152.07 Measure the Section 152 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring grade finishing, measure one time for the subgrade and one time for each aggregate
When measuring miscellaneous survey and staking paid by the hour; do not measure time spent in
making preparations, traveling to and from the project site, performing calculations, plotting
cross-sections and other data, processing computer data, and other efforts necessary to successfully
accomplish construction survey and staking.
Do not measure re-establishing missing control points or stakes after construction operations have
152.08 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
152 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in
this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Payment for lump sum pay items will be prorated based on the progress of the work under this Section.
Section 153. — CONTRACTOR QUALITY CONTROL
153.01 This work consists of planning and implementing a construction quality process to ensure work
conforms to the contract. This work also includes quality control inspection and documentation, and
process control sampling and testing. See FAR Clause 52.246-12 Inspection of Construction.
153.02 Qualifications. Submit the following for approval with the Quality Control Plan:
(a) Quality control manager (QCM). Provide a QCM according to (1) or (2) below. If neither is
specified, conform to (1).
(1) Full-time, on-site QCM. Provide a QCM with no responsibilities for performing testing and
inspection, managing the project, or performing operations other than managing quality control
and the following:
(a) One year experience managing quality control on construction projects of similar type
and scope, and
(b) One of the following:
(1) Two years’ experience as a construction project manager or superintendent on
construction projects of similar type and scope;
(2) Three years’ experience as a project engineer, resident engineer, foreman,
construction inspector, or equivalent on construction projects of similar type and scope;
(3) National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technologies (NICET) Level III
certification or equivalent in highway construction or highway material.
(2) Part-time, on-site QCM. Furnish a QCM who has at least 2 years’ experience in highway
construction, inspection, quality control, and material testing.
(b) Inspectors. Provide inspectors with at least 2 years’ experience inspecting projects of similar
complexity and with training related to the work to be inspected.
(c) Testers. Provide testers with at least one year experience in the type of sampling and testing
required, and with one of the following for the type of sampling and testing performed:
(1) NICET Level II certification in highway material or equivalent state or industry certification;
(2) Certification by a regional certification program (such as Western Alliance for Quality
(WAQTC), Northeast Transportation Technician Certification
(NETTCP), Southeast Task Force for Technician Training and Qualification
(STFTTQ), or Multi Regional Training and Certification (M-TRAC)); or
(3) At least one year employment by an AASHTO accredited laboratory performing equivalent
sampling and testing.
153.03 Quality Control Plan (QCP). Develop a QCP addressing all contract work categories. A category
consists of related work items performed in one operation(such as excavation, drainage, and paving).
Include the work of subcontractors, major material suppliers, and structural and geotechnical services
For each category, include the following:
(a) Quality control personnel. Furnish the name, authority, responsibilities, and qualifications of the
quality control manager and other personnel directly involved in inspection and testing. Conform to
(b) Quality control procedures. Describe the inspection, testing, and other activities to be performed
for each phase of work in Subsection 153.04. Include methods, schedules, equipment, and laboratory
facilities. Conform to Subsections 153.04 and 153.05.
List the material to be tested by:
(1) Pay item;
(2) Applicable requirements of the Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements tables;
(3) Persons responsible for performing the sampling and testing;
(4) Laboratory testing facilities to be used for process control and project testing; and
(5) Proposed reporting formats.
As a minimum perform process control testing according to the Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance
Requirements tables included at the end of each Section where applicable.
(c) Records. Describe the reporting format for inspection, testing, certification, and daily reports.
Conform to Subsections 153.06 and 153.07.
At least 14 days before the start of work, submit the QCP for approval. Do not perform work on a work
category unless the quality control for that category is accepted. Approval does not imply that the QCP
will result in contract compliance.
Revise the QCP when contract quality requirements are not achieved and when changes occur in the
contract, work progress, or personnel.
153.04 Prosecution of Work. Complete the following:
(a) Preparatory phase.
(1) Before starting each work category, hold a preparatory phase meeting. Include the project
superintendent, work foreman, CO, QCM, and appropriate subcontractors. Be prepared to
discuss the following:
(a) Contract requirements for the work, including acceptance procedures, schedule, and
(b) Process and equipment for constructing the work; and
(c) Plan for inspection, process control, testing, measuring, and reporting the work.
(2) Review and coordinate certifications, submittals, plans, drawings, and permits.
(3) Verify the capabilities of equipment, material, and personnel. Provide training as necessary.
(4) Establish a detailed testing schedule based on the production schedule.
(5) Ensure preparatory testing and inspection is accomplished.
(6) Review accuracy of the surveying and staking.
(b) Start-up phase.
(1) Hold a start-up meeting to review the contract, the construction processes, and the inspection,
testing, and reporting requirements with the personnel performing the work. Include the project
superintendent, inspectors, testers, CO, and QCM. Explain procedures that will be followed if
defective work is identified.
(2) Inspect, test, and report start-up work according to the QCP and ensure the work conforms to
(c) Production phase.
(1) Inspect, test, and report according to the QCP and evaluate the acceptability of the work
(2) Identify and correct deficiencies.
(3) Request Government inspection and acceptance.
153.05 Sampling and Testing. Inspect commercial laboratory equipment within 45 days of project use.
Have mobile laboratory equipment inspected and calibrated after the laboratory is moved to the project
and every time it is moved thereafter. Keep laboratory facilities clean and maintain equipment in proper
working condition. Certify that equipment conforms to testing requirements and submit evidence of
Allow the CO unrestricted access to the laboratory for inspection and review. When requested by the
CO, provide additional inspections and tests to demonstrate sampling and testing proficiency. Submit
proficiency sample test results within 48 hours of sample receipt.
Perform quality control sampling and testing according to the QCP and the sampling, testing, and
acceptance requirements table in applicable sections.
When no sampling frequencies are specified, submit the proposed sampling and testing frequencies.
153.06 Certifications. Obtain, review, and verify certifications for work. Submit certifications when
153.07 Records and Control Charts. Maintain records and control charts by pay item.
(a) Quality control and construction operations reports. Submit written quality control and
construction operations reports daily according to the QCP. Document meetings, work locations, labor
and equipment used including actual hours worked, testing and measurement activities, inspection
results, deficiencies observed, corrective actions taken, and process changes. Use FHWA Form 1413,
Inspector's Daily Record of Construction Operations or approved alternate forms. Include the
following certification signed by the QCM on all reports:
"I certify that the information contained in this record is accurate and that work documented
herein complies with the contract. Exceptions to this certification are documented as a part of
(b) Control charts. Maintain linear control charts that identify the test number, test parameter, upper
and lower specification limit applicable to each test parameter, and test results for applicable material.
Use the control charts to document variability of the process, to identify production and equipment
problems, and to identify actions to improve processes or quality.
Update and post control charts daily in a location accessible to the CO. Cease production and correct
the process when problems are evident.
153.08 Acceptance. The Contractor's quality control system will be evaluated under Subsection 106.02
based on its demonstrated effectiveness to ensure work conforms to the contract.
Measurement and Payment
153.09 Do not measure Contractor quality control for payment. See Subsection 109.05.
Section 154. — CONTRACTOR SAMPLING AND TESTING
154.01 This work consists of obtaining samples for testing.
When there is a pay item for Contractor testing included in the bid schedule, this work also includes
sampling, testing and reporting the required test results. It excludes Contractor quality control testing
required under Section 153.
