATE AND BASE
COURSES
203
Section 301
Section 301. — UNTREATED AGGREGATE COURSES
Description
301.01 This work consists of constructing one or more courses of aggregate on a prepared surface.
Subbase and base aggregate grading is designated according to Table 703-2. Surface course aggregate
grading is designated according to Table 703-3.
Material
301.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Subbase, base, and surface course aggregate
703.05
Water
725.01(c)
Construction Requirements
301.03 General. Prepare the surface on which the aggregate course is placed according to Section 204 or
303 as applicable.
After a representative quantity of aggregate is produced, submit proposed target values for the appropriate
sieve sizes along with a representative
300-pound (150-kilogram) sample at least
14 days before
incorporating the aggregate into the work.
Set target values within the gradation ranges shown in Table 703-2 or 703-3 for the required grading.
301.04 Mixing and Spreading. Determine the optimum moisture content according to AASHTO T 180,
Method D. Mix the aggregate and adjust the moisture content to obtain a uniform mixture with a moisture
content within 2 percent of the optimum moisture content. Spread and shape the mixture on the prepared
surface in a uniform layer.
Do not place the mixture in a layer exceeding 6 inches (150 millimeters) in compacted thickness. When
more than one layer is necessary, compact each layer according to Subsection 301.05 before placing the
next layer. Route hauling equipment uniformly over the full width of the surface to minimize rutting or
uneven compaction.
301.05 Compacting. Determine the maximum density of the mixture according to AASHTO T 180,
Method D.
Compact each layer full width. Roll from the sides to the center, parallel to the centerline of the road.
Along curbs, headers, walls, and places not accessible to the roller, compact the material with approved
tampers or compactors.
Compact each layer to at least 95.0 percent of maximum density. Determine the in-place density and
moisture content according to AASHTO T 310 or other approved test procedures.
204
Section 301
301.06 Surface Tolerance. If grade finishing stakes are required, finish the surface to within ±0.05 feet
(±10 millimeters) from staked line and grade elevation.
If grade finishing stakes are not required, shape the surface to the required template and check the surface
with a 10-foot
(3-meter) straightedge. Defective areas are surface deviations in excess of
½ inch
(13 millimeters) in 10 feet (3 meters) between two contacts of the straightedge with the surface.
Correct defective areas by loosening the material, adding or removing material, reshaping, and
compacting.
301.07 Maintenance. Maintain the aggregate course to the correct line, grade, and cross-section by
blading, watering, rolling, or combination thereof until placement of the next course. Correct defects
according to Subsection 301.06.
301.08 Acceptance. See Table 301-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements; including the
category for quality characteristics.
Aggregate gradation and surface course plasticity index will be evaluated under Subsection 106.05. Other
aggregate quality properties will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
(a) Aggregate gradation. The upper and lower specification limits are equal to the calculated mean of
all test results plus or minus the allowable deviations shown in Tables 703-2 and 703-3, except as
follows:
(1) If the calculated mean value for a tested sieve exceeds the maximum gradation value shown
in Table 703-2 or 703-3, then the upper specification is equal to the maximum gradation value
plus the allowable deviation, and the lower specification is equal to the maximum gradation
value minus the allowable deviation.
(2) If the calculated mean value for a tested sieve is less than the minimum gradation value
shown in Table 703-2 or 703-3, then the upper specification is equal to the minimum gradation
value plus the allowable deviation and the lower specification is equal to the minimum gradation
value minus the allowable deviation.
(b) Plasticity index. The upper and lower specification limits for surface courses are shown in
Subsection 703.05(c)(3).
Construction of untreated aggregate courses will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
301.09 Measure the Section 301 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring aggregate by the cubic yard (cubic meter), measure in place.
When measuring aggregate by the square yard (square meter), measure the length horizontally along the
centerline of the roadway. Measure the width horizontally to include the top of aggregate width, including
designed widenings.