154.02 General. Include the work required under this Section in the Section 153 quality control plan.
Sample and test material according to the Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements tables
included at the end of each Section. Perform additional sampling and testing as directed when material
does not meet requirements.
Provide the CO the opportunity to witness sampling, splitting, and testing of material.
Where process control sampling and testing frequencies are identical to the sampling and testing
frequencies for acceptance, the process control samples may be used for acceptance for the applicable
154.03 Sampling. Sample and split samples according to AASHTO or other acceptable procedures. The
location of statistical acceptance sampling will be provided using a random number system. Perform splits
when required and deliver the Government’s portion of the sample or split sample in an acceptable
container suitable for shipment. Label samples with the following:
(a) Project number and name;
(b) Pay item number and description;
(c) Source of material;
(d) Sample number;
(e) Date sampled;
(f) Time sampled;
(g) Location sample taken;
(h) Name of person sampling;
(i) Name of person witnessing sampling; and
(j) Type of test required on sample.
154.04 Testing. Perform tests when there is a pay item for Contractor testing included in the bid schedule.
Demonstration of testing competence may be required.
154.05 Records. When tests are on material being incorporated in the work, report test results within
24 hours unless specified otherwise in the Sampling, Testing, and Acceptance Requirements tables. Report
test results on forms containing sample information required by Subsection
154.03. Label interim
measurements used to determine the results. Attach work sheets used to determine test values to the test
result forms. Payment for work may be delayed or the work stopped until test results are submitted.
154.06 Acceptance. Contractor sampling and testing will be evaluated under Subsections 106.02 and
106.04 based on Government verification testing.
154.07 Measure the Section 154 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
154.08 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
154 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Progress payments for Contractor testing lump sum will be paid as follows:
(a) 25 percent of the pay item amount, not to exceed 0.5 percent of the original contract amount, will
be paid after the testing facilities are in place, qualified sampling and testing personnel are identified,
and the work being tested has started.
(b) Payment for the remaining portion of the pay item amount will be prorated based on the total work
completed in Section 154.
Payment may be retained if Government verification testing does not validate the Contractor testing or if it
is determined that documentation of sampling and testing does not meet requirements.
Section 155. — SCHEDULES FOR CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS
155.01 This work consists of scheduling and monitoring the progress of construction activities.
(a) Construction schedule. A progress time-scaled logic diagram, tabular schedule, written
narrative, and submittal list.
(b) Preliminary construction schedule. A written narrative and a schedule diagram of contract
activities for the first 60 days after the effective date issued in the Notice to Proceed. A schedule
diagram consists of either a Bar Chart Method (BCM) or a Critical Path Method (CPM).
(c) Initial construction schedule. The first approved BCM or CPM construction schedule submitted
after the preliminary construction schedule. Once approved the initial construction schedule becomes
the first baseline construction schedule.
(d) Baseline construction schedule. The current approved initial construction schedule in which
subsequent construction schedule updates are based on.
(e) Baseline construction schedule update. The normal monthly updating of the currently approved
baseline schedule with no changes in the schedule logic or activities and no changes to the critical
(f) Baseline construction schedule revision. A significant change to the schedule logic, schedule
activities or activity durations, or some other modification to the schedule of planned work.
Activities performed out of sequence from the baseline schedule affecting the critical path require a
revision. A baseline schedule revision may show construction being completed at a date other than
the contract completion date.
155.03 General. Follow the requirements of FAR Clause
52.236-15 Schedules for Construction
Designate an individual in the Contractor's organization who will be the authorized representative
responsible for the construction schedule. Identify the representative before or at the preconstruction
When preparing schedules, show completion of work within the contract time.
155.04 Preliminary Construction Schedule. Do not begin work, except mobilization, traffic control,
and Section 637 work, without an approved preliminary construction schedule. No progress payments
will be made until a preliminary construction schedule has been approved.
Submit a written narrative that includes:
(a) A title page stating the contract number, project number, project name, Contractor name, current
contract completion date, date of submittal, submittal number and schedule name designated as
preliminary construction schedule;
(b) A description of the work to be done within each activity including the type and quantity of
equipment, labor, and material to be used;
(c) A description of the planned production rates by pay item units;
(d) A description of the work days per week, number of shifts per day, and number of hours per
shift. Include calendars used in the schedule module;
(e) Estimated periods during which an activity is idle or partially idle. Show the beginning and end
dates for reduced production or idle time;
(f) Identification of the vendor, supplier, or subcontractor to perform the activity. State assumptions
made in scheduling their work;
(g) A description of site mobilization (such as dates of expected material shipments, planned dates
for equipment arrivals, office setup, material laboratory arrival and setup, and anticipated portable
crusher or batch plant setup);
(h) A list of drawing and sample submittals; and
(i) The fabrication and delivery of key and long-lead procurement activities.
Submit 2 copies of a preliminary construction schedule at least 7 days before the preconstruction
conference. Within 7 days after the preconstruction conference, the preliminary construction schedule
will be approved or rejected. If rejected, submit a revised schedule within 3 days.
The preconstruction conference will be rescheduled if the CO does not receive the schedule 7 days
before the scheduled preconstruction conference date. Contract time will not be extended for failure to
submit a preliminary construction schedule by the date required.
155.05 Initial and Baseline Construction Schedule. Prepare and submit a Critical Path Method (CPM)
initial construction schedule unless otherwise required by the contract.
(a) Bar Chart Method (BCM). Include the contract number, project number, project name,
Contractor name, current contract completion date, date of submittal, and submittal number.
(1) Progress bar chart.
(a) Use a time scale to graphically show the percentage of work scheduled for completion
during the contract time;
(b) Define and relate activities to the contract pay items;
(c) Show activities in the order the work will be performed, including submittals, submittal
reviews, fabrication, and delivery;
(d) Show critical (major) activities that are controlling factors in the completion of the work;
(e) Show the time needed to perform each activity and its relationship in time to other
(f) Show the total expected time to complete work; and
(g) Provide enough space for each activity to permit two additional plots parallel to the
original time span plot. Use one space for revision of the planned time span, and one for
showing actual time span achieved.
(2) Written narrative. Submit a written narrative of the activities displayed in the progress bar
chart. The following applies to the written narrative:
(a) Estimate starting and completion dates of each activity;
(b) Describe work to be done within each activity including the type and quantity of
equipment, labor, and material to be used;
(c) Describe the location on the project where each activity occurs;
(d) Describe planned production rates by pay item quantities (such as quantity of excavation
per day or week);
(e) Describe work days per week, holidays, number of shifts per day, and number of hours
(f) Estimate periods during which an activity is idle or partially idle. Show the beginning and
end dates for reduced production or idle time;
(g) Describe expected and critical delivery dates for equipment or material that can affect
completion of the project;
(h) Describe critical completion dates for maintaining the construction schedule; and
(i) Identify the vendor, supplier, or subcontractor to perform the activity. State assumptions
made in the scheduling their work.
(3) Bar Chart Method updates. Review the construction schedule to verify or adjust: start and
finish dates of activities underway, remaining duration of uncompleted activities, and finish dates
of completed activities. Inform the CO of changes.