205
Section 301
Payment
301.10 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement adjusted
according to Subsection 106.05 for the Section 301 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be
full compensation for the work prescribed in this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
206
Section 301
Table 301-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source
Aggregate
Measured and
LA abrasion
AASHTO
1 per
Source of
Yes
Before
Not required
quality
tested for
(coarse)
T 96
type &
material
using
when using
(703.05(a)
conformance
source
in work
Government-
(b) (c))
(106.04 & 105)
of material
provided
sources
Soundness
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
"
using
T 104
sodium sulfate
(coarse & fine)
Fractured
ASTM
"
"
"
"
"
faces
D5821
Liquid limit
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
"
R58 & T 89,
Method A
Surface course
"
Plasticity index
AASHTO
"
Crusher
"
"
"
aggregate
R 58, T 89,
belt or
(703.05(c))
& T 90
after
processing
207
Section 301
Table 301-1 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Source (continued)
Subbase, base,
Process
Gradation
AASHTO
2 per
Crusher
No
24
Not required
or
control
T 11 & T27
day per
belt
hours
when using
surface course
(153.03)
stockpile
a pre-crushed
aggregate
(minimum)
commercial
(703.05(b) (c))
source
Fractured faces
ASTM
"
"
"
"
"
D5821
Surface course
"
Plasticity index
AASHTO
"
Crusher belt
"
"
"
aggregate
R 58, T 89,
or after
(703.05(c))
& T 90
processing
Production
Subbase
Statistical
Gradation
AASHTO
1 per
From
Yes
4
course
(106.05)
T 27 & T 11
1000 tons
windrow
hours
No. 4
I
Grading
(900 metric tons)
or
(4.75 mm)
A & B
roadbed
No. 200
I
after
(75µm)
processing
Other
II
specified
sieves
208
Section 301
Table 301-1 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production (continued)
Base course
Statistical
Gradation
AASHTO
1 per
From windrow
Yes
4
Grading C,
(106.05)
T 27 & T 11
1000 tons
or roadbed
hours
⅜ inch
I
D, & E
(900 metric tons)
after
(9.5 mm)
processing
No. 4
I
(4.75 mm)
No. 200
I
(75µm)
Other
II
specified sieves
Subbase &
Measured and
Liquid limit
AASHTO
1 per
From windrow
Yes
4
base course
tested for
R 58 & T 89,
1000 tons
or roadbed
hours
Grading A,
conformance
Method A
(900 metric tons)
after processing
B, C,
(106.04)
Moisture-
AASHTO
1 per
Stockpile
"
"
D, & E
density
T 180,
type &
or production
(max density)
Method D (1)
source
output
of material
Density
AASHTO
1 per
In-place
No
End
T 310
500 tons
after
of shift
or
(450 metric tons)
compaction
other approved
procedures
Moisture
"
"
"
"
"
content
(in-place)
209
Section 301
Table 301-1 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production (continued)
Surface
Statistical
Gradation
AASHTO
1 per
From windrow
Yes
4
course
(106.05)
T 27 & T 11
1000 tons
or roadbed
hours
aggregate
(900 metric tons)
after
No. 4
I
processing
(4.75 mm)
No. 40
I
(4.75 µm)
No. 200
I
(75 µm)
Other specified
II
sieves
Plasticity index
I
AASHTO
"
"
"
"
R 58, T 89,
& T 90
Measured and
Moisture-
AASHTO
1 per
Stockpile or
Yes
"
tested for
density
T 180,
type &
production
conformance
(max density)
Method D (1)
source
output
(106.04)
of material
Density
AASHTO
1 per
In-place after
No
End of shift
T 310 or
500 tons
compaction
other approved
(450 metric tons)
procedures
Moisture
"
"
"
"
"
content
(in-place)
Fractured
ASTM
1 per
From windrow
Yes
4
faces
D5821
1000 tons
on roadbed
hours
(900 metric tons)
after
processing
210
Section 301
Table 301-1 (continued)
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Finished Product
Subbase, base,
Measured and
Surface
Subsection
Determined
Surface of
No
Before
and surface
tested for
tolerance
301.06
by the CO
final course
placement
course
conformance
& grade
of next
(106.04)
layer or as
requested
(1) Minimum of 5 points per proctor.
211
Section 302
Section 302. — MINOR CRUSHED AGGREGATE
Description
302.01 This work consists of furnishing and placing crushed aggregate for bedding, backfill, and roadway
aggregates on a prepared surface.
Material
302.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Crushed aggregate
703.06
Water
725.01(c)
Construction Requirements
302.03 Preparing Surface.
(a) Roadway aggregate. Prepare the surface on which the aggregate course is placed according to
Section 303.