Submit 2 copies of an updated construction schedule with each progress estimate or every
30 days, whichever is less or within 2 days of:
(a) A delay occurs in the completion of a critical (major) activity;
(b) A delay occurs which causes a change in a critical activity;
(c) The actual prosecution of the work is different from that represented on the current
(d) There is an addition, deletion, or revision of activities caused by a contract modification;
(e) There is a change in the schedule logic.
(b) Critical Path Method (CPM). Prepare an initial construction schedule using a CPM that is
computer-generated. Submit an initial construction schedule that includes all activities, contractual
requirements (such as construction or traffic staging), contract restrictions, and subcontract work.
(1) Format. Prepare a construction schedule diagram and supporting documents as follows:
(a) A title page or header block for each component (time-scaled logic diagram, tabular
schedule, written narrative, and submittal list) with the contract number, project number,
project name, Contractor name, current fixed completion date, date of submittal, and
(b) A schedule diagram using the activity-on-arrow diagram method
(ADM) or the
precedence diagram method (PDM). Depict the order and interdependence of all activities
and the sequence of the work that will be accomplished by the Contractor in coordination
with its subcontractors. Show how the completion of predecessor activities restricts the start
of successor activities.
(2) Time-scaled logic diagram.
(a) Show all activities including those in the preliminary construction schedule. Add items
for correcting punch-list items, and general cleanup. Relate an activity or groups of activities
to the contract pay items;
(b) Show all activity nodes or boxes, activity IDs, activity descriptions, and durations;
(c) Group the activities independently by area (that is separate distinct bridges or roadways)
and by type of work (such as submittals, utilities, roadway, and bridge);
(d) Include a description of the work represented by each activity at or near the event node or
box for each activity;
(e) Code each subcontractor’s activities so that its activities can be shown separately as well
(f) Show durations for construction activities as whole working days, with a maximum
duration of 30 working days each. Divide activities with longer durations into subgroups of
activities not exceeding 30 working days in duration. Indicate logical start and end points
(such as stationing and staging) for each subgroup;
(g) Show the durations of non-construction activities. Non-construction activities include
mobilization, drawing and sample submittals by pay item number, and the fabrication and
delivery of key material. Non-construction activities may have durations exceeding
30 working days consistent with the contract. Indicate intended submittal dates and delivery
dates for fabrication and delivery activities. Allow for review, approval, and distribution of
each submittal or resubmittal. Where no times are specified, allow 14 days for the review,
approval, and distribution of each submittal or resubmittal after receipt by the CO;
(h) Indicate the total number of anticipated working days to complete each activity of work;
(i) Identify the critical path on the diagram; and
(j) Begin the construction schedule diagram with the date of the Notice to Proceed and
include the contract completion date. Float time within the construction schedule is not for
use or benefit of either party, but is a jointly owned project resource available to both parties
as needed to meet the completion date established in the contract.
(3) Tabular schedule. Submit a tabular schedule sorted by early start and total float. Include the
following information in the tabular schedule:
(a) Activity ID;
(b) Activity description;
(c) Subcontractors codes;
(d) Activity percent complete;
(e) Original and remaining duration;
(f) Early and late schedule dates;
(g) Total float;
(h) A predecessor/successor report; and
(i) Other tabular schedule report formats if requested by the CO for analyzing CPM revisions
or time impacts.
(4) Written narrative. Submit a written narrative describing the rationale and assumptions
utilized in the development of the construction schedule. Use the time-scaled logic diagram as
the basis of schedule-related comments, referencing specific activities by number and
description. Include the following:
(a) Describe the planned critical path and the general sequence of work;
(b) Information and references to adequately define the scope of work by pay item included
in each major activity type (such as roadway excavation and aggregate base course). Include
such information as station numbers, location, etc.;
(c) Describe the resource loading planned for use in the performance of the work for each
major activity. The description should include manpower allocation by types of labor and
crew size, types and number of equipment and special equipment, material, and
(d) Describe the basis (including the resource loading above) for the calculation of the
duration for all major activities, to be stated as quantity production rates (such as quantity of
excavation per day);
(e) Describe work days per week, number of shifts per day, and number of hours per shift;
(f) A description of the assumptions used in converting working days to calendar dates.
Include anticipated holidays, non-work days, winter shutdowns, and other constraints within
(g) Identify the subcontractor or supplier performing an activity and identify their activity
codes used on the schedule diagram. State assumptions made in the scheduling of the
subcontractor's or supplier's work;
(h) Describe expected and critical delivery dates for equipment or material that can affect
completion of the project;
(i) A description of organizational limitations (such as resource constraints or subcontractor
commitments) which limit scheduling flexibility;
(j) Ensure that there is no conflict between the diagram and the narrative;
(k) An explanation of the schedule’s Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), and Activity ID
protocol to be use throughout the life of the work; and
(l) A list and description of constraints used in the CPM scheduling software.
(5) Submittal list.
(a) Submit a list of drawings and other submittals by pay item number required for the entire
(b) Include the following information for each submittal:
(1) Pay item number and description;
(2) Related activity ID number and description from the CPM;
(3) Planned date of initial submittal;
(4) Planned date of CO's initial response; and
(5) Other comments.
Submission and approval Submit 2 paper copies and one electronic copy of the initial
construction schedule within 45 days after the effective date of the Notice to Proceed has been
issued. Submit an electronic copy via media approved by the CO. In case of discrepancy between the
paper version and the electronic version, the paper version will govern over the electronic version of
Allow 14 days for the approval or rejection of the schedule. If rejected, submit corrected schedule
within 7 days after the date of the rejection of the schedule. If rejected, schedule a meeting within
3 days to discuss corrections.
The approved copy of the initial construction schedule with supporting documents becomes baseline
construction schedule. Implement and execute the work under the contract according to the baseline
construction schedule. Update the baseline construction schedule according to Subsection 155.06.
Failure to include elements of work in the construction schedule diagram that are required for
performance of the contract, even when approved by the Government, will not excuse the Contractor
from completing the work required by the contract completion date.
155.06 Baseline Schedule Update. Submit a baseline construction schedule update no less than 7 days
before the closing date for the progress estimate or every 30 days, whichever is less. Show completion
of work within the contract time. No progress payment will be made for any work until an updated
construction schedule is approved by the CO.
Unless previously approval by the CO, changes to the construction schedule for work that is still to be
completed, can only be changed with a Time Impact Analysis according to Subsection 108.03, and a
Baseline Construction Schedule revision according to Subsection
155.08. Receipt of a baseline
construction schedule update with negative float does not constitute agreement by the Government of
the revised completion date.
(a) Written narrative. Submit an update of the initial or previous written narrative identifying
adjustments made to each operation since the last update. Adjustments include, but are not limited to
(1) Equipment added or removed from the project;
(2) Changes to labor (such as added crews or subcontractors);
(3) Work shift adjustments (such as extended hour or added shifts);
(4) Periods of anticipated suspension or holiday;
(5) Changes in material delivery;
(6) Early completion of individual work items; and
(7) Efficiency of operations
(b) Submittal list.
(1) Actual dates of initial (and expected dates for all subsequent) submittals;
(2) Actual dates of CO's initial (and expected dates for subsequent) responses;
(3) Status of CO's responses (that is approved, rejected, or approved as noted); and
(c) Bar Chart Method updates. Submit 2 paper copies of an updated baseline construction
schedule. Verify or adjust: start and finish dates of activities underway, remaining duration of
uncompleted activities, and finish dates of completed activities. Include the initial time span plot
adjacent to the updated span plot for each work activity.
(d) Critical Path Method updates. Submit
2 paper copies and one electronic copy of the
construction schedule update. Provide an electronic copy via media approved by the CO. In case of
discrepancy between the paper version and the electronic version, the paper version will govern over
the electronic version of the schedule.
(1) Tabular schedule:
(a) Actual finish dates for completed activities;
(b) Remaining duration required to complete each activity started, or scheduled to start, but
(c) Float remaining for each activity;
(d) Percentages for completed and partially completed activities; and
(e) Additional tabular schedules using different sort parameters when requested by the CO.
(2) Updated time-scaled logic diagram.
(e) Review and approval of a construction schedule update. The CO will review and approve the
baseline construction schedule update within 7 days or return it for corrections. The approved
baseline construction schedule revision will become the new baseline construction schedule.
155.07 Baseline Schedule Revision. Submit a time impact analysis when requesting approval of a
baseline schedule revision. Submitting a proposed baseline schedule revision is not considered a
notification of delay or of other basis for change. Continue to submit monthly schedule updates
according to Subsection 155.08 until a baseline construction schedule revision is approved.
(a) Time impact analysis. Perform a time impact analysis according to Subsection 108.03 within
20 days of impacts caused by:
(1) Changes in the resource loading, durations, specifications, subcontractors;
(2) Addition or deletion of work;
(3) Increased or decreased quantities;
(4) Defective work;
(5) Acceleration of the work; or
(6) Other changes.
(b) Bar Chart Method revisions. Submit a bar chart according to Subsection 155.05(a) which
includes revised construction activities affected by impacts addressed with a time impact analysis.
Include a revised completion date for the total work.
(c) Critical Path Method revisions. Submit a tabular schedule and time-scaled logic diagram
according to Subsection 155.05(b) which includes revised construction activities affected by impacts
addressed with a time impact analysis. Include a revised critical path and completion date for the
(d)Written narrative. Submit a written narrative according to Subsection 155.05 describing the
changes to the critical path and logic revisions. Identify delays and disruptions which are ongoing as
of the date of the proposed revision. When delays or disruptions have occurred which are the
responsibility of the Contractor; propose efforts to return the project to a schedule consistent with the
terms of the contract including the commitment of additional resources or other appropriate action.
Notify the CO which completion dates or other terms of the contract will not be met.
155.08 Acceptance. Construction schedules and supporting documents will be evaluated under
Subsection 106.02 and Subsection 109.08(a).
155.09 Measure the Section 155 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
155.10 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
155 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in
this Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Progress payments for construction schedule lump sum will be paid as follows:
(a) 25 percent of the pay item amount, not to exceed 0.5 percent of the original contract amount, will
be paid after the initial baseline construction schedule is approved.
(b) Payment of the remaining portion of the lump sum pay item will be prorated based on the total
Section 156. — PUBLIC TRAFFIC
156.01 This work consists of controlling and protecting public traffic adjacent to and within the project.
See FAR Clause 52.236-13 Accident Prevention.
156.02 Conform to the following Section:
Temporary traffic control
156.03 Qualifications. Provide a traffic control supervisor certified by a state department of
transportation, ATSSA, or other acceptable certification programs.
156.04 Accommodating Traffic During Work. Accommodate traffic according to the MUTCD, contract
traffic control plan, Section 635, and this Section. An alternate traffic control plan may be submitted for
approval according to Subsection 104.03. Submit alternate traffic control plans at least 30 days before
Perform work in a manner that ensures the safety and convenience of the public and protects the residents
and property adjacent to the project. Accommodate public traffic on roads adjacent to and within the
project until the project is accepted according to Subsection 106.07(b).
156.05 Maintaining Roadways During Work. Maintain roadways as follows:
(a) Construct and remove diversion roads and bridges as required by the traffic control plan;
(b) Maintain intersections with trails, roads, streets, businesses, parking lots, residences, garages,
farms, and other features;
(c) Snow removal to facilitate the work is the Contractor’s responsibility. Snow removal to provide
public access is the responsibility of the maintaining agency and will be performed at the maintaining
agency’s discretion. Allow the maintaining agency access to perform snow removal;
(d) Maintain a dust-free traveled way such that visibility and air quality are not affected and a
hazardous condition is not created;
(e) Remove accumulations of soil and other material from traveled way;
(f) Do not allow water to pond on the traveled way; and
(g) Maintain the roadway, detours, and diversions in a safe and acceptable condition.
If corrective action is requested and the corrective action is not taken immediately, the condition may be
corrected and the cost of the corrective action deducted from monies due the Contractor.
156.06 Maintaining Roadways During Non-Work Periods. Maintain roadways and traffic control for
public traffic during periods when work is not in progress. Snow removal to provide public access is the
responsibility of the maintaining agency.
156.07 Limitations on Construction Operations. When the roadway is open to public traffic, restrict
operations as follows:
(a) Operate equipment in the direction of traffic, where practical;
(b) For shoulder drop-offs of 3 inches (75 millimeters) or less, provide "Low Shoulder" warning signs.
For shoulder drop-offs in excess of 3 inches (75 millimeters), provide a 1V:3H fillet with "Shoulder
Drop-Off" warning signs. Complete the construction of shoulders adjacent to traffic lanes to the same
elevation within 14 days;
(c) Provide minimum lane widths of 10 feet (3 meters). Use barricades, drums, or other acceptable
devices to delineate traffic lanes through areas where the edge of pavement or intended path has been
obliterated by construction operations;
(d) Locate staging areas at least 30 feet (9 meters) from the traveled way or behind acceptable traffic
barriers. Obtain approval of the location and access to staging areas. Store unused traffic control
devices at staging areas;
(e) Park equipment at least 30 feet (9 meters) from the traveled way or behind acceptable traffic
(f) Provide parking areas for employee’s personal vehicles in approved areas;
(g) Provide uninterrupted two-way communications between flaggers and also between flaggers and
pilot cars unless flaggers are able to see each other and communicate. Use communications devices
approved by the CO. Citizen band radios are unacceptable. Make communication devices available to
the CO as necessary;
(h) Where switching traffic to a completed lane, provide adequate personnel and equipment to set or
relocate traffic control devices;
(i) Limit construction-caused delays to public traffic to a maximum of 30 minutes per passage through
the project; and
(j) Maintain existing guardrails, barriers, and bridge railings until removal is necessary for
construction. Use a temporary barrier or appropriate channelizing devices while the guardrails and
bridge rails are absent. Install permanent barriers, guardrails, and bridge rails as soon as possible to
minimize risk to the public.
156.08 Nighttime Operations. Perform construction operations during the hours of daylight (one-half
hour after sunrise to one-half hour before sunset).
Where night operations are permitted, submit a night lighting system for approval. Include the light types,
locations, and the manner in which the lights will be moved. Submit the proposed system at least 14 days
before use. Use an independent source other than vehicle headlights. Do not use incandescent lights.
Furnish and install the approved system to illuminate the entire work area. Position the lights so they do
not shine directly at motorists traveling from any direction. If the operation is moving, move the lighting
with the operation. Provide lighting at each flagger location. Equip vehicles with an exterior flashing
yellow dome light.