(b) Bedding and backfill aggregate. Shape, compact, and finish the surface to the required lines,
grade, elevation, and cross-section according to Section 209.
302.04 Placing Crushed Aggregate.
(a) Roadway aggregate. Mix the aggregate and adjust the moisture content to obtain a uniform
mixture. Adjust the moisture content to obtain proper compaction. Spread and shape in uniform layers
not to exceed 6 inches
(150 millimeters) compacted thickness. Where more than one layer is
necessary, compact the underlying layer according to Subsection 302.05.
(b) Bedding and backfill aggregate. Place and shape the mixture in layers that, when compacted, do
not exceed 6 inches (150 millimeters) in depth.
302.05 Compacting and Finishing Crushed Aggregate.
(a) Roadway aggregate. When no compaction method is specified, use either method. Finish
surface according to Subsection 301.06.
(1) Method 1. Compact each layer according to Subsection 204.11(a). Roll from the sides to the
center, parallel to the centerline of the road. Compact the material along curbs, headers, walls,
and places not accessible to a roller with approved tampers or compactors.
Compactive effort may be decreased if in-place densities show that less compactive effort is
required under Method 2.
(2) Method 2. Compact each layer according to Subsection 301.05.
(b) Bedding and backfill aggregate. Compact each layer according to Subsection 209.10.
212
Section 302
302.06 Acceptance. See Table 302-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Crushed aggregate will be evaluated under Subsections
106.02 and
106.03. Submit a production
certification including gradation and quality properties for each source.
Construction of roadway aggregate courses will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Method 2 compaction will be evaluated under Subsection 106.04.
Placement of bedding and backfill aggregate will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
302.07 Measure the Section 302 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring crushed aggregate by the cubic yard (cubic meter), measure in place.
When measuring aggregate by the square yard (square meter), measure the length horizontally along the
centerline of the roadway. Measure the width horizontally to include the top of aggregate width, including
designed widenings.
Payment
302.08 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
302 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
213
Section 302
Table 302-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production
Crushed
Measured and
Moisture-
AASHTO
1 per
Production
No
4
aggregate
tested for
density
T 180,
aggregate
output
hours
conformance
Method D (1)
supplied
or stockpile
(106.04)
Density
AASHTO
1 per
In-place
"
End of
For
T310
500 tons
after
shift
Method 2
or other approved
(450 metric tons)
compaction
compaction
procedures
only
Crushed
Process
Moisture
"
"
"
"
"
aggregate
control
content
(153.03)
(in-place)
Finished Product
Crushed
Measured and
Surface
Subsection
Determined
Surface of
No
Before
aggregate
tested for
tolerance
301.06
by the CO
final course
placement
conformance
& grade
of next
(106.04)
layer or as
requested
(1) Minimum of 5 points per proctor.
214
Section 303
Section 303. — ROAD RECONDITIONING
Description
303.01 This work consists of reconditioning ditches, shoulders, roadbeds, aggregate surfaces, or the entire
road.
Material
303.02 Conform to the following Subsection:
Water
725.01(c)
Construction Requirements
303.03 Ditch Reconditioning. Remove slide material, sediment, vegetation, and other debris from
existing ditches and culvert inlets/outlets. Reshape ditches and culvert inlets/outlets to achieve positive
drainage and uniform ditch width, depth, and grade. Dispose of waste at designated sites or according to
Subsection 204.14.
303.04 Shoulder Reconditioning. Remove slide material, vegetation, and other debris from existing
shoulders including shoulders in parking areas, turnouts, and other widened areas. Repair soft and unstable
areas according to Subsection 204.07. Reshape shoulders to the widths and slopes shown in the plans.
Dispose of waste at designated sites or according to Subsection 204.14.
303.05 Roadbed Reconditioning. Remove organic, deleterious, and material larger than
6 inches
(150 millimeters) from the top 6 inches (150 millimeters) of subgrade. Dispose of waste according to
Subsection 204.14. Repair soft and unstable areas according to Subsection 204.07. Scarify surface to a
6-inch (150-millimeter) depth. Remove irregularities and shape to a uniform surface. Finish earth surfaces
to within 0.05 feet (15 millimeters) and rock surfaces to within 0.10 feet (30 millimeters) of required line,
grade, and cross-section. Compact according to Subsection 204.11.