156.09 Traffic Control Supervisor. Provide a traffic control supervisor according to Subsection 156.03.
Do not designate the superintendent as the traffic control supervisor. Furnish the traffic control supervisor's
name, address, and 24-hour telephone numbers at the preconstruction conference. During the contract,
including periods of suspensions and work stoppages, perform the following:
(a) Implement the traffic control plan.
(b) Coordinate traffic control operations, including those of subcontractors and suppliers.
(c) Ensure the condition, position, and applicability of traffic control devices in use.
(d) Immediately correct traffic control deficiencies.
(e) Coordinate traffic control maintenance operations with the CO.
(f) Coordinate and ensure that traffic control devices are furnished, installed, maintained, removed,
stored, replaced, relocated and cleaned according to Subsection 635.04. Ensure unused traffic control
devices are properly handled and stored.
(g) Conduct weekly traffic safety meetings for construction workers, and invite the CO to these weekly
(h) Submit a weekly certification that inspections and reviews were conducted and that the traffic
control devices meet contract requirements. Include the number and types of devices in use. Report
with the weekly certification, changes or corrective actions taken to ensure the safe passage of public
traffic through the project.
(i) Inspect traffic control devices, including those in staging, storage, material sources, and disposal
areas, as follows:
(1) Daily during daylight hours when daylight work is being performed;
(2) Daily during hours of darkness when nighttime work is being performed;
(3) Weekly during:
(a) Daylight hours and hours of darkness when work is suspended for periods of more than
one week, except when the project has been shut down for the winter; and
(b) Periods of winter suspension, inspect only as requested by the CO.
(4) Additional inspections, day or night, as directed by the CO; and
(5) Submit reports of inspections in an acceptable format within 2 days.
(j) Before winter suspension, conduct an inspection of the project with the CO to ensure proper
provisions are made for winter travel during the period of suspension.
(k) Provide temporary flagging assistance.
156.10 Acceptance. Public traffic work will be evaluated under Subsection 106.02.
Traffic control devices and services will be evaluated under Section 635.
Measurement and Payment
156.11 Do not measure controlling and protecting public traffic for payment. See Subsection 109.05.
Measure temporary traffic control under Section 635.
Measure dust abatement under Section 158 or 312.
Section 157. — SOIL EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL
157.01 This work consists of furnishing, constructing, and maintaining soil erosion and sediment control
devices to eliminate or minimize pollutants in stormwater discharges from the project.
157.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Concrete masonry unit
Fiber rolls and socks
Floating turbidity curtains
Prefabricated filter insert
Sediment filter bags
Separation and stabilization geotextile and geotextile filter
Temporary culvert pipe
Temporary plastic fence
Temporary rolled erosion control products
Turf reinforcement mats
157.03 Qualifications. Submit the following for approval at least
14 days before
(a) Names of personnel responsible for soil erosion and sediment control; and
(b) A résumé for each individual describing their knowledge and experience providing erosion and
sediment control and pollution prevention on highway or road construction projects for at least 5 years.
Include certifications in those states where applicable.
157.04 General. Provide soil erosion and sediment control measures according to the contract erosion and
sediment control plan, contract permits, Section 107, and this Section. Contract permits amend the
requirements of this Section. Do not modify the type, size, or location of controls or practices without
The erosion and sediment control plan reflects special concerns and measures to protect resources. An
alternate erosion and sediment control or stormwater pollution prevention plan, with necessary permits,
may be submitted for approval according to Subsection 104.03. Submit alternate erosion and sediment
control proposals at least 30 days before their intended use.
When soil erosion and sediment control measures are not functioning as intended, take corrective action to
eliminate or minimize pollutants in stormwater discharges from the project.
If wood chips are used, do not import without approval from the CO.
157.05 Controls and Limitations on Work. Before grubbing or grading construct sediment controls
around the perimeter of the project including filter barriers, diversion, and settling structures.
Limit the combined grubbing and grading operations areas to 8 acres (3.2 hectares) of exposed soil at one
Construct and implement soil erosion and sediment control measures as follows:
(a) Construct temporary controls in incremental stages as construction proceeds;
(b) Construct temporary slope drains, diversion channels, and earth berms to protect disturbed areas
(c) When a soil disturbing activity within a portion of the project is complete, apply permanent
measures to the finished slopes and ditches within 14 days;
(d) When a soil disturbing activity within a portion of the project has temporarily ceased, apply
temporary measures within 14 days;
(e) Construct outlet protection as soon as culverts or other structures are complete;
(f) Construct and maintain soil erosion and sediment controls on and around soil stockpiles;
(g) Following each day’s grading operations, shape earthwork to minimize and control erosion from
stormwater runoff; and
(h) Maintain stabilized construction exits to minimize tracking of soil onto existing roads.
157.06 Filter Barriers. Construct silt fence, berms, and fiber rolls and socks to reduce the velocity of
runoff to allow sediment to settle.
157.07 Sediment Retention Structures. Construct sediment retention structures of the following types:
(a) Temporary sediment traps. Construct temporary sediment traps to detain runoff from disturbed
areas and settle out sediment. Provide outlet protection.
(b) Sediment basins. Construct sediment basins to store runoff and settle out sediment for large
drainage areas. Excavate and construct sediment basins according to Section 204. Construct riser pipes
according to Section 602. Provide outlet protection.
157.08 Outlet Protection. Construct riprap aprons or basins to reduce water velocity and prevent scour at
the outlet of permanent and temporary erosion and sediment control measures. Construct riprap according
to Section 251.
157.09 Water Crossings. Construct temporary culvert pipe at temporary crossings where construction
vehicles cross a live waterway.
157.10 Diversions. Construct temporary channels, temporary culverts, earth berms, or sandbags to divert
water around disturbed areas and slopes. Use temporary channels, temporary culverts, pumps, sandbags, or
other methods to divert the flow of live streams for permanent culvert installations and other work.
Stabilize channels according to Subsection 157.11. Provide outlet protection.
157.11 Waterway and Slope Protection and Stabilization. Use the following:
(a) Plastic lining. Use plastic lining to protect underlying soil from erosion. Place the plastic lining
loosely on a smooth soil surface free of projections or depressions that may cause the liner to puncture
or tear. Lap transverse joints at least 3 feet (1 meter) in the direction of flow. Do not use longitudinal
joints. Anchor the lining in place using riprap, gravel bags, or sandbags.
(b) Riprap. Construct riprap for channel lining according to Section 251.
(c) Check dams. Construct riprap, gravel bags, sandbags, fiber rolls and socks, or earth berms for
temporary check dams to reduce the velocity of runoff in ditches and swales.
(d) Rolled erosion control products. Use rolled erosion control products to stabilize waterways and
slopes before or after temporary or permanent seeding. Install according to Section 629.
(e) Temporary slope drains. Use drainpipe, riprap, or plastic lined waterway for temporary slope
drains to channel runoff down slopes. Channel water into the slope drain with an earth berm, gravel
bag, or sandbag headwall constructed at the top of a cut or fill. Anchor slope drains to the slope.
Provide outlet protection.
(f) Floating turbidity curtains. Install floating turbidity curtains within a body of water to minimize
the migration of silt laden water out of the construction area.
157.12 Temporary Soil Stabilization. Control soil erosion on unprotected slopes. Use the following:
(a) Temporary cover. Use mulch, plastic, rolled erosion control product, or tackifier. Apply according
to the manufacturer’s recommendations or as approved by the CO.
(b) Temporary turf establishment. Apply seed and mulch for soil erosion protection at the rates
shown in Table 157-1. Protect and care for seeded areas, including watering, until permanent turf
establishment is in place.
Application Rates for Temporary Turf Establishment
Wood fiber or grass straw cellulose fiber mulch
(1) Mulch applied using hydraulic method according to Subsection 625.08(b). For other mulch products and
application methods, use the manufacturer’s rate as approved by the CO.
157.13 Permanent Soil Stabilization. Control erosion on completed permanent slopes. Use the following:
(a) Turf establishment. Apply seed, fertilizer, and mulch according to Section 625.
(b) Plants, trees, shrubs, vines, groundcovers, and other plants. Furnish and plant trees, shrubs,
vines, groundcovers, and other plants according to Section 626.
(c) Sod. Furnish and place sod of perennial turf-forming grasses according to Section 627.
(d) Rock mulch. Furnish and place rock on finished surfaces.
157.14 Inspection and Reporting. Inspect erosion and sediment control measures using approved
personnel. When there are no contract permits, conduct erosion and sediment control inspections at least
once every 7 days.
Within 24 hours after each inspection, submit an inspection report to the CO. Include the following:
(a) Date and time of the inspection;
(b) Names and titles of persons making the inspection;
(c) Summary of the inspection;
(d) Weather since the last inspection or since the start of work, if the first inspection. For each storm
event, include the beginning date and time, duration, rainfall quantity in inches (millimeters), and
whether discharge occurred;
(e) Weather and description of discharges occurring during the inspection;
(f) Locations of discharges or other pollutants from the site;
(g) Locations of erosion and sediment control measures that need maintenance;
(h) Locations of erosion and sediment control measures that failed to operate as designated or proved
inadequate for a particular location;
(i) Locations where additional erosion and sediment control measures are needed; and
(j) Other necessary corrective actions including action taken, locations, dates, and times.
157.15 Maintenance and Cleanup. Maintain temporary erosion and sediment control measures in
working condition until the project is complete or the measures are no longer needed. Remove sediment
trapped in perimeter protection control measures before deposits reach 50 percent of the above ground
height. Remove sediment from sediment retention structures when their capacity is reduced to 50 percent
of design capacity. Use removed sediment in the work if acceptable or dispose of it according to
Replace erosion and sediment control measures that cannot be maintained and those that are damaged by
Remove and dispose of temporary erosion and sediment control measures when vegetation is satisfactorily
established and drainage ditches and channels are lined and stabilized. Remove and dispose of erosion and
sediment control measures according to Subsection 203.05.
Restore the ground to its natural or intended condition and provide permanent erosion control measures.
157.16 Acceptance. Material for erosion and sediment control measures will be evaluated under
Subsections 106.02 and 106.03.
Construction, maintenance, and removal of erosion and sediment control measures will be evaluated under
Subsections 106.02 and 106.04.
Separation and stabilization geotextile and geotextile filter will be evaluated under Section 207.
157.17 Measure the Section 157 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable.
Measure temporary soil stabilization on the ground surface. When measurement is by the pound
(kilogram), weigh the seed in pounds (kilograms).
Measure excavation for diversion channels and sediment basins under Section 204.
Measure riprap under Section 251.
Measure permanent paved waterways under Section 608.
Measure permanent turf establishment under Section 625.
Measure plants, trees, shrubs, vines, groundcovers, and other plants under Section 626.
Measure sod under Section 627.
Measure rolled erosion control products under Section 629.
Do not measure replacement items.
157.18 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
157 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Progress payments for erosion control measures or devices will be paid as follows:
(a) 25 percent of the pay item amount will be paid upon installation.
(b) An additional 50 percent of the pay item amount will be prorated based on total work complete.
(c) The remaining portion of the pay item amount will be paid when the temporary erosion control
measure is removed from the project or at final acceptance.
Section 158. — WATERING FOR DUST CONTROL
158.01 This work consists of furnishing and applying water for the control of dust caused by the work and
158.02 Conform to the following Subsection:
158.03 General. Provide an adequate water supply and apply water uniformly across the traveled way as
necessary to control dust. Uniformly apply water using pressure-type distributors, pipelines equipped with
spray systems, or hoses with nozzles.
(a) Project dust control for public benefit. Control dust within the construction limits as necessary
including nights, weekends, and periods of non-work when the project is open to public traffic. When
the project is not open to public traffic, control dust in areas of the project that have adjacent residences
or businesses. Control dust on approved, active detours established for the project. Apply water at the
locations, rates, and frequencies as ordered.
(b) Other dust control. Control dust on active haul roads, in pits and staging areas, and on the project
during periods not covered in Subsection 158.03(a).
158.04 Acceptance. Water will be evaluated under Subsection 106.02.
Furnishing and applying water will be evaluated under Subsection 106.02.
158.05 Measure the Section 158 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring water for dust control by volume or mass; measure in the hauling vehicle, or by
Do not measure water for dust control applied according to Subsection 158.03(b).
158.06 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
158 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Section 201. — CLEARING AND GRUBBING
201.01 This work consists of clearing and grubbing within the clearing limits designated in the plans.
201.02 Conform to the following Subsections:
Tree wound dressing
201.03 General. Construct erosion control measures according to Section 157. Perform work within
Do not damage vegetation designated to remain. If damage occurs, repair or replace the vegetation in an
acceptable manner. Where possible, preserve vegetation adjacent to bodies of water. Treat cuts or scarred
surfaces of trees and shrubs with tree wound dressing.
201.04 Clearing. Within the clearing limits clear trees, brush, downed timber, and other vegetation as
(a) Cut trees so they fall within the clearing limits;
(b) In areas of cut slope rounding, cut stumps flush with or below the final ground-line;
(c) In areas outside the excavation, embankment, and slope rounding limits, cut stumps to within
6 inches (150 millimeters) of the ground; and
(d) Trim tree branches that extend over the road surface and shoulders to attain a clear height of 20 feet
(6 meters). If required, remove other branches to present a balanced appearance. Trim according to
accepted tree surgery practices. Treat wounds with tree wound dressing.
201.05 Grubbing. Grub deep enough to remove stumps, roots, buried logs, moss, turf, or other vegetative
debris as follows:
(a) Grub areas to be excavated, except for cut slope rounding areas;
(b) Grub embankment areas. Undisturbed stumps less than 24 inches (600 millimeters) in diameter
may be left in place if they protrude less than 6 inches (150 millimeters) above the original ground and
will be covered with more than 48 inches (1200 millimeters) of embankment. Remove all other
(c) Grub pits, channel changes, and ditches only to the depth necessary for the excavation; and
(d) Backfill stump holes and other grubbing holes with backfill material to the level of the surrounding
ground according to Subsection 209.09. Compact backfill according to Subsection 209.10.
201.06 Disposal. Merchantable timber is the Contractor's property. Dispose of clearing and grubbing
debris according to Subsection 203.05.
201.07 Acceptance. Clearing and grubbing will be evaluated under Subsection 106.02.
Material for tree wound dressing will be evaluated under Subsection 106.03.
Backfilling and compacting of stumps and grubbing holes will be evaluated under Section 209.
201.08 Measure the Section 201 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
Do not make deductions from the area computation unless excluded areas are shown in the plans.