303.06 Aggregate Surface Reconditioning. Repair soft and unstable areas to the full aggregate surface
depth and according to Subsection 204.07. Scarify the thickness of aggregate surfacing material or to
6 inches (150 millimeters), whichever is less. Remove irregularities and shape to a uniform surface. Finish
and compact the surface according to Subsection 302.05.
303.07 Roadway Reconditioning. Perform applicable work described in Subsections 303.03 through
303.06. Maintain existing cross slope and crown or as shown in the plans.
303.08 Acceptance. See Table 303-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Road reconditioning work will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
215
Section 303
Measurement
303.09 Measure the Section 303 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Measure waste under Section 204.
Payment
303.10 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
303 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
216
Section 303
Table 303-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production
Existing
Measured and
Classification
-
AASHTO
1 per
Roadbed
Yes
Before
-
roadbed
tested for
M 145
soil type
using
material or
conformance
in work
aggregate
(106.04)
Moisture-
-
AASHTO
1 per
Processed
No
"
-
surfacing
density
T 180,
mixture
material
Method D (1)
or change
or AASHTO
in material
T 99,
Method C(1)
Density
-
AASHTO
1 per
In-place
"
End
For
T 310 or
2000 yd2
after
of shift
Subsection
other approved
(1700 m2)
compaction
204.11(c)
procedures
cases only
Process
Moisture
-
"
"
"
"
"
control
content
(153.03)
(in-place)
Finished Product
Aggregate
Measured and
Surface
-
Subsection
Determine
Surface
No
Before
surface
tested for
tolerance
301.06
by the CO
of final
placement
reconditioning
conformance
& grade
course
of next
(303.06)
(106.04)
layer or as
requested
(1) Minimum of 5 points per proctor.
217
Section 304
Section 304. — FULL DEPTH RECLAMATION
Description
304.01 This work consists of pulverizing an existing pavement and base in-place, adding crushed
aggregate if required, mixing this material with water, and shaping and compacting the mix to produce a
base.
Material
304.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Crushed aggregate
703.06
Water
725.01(c)
Construction Requirements
304.03 General. Establish profile and cross slope control. Maintain the existing cross slope or crown if
none is established.
Before pulverizing, remove and dispose of unsuitable material as directed by the CO. Replace unsuitable
material with crushed aggregate according to Subsection 304.04.
Protect manholes, valve covers, and other buried facilities from damage.
304.04 Adding Crushed Aggregate. If required, add crushed aggregate to bring the finished surface to
the established line, grade, and cross-section.
304.05 Pulverizing. Furnish a road reclaimer that is:
(a) Self-propelled;
(b) Specifically manufactured for in-place reclamation;
(c) Capable of reducing the existing material to the required size;
(d) Equipped with at least an 8-foot (2.4-meter) cutting width;
(e) Equipped with standard automatic depth controls adjustable in increments of
½ inch
(13 millimeters); and
(f) Equipped with sufficient horsepower to constantly pulverize to the required depth in a single
pass.
Use the reclaimer to pulverize the existing roadway material, in-place until 100 percent passes the 2-inch
(50-millimeter) sieve. Reprocess or remove larger particles and dispose of them according to
Subsection 203.05.
218
Section 304
304.06 Mixing and Spreading. Add water as necessary to adjust the moisture content of the mixture to
within 2 percent of the optimum for compaction. Mix to produce a homogenous full depth mixture.
Spread the mixture uniformly across the existing roadbed to provide a final compacted shape according
to the established line, grade, and cross-section.
304.07 Compacting. Compact using one of the following methods:
(a) Method 1. Compact material full width according to Subsection 204.11(a).
(b) Method 2. Compact material according to Subsection 301.05.
304.08 Surface Tolerance. See Subsection 301.06.
304.09 Maintenance. See Subsection 301.07. Overlay the base within 14 days after compacting.
304.10 Acceptance. See Table 304-1 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Crushed aggregate will be evaluated under Subsection 106.03.
Construction of full depth reclamation will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Measurement
304.11 Measure the Section 304 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable.
Measure crushed aggregate under Section 302.
Measure removal and disposal of unsuitable material under Sections 203 and 204.