Do not measure clearing and grubbing of borrow or material sources.
201.09 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
201 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Section 202. — ADDITIONAL CLEARING AND GRUBBING
202.01 This work consists of clearing and grubbing outside the clearing limits specified in Section 201.
This work also includes scalloping clearing lines, clearing vistas, thinning vegetation, special clearing and
grubbing, and the removal of individual trees and stumps.
(a) Selective clearing. Clearing where some trees and vegetation is designated to remain.
(b) Selective clearing and grubbing. Clearing and grubbing where some trees and vegetation is
designated to remain.
(c) Special clearing and grubbing. Clearing and grubbing where all trees and vegetation are removed.
(d) Removal of individual trees or stumps. Removing individual trees or stumps outside the clearing
limits designated in Section 201 or outside areas designated in Subsection 202.02 (a) through (c).
202.03 General. Clear and grub according to Section 201, except as modified herein. Do not push, pull, or
fall trees into trees designated to remain. Remove designated debris by methods that prevent damage to
vegetation not designated to be removed. Dispose of clearing and grubbing debris according to
202.04 Selective Clearing. Clear and dispose of trees, snags, brush, downed timber, and other vegetation
designated to be removed.
202.05 Selective Clearing and Grubbing. Clear, grub, and dispose of trees, snags, brush, downed timber,
stumps, roots, buried logs, moss, turf, grass, and other vegetation designated to be removed.
202.06 Special Clearing and Grubbing. Clear, grub, and dispose of trees, snags, brush, downed timber,
stumps, roots, buried logs, moss, turf, grass, and other vegetation.
202.07 Removal of Individual Trees or Stumps. Remove and dispose of designated trees or stumps. Cut
trees to within 6 inches (150 millimeters) of the ground.
202.08 Acceptance. Additional clearing and grubbing work will be evaluated under Subsection 106.02.
202.09 Measure the Section 202 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02 and
the following as applicable:
When measuring removal of individual trees by the square foot (square meter), measure the average
diameter at the cutoff.
Do not measure trees less than 6 inches (150 millimeters) in diameter at the cutoff.
202.10 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
202 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Section 203. — REMOVAL OF STRUCTURES AND OBSTRUCTIONS
203.01 This work consists of salvaging, removing, and disposing of buildings, fences, structures,
pavements, culverts, utilities, curbs, sidewalks, and other obstructions.
203.02 Conform to the following Section and Subsection:
203.03 Salvaging Material. Salvage with reasonable care material designated to be salvaged. Salvage in
readily transportable sections or pieces. Replace or repair members, pins, nuts, plates, and related hardware
damaged, lost, or destroyed during the salvage operation. Securely attach parts to adjacent members or
pack them in sturdy boxes with the contents clearly marked.
Match mark members of salvaged structures. Submit one set of drawings according to Section 104
identifying the members and their respective match marks.
Stockpile salvaged material at a designated area on the project.
203.04 Removing Material.
(a) Submittals. Submit a bridge removal plan at least 30 days before beginning bridge removal for
approval. Include the following:
(1) Methods and equipment to be used;
(2) Measures to be used for protecting the environment, public, adjacent property, and workers;
(3) Methods to keep debris out of the stream and streambed.
(b) General. Saw cut sidewalks, curbs, pavements, and structures when partial removal is required.
Construct structurally adequate debris shields to contain debris within the construction limits. Do not
allow debris to enter waterways, travel lanes open to public traffic, or areas designated not to be
Handle material with lead paint contamination according to Subsection 563.05.
Raze and remove buildings, foundations, pavements, culverts, sidewalks, curbs, fences, structures, and
other obstructions interfering with the work and not designated to remain.
Remove structures and obstructions in the roadbed to 36 inches (900 millimeters) below subgrade
elevation. Remove structures and obstructions outside the roadbed to 24 inches (600 millimeters)
below finished ground or to the natural stream bottom.
Abandon existing manholes, inlets, catch basins, and spring boxes according to Subsection 604.08.
When abandoning an existing culvert pipe, remove the upstream and downstream portion of the
culvert to within 48 inches (1200 millimeters) of the subgrade or embankment slope. Ensure the
abandoned pipe is at least 48 inches (1200 millimeters) from a new culvert or structure. Seal the
abandoned culvert ends with a tight-fitting plug of concrete at least 6 inches (150 millimeters) thick.
Ensure the structure does not entrap water.
Except in excavation areas, backfill and compact cavities left by structure removal with backfill
material to the lines and grades of the finished ground. Backfill excavated areas according to
Subsection 209.09. Compact backfill according to Subsection 209.10.
(c) Concrete removal in repair areas. Saw cut ¾ inch (19 millimeters) deep along boundaries of
repair areas. Use power-driven hand tools to remove existing concrete. Do not damage concrete
designated to remain in place.
Where the bond between existing concrete and reinforcing steel is destroyed, remove concrete adjacent
to the steel to provide at least ¾-inch (19-millimeter) clearance for the new concrete to bond to the
reinforcing steel. Use care to prevent damage to remaining concrete when achieving the final surface.
Clean exposed concrete surfaces that will be in contact with repair material. Provide a residue free
(d) Reinforcing steel. Do not cut or damage reinforcing steel designated to remain in place. Repair or
replace damaged bars. Replace deteriorated bars as directed by the CO.
Clean exposed reinforcing steel of coatings or residue that inhibits bonding with the new concrete.
Protect the steel from corrosion and contamination. If the steel becomes corroded or contaminated,
reclean the steel before placing concrete.
203.05 Disposing of Material. Dispose of debris, unsuitable material, and excess material as follows:
(a) Remove from project. Recycle or dispose of material legally off the project. Submit a statement
documenting the nature and quantity of material processed or sold for recycling. Otherwise, submit a
signed copy of the disposal agreement before disposal begins.
(b) Burn. Obtain necessary burning permits. Submit a copy of the burning permits before burning
Burn using high intensity burning processes that produce few emissions. Provide a watchperson during
the burning operations.
When burning is complete, extinguish the fire so no smoldering debris remains. Dispose of unburned
material according to Subsection 203.05(a).
(c) Bury. Bury debris in trenches or pits in approved areas within the right-of-way when approved. Do
not bury debris inside the roadway prism limits, beneath drainage ditches, or in areas subject to
Place debris in alternating layers of 48 inches (1200 millimeters) of debris covered with 24 inches
(600 millimeters) of earth material. Distribute stumps, logs, and other large pieces to form a dense
mass and minimize air voids. Cover the top layer of buried debris with at least
(300 millimeters) of compacted earth. Grade and shape the area. Seed and mulch disposal areas on
Government property according to Section 625.
(d) Hazardous material. Submit a copy of disposal permits. Dispose of material according to Federal,
state, and local regulations.
Dispose of lead contaminated steel either by transporting to an approved scrap facility for recycling
or remelt; or remove and dispose of lead contamination in an appropriate waste facility.
(1) Disposal plan. Submit a detailed disposal plan that includes how material will be handled,
loaded, and transported to the disposal facility. Include the name and address of the facility
where the material will be taken. Describe steps that will be taken to ensure that lead
contamination will be contained throughout the process. Measures may include additional steps
or precautions when lifting and handling the steel on site.
(2) Transport and delivery. Include the material safety data sheet (MSDS) with the material to
the disposal facility. Ensure that loads transported from the site are adequately contained and
covered to prevent dispersion en route to the disposal facility. Submit a copy of the receiving
report from the disposal facility specifically acknowledging that the material being delivered is
contaminated with lead paint.
(3) Lead paint removal. If the Contractor chooses to salvage the steel members, the paint may be
removed subject to the following requirements:
(a) Remove lead contaminated paint in an appropriate containment facility;
(b) Comply with the requirements as listed in Subsection 563.05; and
(c) Manifest and dispose of lead contaminated waste according to the requirements of 40 CFR
260 through 268 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).
203.06 Acceptance. Removal of structures and obstructions will be evaluated under Subsection 106.02.
Backfilling and compacting cavities left by structures will be evaluated under Section 209.
Minor concrete will be evaluated under Section 601.
203.07 Measure the Section 203 pay items listed in the bid schedule according to Subsection 109.02.
203.08 The accepted quantities will be paid at the contract price per unit of measurement for the Section
203 pay items listed in the bid schedule. Payment will be full compensation for the work prescribed in this
Section. See Subsection 109.05.
Section 204. — EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT
204.01 This work consists of excavating material and constructing embankments. This work also includes
furnishing, hauling, stockpiling, placing, disposing, sloping, shaping, compacting, and finishing earthen
and rocky material.
(a) Excavation. Excavation consists of the following:
(1) Roadway excavation. Material excavated from within the right-of-way or easement areas,
except subexcavation covered in Subsection 204.02(a)(2) and structure excavation covered in
Sections 208 and 209. Roadway excavation includes all material encountered regardless of its
nature or characteristics.
(2) Subexcavation. Material excavated from below subgrade elevation in cut sections or from
below the original ground-line in embankment sections. Subexcavation excludes the work
required by Subsection 204.05 or 204.06.
(3) Borrow excavation. Material used for embankment construction that is obtained from
outside the roadway prism. Borrow excavation includes unclassified borrow, select borrow, and
(b) Embankment construction. Embankment construction consists of placing and compacting
roadway or borrow excavation. This work includes:
(1) Preparing foundation for embankment;
(2) Constructing roadway embankments;
(3) Benching for side-hill embankments;
(4) Constructing dikes, ramps, mounds, and berms; and
(5) Backfilling subexcavated areas, holes, pits, and other depressions.
(c) Conserved topsoil. Excavated material conserved from the roadway excavation and embankment
foundation areas that is suitable for growth of grass, cover crops, or native vegetation.
(d) Waste. Excess and unsuitable roadway excavation and subexcavation that cannot be used.
204.03 Conform to the following Subsections:
204.04 Preparation for Roadway Excavation and Embankment Construction. Clear the area of
vegetation and obstructions according to Sections 201 and 203.
Road pioneering may proceed concurrently with excavation and embankment. Maintain drainage during
204.05 Conserved Topsoil. Conserve topsoil from roadway excavation and embankment foundation
areas. Stockpile conserved topsoil in low windrows immediately beyond the rounding limits of cut and
embankment slopes or in other approved locations. Separate topsoil from other excavated material.
Place conserved topsoil on completed slopes according to Section 624.
204.06 Roadway Excavation. Excavate as follows:
(a) Rock cuts. Blast rock according to Section 205. Excavate rock cuts to 6 inches (150 millimeters)
below subgrade within the roadbed limits. Backfill to subgrade with topping or other suitable material.
Compact the material according to Subsection 204.11.
(b) Earth cuts. Scarify earth cuts to 6 inches (150 millimeters) below subgrade within the roadbed
limits. Compact the scarified material according to Subsection 204.11.
Dispose of unsuitable or excess excavation material according to Subsection 204.14. Replace shortage of
suitable material caused by premature disposal of roadway excavation.
Shape to drain and compact the work area to a uniform cross-section at the end of each day's operations.
204.07 Subexcavation. Excavate material to the required limits. Dispose of unsuitable material
according to Subsection 204.14. Take cross-sections according to Section 152. Place backfill material in
horizontal layers not exceeding
12 inches (300 millimeters) in compacted thickness and compact
according to Subsection 204.11. Prevent unsuitable material from mixing with backfill.
204.08 Borrow Excavation. Use suitable roadway excavation in embankment construction. Do not use
borrow excavation when it results in excess roadway excavation. Deduct excess borrow excavation from
the total borrow excavation quantity.
Obtain borrow source approval according to Subsection 105.02. Develop and restore borrow sources
according to Subsections 105.03 and 105.06. Do not excavate beyond the established limits. When
applicable, shape the borrow source to permit accurate measurements when excavation is complete.
204.09 Preparing Foundation for Embankment Construction. Prepare foundation for embankment
construction as follows:
(a) Embankment over natural ground. Remove topsoil and break up the ground surface to a
minimum depth of 6 inches (150 millimeters) by plowing or scarifying. Compact the ground surface
according to Subsection 204.11.
(b) Embankments over an existing asphalt, concrete, or gravel road surface. Scarify gravel roads
to a minimum depth of 6 inches (150 millimeters). Scarify or pulverize asphalt and concrete roads to
6 inches (150 millimeters) below the pavement. Reduce particles to a maximum size of 6 inches
(150 millimeters) and produce a uniform material. Compact the surface according to Subsection
(c) Embankment across ground not capable of supporting equipment. Dump successive loads of
embankment material in a uniformly distributed layer to construct the lower portion of the
embankment. Limit the layer thickness to the minimum depth necessary to support the equipment.
(d) Embankment on an existing slope steeper than 1V:3H. Cut horizontal steps in the existing slope
to a sufficient width to accommodate placement and compaction operations and equipment. Step the
slope as the embankment is placed and compacted in layers. Begin each step at the intersection of the
original ground and the vertical cut of the previous step.
204.10 Embankment Construction. Incorporate only suitable roadway excavation material into the
embankment. When the supply of suitable roadway excavation is exhausted, furnish unclassified borrow to
complete the embankment. Construct embankments as follows:
(a) General. At the end of each day's operations, shape to drain and compact the embankment surface
to a uniform cross-section. Eliminate ruts and low spots that could hold water.
During all stages of construction, route and distribute hauling and leveling equipment over the width
and length of each layer of material.
Compact embankment side slopes with a tamping foot roller, by walking with a dozer, or by
over-building the fill and then removing excess material to the final slope line. For slopes 1V:1¾H or
steeper, compact the slopes as embankment construction progresses.
(b) Embankment within the roadway prism. Place embankment material in horizontal layers not
exceeding 12 inches (300 millimeters) in compacted thickness. Incorporate oversize boulders or rock
fragments into the
(300-millimeter) layers by reducing them in size or placing them
individually as required by Subsection 204.10(c). Compact each layer according to Subsection 204.11
before placing the next layer.
Material composed predominately of boulders or rock fragments too large for 12-inch (300-millimeter)
layers may be placed in layers up to 24 inches (600 millimeters) thick. Incorporate oversize boulders or
rock fragments into the 24-inch (600-millimeter) layer by reducing them in size or placing individual
rock fragments and boulders greater than 24 inches (600 millimeters) in diameter as follows:
(1) Reduce rock to less than 48 inches (1200 millimeters) in the largest dimension;
(2) Distribute rock within the embankment to prevent nesting;