Payment
304.12 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
304 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in
this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
219
Section 304
Table 304-1
Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements
Material or
Type of
Characteristic
Category
Test Methods
Sampling
Point of
Split
Reporting
Remarks
Product
Acceptance
Specifications
Frequency
Sampling
Sample
Time
(Subsection)
(Subsection)
Production
Pulverized
Measured and
Moisture-
-
AASHTO
1 per
Behind
Yes
Before
-
material
tested for
density
T 180,
change
reclaimer
using
conformance
Method D (1)
in material
before
in work
(106.04)
compaction
Density
-
AASHTO
1 per
In-place after
No
End of
For
T 310
2,000 yd2
compaction
shift
Method 2
(1,700 m2)
compaction
only
Process
Moisture
-
AASHTO
Minimum
"
"
Upon
control
content
T 255
1 per
completion
(153.03)
(in-place)
or other
3500 yd2
of test
approved
(3000 m2)
methods
Gradation
-
AASHTO
"
Behind
"
"
Minus
T 27
reclaimer
2-inch
before
(50-mm)
compaction
sieve
requirement
only
Finished Product
Finished
Measured and
Surface
-
Subsection
Determined
Completed
No
Before
pulverized
tested for
tolerance
301.06
by the CO
FDR
placement
material
conformance
& grade
surface
of next
(106.04)
layer or as
requested
(1) Minimum of 5 points per proctor.
220
Section 305
Section 305. — FULL DEPTH RECLAMATION WITH CEMENT
Description
305.01 This work consists of pulverizing an existing pavement and base in-place, adding crushed
aggregate if required, mixing this material with cement and water, and shaping and compacting the mix to
produce a stabilized base.
Material
305.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Crushed aggregate
703.06
Hydraulic cement
701.01
Water
725.01(c)
Construction Requirements
305.03 Proportioning. Collect representative samples of the pavement and base from the project.
Process and blend these material to achieve a gradation representative of the in-place pulverized
material.
Estimate the median cement content by mass to meet the requirements of Table 305-1. At this median
cement content and at cement contents 2 percent above and below this median, determine the optimum
moisture content, maximum density, and the parameters included in Table 305-1.
Table 305-1
Soil-Aggregate-Cement Mix Design Parameters
Material or Property
Requirement
Unconfined compressive strength,
ASTM D1633, Method A(1)
Average strength (3 specimens)
200 psi
(1.4 MPa) min.
Maximum strength of a single
400 psi
specimen break
(2.8 MPa) or less
Loss in mass,
14% max.
AASHTO T 135 & AASHTO T 136,
12 cycles
(1) At 7-day cure at 70 °F (21 °C) according to ASTM D1632.
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Section 305
Submit a mix design for approval 30 days before production which includes the following:
(a) Optimum cement content conforming to the requirements of Table 305-1;
(b) Maximum density and moisture content at the optimum cement content according to
AASHTO T 134, minimum of 4 points;
(c) Source of each component material;
(d) Results of all tests and applicable charts and graphs;
(e) Gradation and proportion of imported crushed aggregate;
(f)
200-pound (90-kilogram) sample of the pavement, base, and imported crushed aggregate, if
requested; and
(g) 20-pound (9-kilogram) sample of Portland cement, if requested.
Begin production only after the mix design is approved. Submit a new mix design if the CO requests due
to a change in material.
305.04 General. See Subsection 304.03.
305.05 Production Start-Up Procedures.
(a) Preparatory phase meeting. Conduct a pre-stabilization preparatory phase meeting at least
7 days before the start of stabilizing operations according to Subsection 153.04(a).
(b) Control strip. Provide 7 days notice before beginning production.
On the first day of production, stabilize a 1000-foot (300-meter) control strip, one-lane wide, at the
designated lift thickness and mix design proportions. Construct the control strip on the project at an
approved location.
Construct the control strip using construction procedures intended for the entire project. Take
nuclear gauge density readings behind each roller pass to determine the roller pattern necessary to
achieve the specification requirements in Subsection 305.10. Cease production after construction of
the control strip until the stabilized base layer and the control strip are evaluated for acceptance.
Repeat the control strip process until an acceptable control strip is produced. See Subsection 106.01
for the disposition of material in unacceptable control strips. Accepted control strips may remain in
place and will be accepted and measured as a part of the completed base. When a control strip is
accepted, full production may begin.
Use these start-up procedures when changing construction procedures, when resuming production after a
termination of production due to unsatisfactory quality according to Subsection 106.04, or the beginning
of a new construction season.
305.06 Adding Crushed Aggregate. See Subsection 304.04.
305.07 Pulverizing. See Subsection 304.05.
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Section 305
305.08 Applying Cement. Do not add cement when the underlying surface is frozen, muddy, or when
conditions allow for excessive loss to eroding or blowing. Begin cement application when the air
temperature is above 40 °F (5 °C) and is expected to stay above 40 °F (5 °C) for 48 hours. Apply cement
by one of the following methods:
(a) Dry method. Use a metered mechanical spreader to uniformly apply the cement. Use canvas (or
similar) skirts around the spreader box to minimize dust.
(b) Slurry method. Use approved equipment and dispersal processes to uniformly apply a cement and
water slurry without pooling or run off. Equip slurry tanks with an agitator to keep the cement
suspended in water. Apply the slurry to the pulverized material with 60 minutes from time water first
contacts the cement. Make successive passes over the material if necessary to obtain the proper
moisture and cement content for mixing and compacting.
305.09 Mixing. Begin mixing within
30 minutes after cement application. Use a road reclaimer
conforming to Subsection 304.05. Add water as necessary to adjust the moisture content of the mixture to
within 2 percent of optimum as indicated in the approved mix design. Continue mixing until the cement is
uniformly distributed within the in situ material creating a homogeneous full depth layer. Complete
mixing within 1 hour of the cement application.
305.10 Compacting and Finishing. Compact the processed material uniformly to at least 95 percent of
maximum density as determined from AASHTO T 134. Furnish rollers sized and configured to achieve
the required compaction and finishing. Operate rollers according to the manufacturer’s
recommendations. Compact the processed material full width by rolling from the sides to the center,
parallel to the centerline of the road. Along curbs, headers, walls, and places not accessible to the roller,
compact the material with approved tampers or compactors.
During compaction and final grading maintain the moisture content of the mixture to within 2 percent of
optimum. Do not leave areas of stabilized material uncompacted or undisturbed for more than
30 minutes. Complete compaction within 1 hour after mixing.
Finish the compacted surface according to Subsection 301.06 to produce a surface that is smooth, dense,
and free of compaction planes, ridges, or loose material. Clean the compacted surface of loose material,
dirt, or other deleterious material by approved methods. Complete finishing operations within 4 hours
from the start of mixing including corrections to irregularities in the surface.
305.11 Construction Joints. When cement application operations are delayed or stopped for more than
2 hours, make a transverse construction joint by cutting back into the completed work to form an
approximately vertical face. Tie new work into the completed work by remixing approximately 36 inches
(900 millimeters) of the completed course.
305.12 Curing. Cure the layer at least 1 day before placing the next course by one of the methods below:
(a) Water method. Keep the surface continuously moist by applying water through a spray bar
equipped with nozzles producing a fine, uniform spray. During the first 24 hours of curing, use a
water truck with side spray to avoid driving on the newly stabilized layer.
(b) Prime coat method. Seal the surface by placing an inverted prime coat according to
Subsection 411.06(b). Provide and maintain a continuous film over the surface.
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Section 305
If approved by the CO, allow local automobile traffic on the cement stabilized layer 4 hours after finishing
operations are complete. Limit traffic speeds to 20 miles (30 kilometers) per hour. Stop traffic if there is
surface marring or deformation. Do not allow truck traffic (other than equipment necessary to complete the
next course) on the cement stabilized layer until the next course is placed.
305.13 Maintenance. Maintain the cement stabilized layer to the correct line, grade, and cross-section
until placement of the next course. If the cement stabilized layer loses stability, density, or finish before
placement of the next course, reprocess, recompact, and add cement as necessary to restore the strength of
the damaged material.
Overlay the stabilized base within 14 days after compacting.
305.14 Acceptance. See Table 305-2 for sampling, testing, and acceptance requirements.
Crushed aggregate will be evaluated under Subsection 106.03.
Cement will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Construction of full depth reclamation with cement will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.04.
Prime coat will be evaluated under Section 411.
Measurement
305.15 Measure the Section 305 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Measure crushed aggregate under Section 302.
Measure prime coat under Section 411.
Measure removal and disposal of unsuitable material under Section 203 or 204.
Payment
305.16 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the
Section 305 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work
prescribed in this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
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